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Answer Key - Student Assignment Chapter 15 - 20

Chapter 15: Preventing Infection
1. Being free of disease-producing microbes (pp. 212, 216)
2. Pathogen (pp. 212, 213)
3. Drugs that kill certain microbes that cause infections (p. 212)
4. Answers in any order (p. 213)
 Prescribing antibiotics when they are not needed
 Not taking antibiotics for the length of time prescribed
5. Answers in any order (p. 213)
 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
 Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
6. Answers in correct order (p. 214)
A. Source
B. Reservoir
C. Portal of exit
D. Method of transmission
E. Portal of entry
F. Susceptible host
7. Age, nutrition, stress, fatigue, and health. Drugs, disease, and injury also are factors. (p. 214)
8. Sterilization (p. 216)
9. Hand hygiene (p. 217)
10. All persons whenever care is given (p. 223)
11. What tasks, procedures, and care measures you will do while in the room. It also depends on
the type of Transmission-Based Precautions ordered for the person. (p. 228)
12. Tuberculosis respirators (p. 231)
13. Answers in any order (p. 225)
 Covering the nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing
 Using tissues to contain respiratory secretions
 Disposing of tissues in the nearest waste container after use
 Performing hand hygiene after contact with respiratory secretions
 Providing visitors with masks according to agency policy
14. Goggles and face shields (p. 233)
15. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (p. 235)
16. Blood (p. 235)
17. Closable, puncture-resistant, leak-proof, and color-coded in red. They have the BIOHAZARD
symbol. (p. 237)
18. Answers in correct order (p. 236)
A. Any eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral contact with
blood or OPIM
B. Piercing the mucous membranes or the skin barrier
C. The person whose blood or body fluids are the source of an exposure incident
19. Any time the skin or sterile tissues are entered (p. 238)
20. A work area free of all pathogens and non-pathogens (including spores) (p. 239)
21. Contaminated (p. 239)
Chapter 16: Body Mechanics
1. D (pp. 244, 251)
2. A (pp. 244, 250)
3. E (pp. 244, 250)
4. F (pp. 244, 245)
5. C (pp. 244, 246)
6. B (pp. 244, 246)
7. Answers in correct order (p. 247)
A. Wide
B. Close
C. Face; twisting
D. Push; slide, pull
E. Hips; knees
8. Eliminate a serious and disabling work-related musculo-skeletal disorder (p. 247)
9. Answers in any order (p. 248)
 Pain
 Limited joint movement
 Soft tissue swelling
10. Repositioning, exercise, activity (p. 249)

Chapter 17: Safety Moving and Transferring the Person
1. This reduces bending and reaching. (p. 258)
2. Nurse; care plan (p. 255)
3. Friction (pp. 254, 259)
4. Answers in any order (p. 256)
 Attaching or removing a belt
 Lowering the person to a chair, the bed, the toilet, or the floor
 Assisting the person with ambulation
5. Answers in any order (p. 261)
 The person is small in size.
 The person can follow directions.
 The person can assist with much of the moving.
 The person uses a trapeze.
 The person can push against the mattress with his or her feet.
 The nurse says it is safe to do so.
 You are comfortable doing so.
6. Answers in any order (p. 265)
 Moving the person in segments
 Using a mechanical lift
 The assist device method
7. Answers in any order (pp. 265)
 Persons with total dependence
 Persons needing extensive assistance
 Older persons
 Persons with arthritis
 Persons recovering from spinal cord injuries or spinal surgery
8. Turning the person as a unit, in alignment, with one motion; the spine is kept straight (pp.
254, 269)
9. Answers in any order (p. 270)
 Areas of weakness
 The person’s dependence level
 The amount of help the person needs
 If you need a co-worker to help you
 How long the person needs to sit on the side of the bed
 What exercises the person needs to perform while dangling
 If the person will walk or transfer to a chair after dangling
 What observations to report and record
 When to report observations
 What specific patient or resident complaints to report at once
10. Such footwear protects the person from falls. Slipping and sliding are prevented. (p. 273)
11. Transfer belts are used to support patients and residents during transfers. They also are used
to reposition persons in chairs and wheelchairs. (p. 273)
12. Otherwise, the person can pull you forward or cause you to lose your balance. Neck, back,
and other injuries from falls are possible. (p. 274)
13. Answers in any order (p. 279)
 You must be trained in its use.
 It must work.
 The slings, straps, hooks, and chains must be in good repair.
 The person’s weight must not exceed the lift’s capacity.
 At least two staff members are needed.
14. Tell the nurse. Do not transfer the person to the toilet if the grab bar is not secure. (p. 282)

Chapter 18: The Person’s Unit
1. The personal space, furniture, and equipment provided for the person by the agency. (p. 287)
2. Answers in any order (p. 289)
 Controlling their voices
 Handling equipment carefully
 Keeping equipment in good working order
 Answering phones, signal lights, and intercoms promptly
3. Personal choice (p. 290)
4. At all times except when moving the bed (p. 291)
5. The person can get caught, trapped, or entangled in spaces created by bed rails, the mattress,
the bed frame, the headboard, or footboard. (p. 293)
6. Clean and sterile (p. 296)
7. On the lower shelf or in the bottom drawer of the bedside stand (p. 296)
8. Within the person’s reach (p. 297)
9. Having the means to be completely free from public view while in bed
(pp. 287, 296)
10. Shelves and a clothes rack (p. 300)
Chapter 19: Bedmaking
1. A closed bed is not in use. Top linens are not folded back. The bed is ready for a new patient
or a new resident. (p. 304)
2. They are removed one piece at a time. Roll each piece away from you. The side that touched
the person is inside the roll and away from you. (p. 305)
3. Wet, damp, or soiled (p. 305)
4. Away from (p. 304)
5. It protects the mattress and bottom linens from dampness and soiling. (p. 306)
6. A soft mattress can cover the baby’s nose and mouth. This prevents breathing. (p. 308)
7. The baby can get entangled in long ties or straps. (p. 308)
8. Answers in any order (p. 313)
 Newly admitted persons arriving by wheelchair
 Persons who are getting ready for bed
 Persons who are out of bed for a short time
9. A bath blanket (p. 314)
10. Answers in any order (p. 316)
 Returning to their rooms from surgery
 Who arrive at the agency by ambulance
 Who are taken by stretcher to treatment or therapy areas
 Using portable tubs
11. Answers in any order (p. 308)
 What type of bed to make
 If you need to use a cotton drawsheet
 If you need to use a plastic drawsheet, waterproof pad, or incontinence product
 Position restrictions or limits in the person’s movement or activity
 If the person uses bed rails
 The person’s treatment, therapy, and activity schedules
 How to position the person and the positioning devices needed
 If the bed needs to be locked into a certain position

Chapter 20: Personal Hygiene
1. Cavities (dental caries), periodontal disease (p. 323)
2. Answers in any order (p. 324)
A. Dry, cracked, swollen, or blistered lips
B. Mouth or breath odor
C. Redness, swelling, irritation, sore, or white patches in the mouth or on the tongue
D. Bleeding, swelling, or redness of the gums
E. Loose teeth
F. Rough, sharp, or chipped areas on dentures
3. A padded tongue blade (p. 327)
4. At least every 2 hours. Follow the nurse’s directions and the care plan. (p. 327)
5. Hold them firmly. During cleaning, firmly hold them over a basin of water lined with a
towel. (p. 329)
6. Hot water causes dentures to loose their shape (warp). (p. 329)
7. Cold; hot; hot; cold (in this order) (p. 340)
8. Answers in correct order (p. 334)
A. Turn away from the person.
B. Sprinkle a small amount of powder onto your hands or a cloth.
C. Apply the powder in a thin layer.
D. Make sure powder does not get on the floor.
9. Washing the person’s entire body in bed (p. 335)
10. Persons with dementia often respond well to this type of bath because it is quick, soothing,
and relaxing. (p. 338)
11. Answers in any order (p. 342)
 If the person takes a tub bath or shower
 What water temperature to use
 What equipment is needed
 If the person uses adaptive devices
 How much help the person needs
 If the person can bathe unattended
 What observations to report and record
 When to report observations
 What specific patient or resident concerns to report at once
12. Answers in any order (p. 344)
 Certain heart diseases
 Back injuries
 Back surgeries
 Skin diseases
 Some lung disorders
13. Reddened areas signal skin breakdown and pressure ulcers. Massage can lead to more tissue
damage. (p. 344)
14. Answers in any order (p. 344)
 If the person can have a back massage
 How to position the person
 If the person has position limits
 When the person should receive a back massage
 If the person needs frequent back massages for comfort and to relax
 What observations to report and record
 When to report observations
 What specific patient or resident concerns to report at once
15. Answers in any order (p. 347)
 To prevent burns, measure water temperature according to agency policy. If water seems
too hot, ask the nurse to check it.
 Protect yourself and the person from infection. Follow Standard Precautions and the
Bloodborne Pathogen Standard.
 Protect the person and dry garments and linens from wet or soiled items. After cleaning
and drying the perineal area, remove wet or soiled incontinence products, garments, and
linens. Then apply clean, dry ones.