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HYDRO

STATICS

Fluid Mechanics

PRESSURE

MEASUREMENT

Pressure Measurement

Pressure Head

Pressure in fluids may arise from many sources, for example pumps,

gravity, momentum, etc. Since p = ρgh, a height of liquid column can be

associated with the pressure p arising from such sources. This height, h,

is known as the pressure head.

Example:

The gauge pressure in a water pipe is 50 kN/m2, what is the pressure

head?

same as the pressure in this pipe.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 3 Chapter 11: Flow over bodies; lift and drag

Pressure Measurement

ME33 : Fluid Flow 4 Chapter 11: Flow over bodies; lift and drag

Pressure Measurement

Manometers

A manometer (or liquid gauge) is a pressure measurement device

which uses the relationship between pressure and head to give

readings.

Piezometer

This is the simplest gauge. A small vertical tube is connected to the

pipe and its top is left open to the atmosphere, as shown.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 5 Chapter 11: Flow over bodies; lift and drag

Pressure Measurement

Piezometer

The pressure at A is equal to the pressure due

to the column of liquid of height h1:

Similarly,

usual civil engineering applications the

pressure is large (e.g. 100 kN/m2) and so the

height of the column is impractical (e.g. 10 m).

measuring gas pressures.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 6 Chapter 11: Flow over bodies; lift and drag

Pressure Measurement

U-tube Manometer (Open Type)

To overcome the problems with the piezometer, the U-tube manometer

seals the fluid by using a measuring (manometric) liquid:

ME33 : Fluid Flow 7 Chapter 11: Flow over bodies; lift and drag

Pressure Measurement

U-tube Manometer

Choosing the line BC as the interface between the measuring liquid and

the fluid, we know:

For the left-hand side of the U-tube:

with gauge pressures. Thus:

Notice that we have used the fact that in any continuous fluid, the

pressure is the same at any horizontal level.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 8 Chapter 11: Flow over bodies; lift and drag

Pressure Measurement

Differential Manometer

To measure the pressure difference between two points we use a U-

tube as shown:

ME33 : Fluid Flow 9 Chapter 11: Flow over bodies; lift and drag

Pressure Measurement

Problem Set 3

Problem 1

For the tank shown in the figure, h1 = 3 m and h3 = 4 m. Determine the

value of h2.

Oil

h2

(s = 0.84)

Water h3

h1 Water

Ans: h2 = 1.19 m

ME33 : Fluid Flow 10 Chapter 11: Flow over bodies; lift and drag

Pressure Measurement

Problem Set 3

Problem 2

In the manometer shown, the fluid from A to B is mercury (s = 13.6) and

from B to C is oil (s = 0.8). What height h of mercury will give a pressure

of 226.30 g/cm2 at C. A

h

B

120 cm

C

Ans: h = 9.58 cm

ME33 : Fluid Flow 11 Chapter 11: Flow over bodies; lift and drag

Pressure Measurement

Problem Set 3 Gage

E F G

Problem 3 Air

For a gage reading of -17.2 El. 15 m

kPa, determine the (a)

s = 0.70

elevations of the liquids in El. 11.6 m

the open piezometer

columns E, F, and G and (b) Water

the deflection of the El. 8 m

mercury in the U-tube s = 1.6

manometer neglecting the

weight of air.

El. 4 m h

Mercury

ME33 : Fluid Flow 12 Chapter 11: Flow over bodies; lift and drag

Pressure Measurement

Problem Set 3 1mǿ

Problem 4

For the configuration shown, 1m

calculate the weight of the Piston

piston if the pressure gage

reading is 70 kPa.

Oil

s = 0.86

Ans: W = 61.61 kN

ME33 : Fluid Flow 13 Chapter 11: Flow over bodies; lift and drag

Pressure Measurement

Problem Set 3

Problem 5 Water

The pressure at point m in

the figure shown was m

increased from 70 kPa to

105 kPa. This causes the

top level of mercury to

move 20 mm in the sloping

Mercury

tube. What is the inclination,

ϴ

ϴ?

ME33 : Fluid Flow 14 Chapter 11: Flow over bodies; lift and drag

Pressure Measurement

Problem Set 3

Problem 6

With one end closed, a 3 m long tube is immersed vertically with the

open end down into a tank of water until the open end is submerged to

a depth of 1.2 m. Neglecting vapor pressure, how far will the water

level inside the tube be below the water level outside the tube?

Ans: x = 0.95 m

ME33 : Fluid Flow 15 Chapter 11: Flow over bodies; lift and drag

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