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ISSN 2355-4721 Evaluation on The PSO Provision for Commuter Trains Through Performance-Based Planning to Improve

The Service Quality of Economy-Class Trains

Evaluation on The PSO Provision for Commuter Trains


Through Performance-Based Planning to Improve
The Service Quality of Economy-Class Trains

Budi Sitorus Tulus Irpan H. S. Euis Saribanon


Kementerian Perhubungan Badan SAR Nasional STMT Trisakti
budi_dephub@yahoo.co.id tulus.sitorus@yahoo.com Easynon_e@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Commuter train is one mode of transportation that get PSO aid from the government. The
problems related to PSO (Public Service Obligation), among others, are the absence of
a common perception on the understanding/deinition of PSO and yet all PSO activities
are done through a tender process, different basic calculation on the required PSO fund
among PSO-executing SOEs, no separation between PSO business activities and non-
PSO business activities in the inancial statement. In addition, the compensation given by
the government for PSO assignment is not suficient, so that the commuter train service
faces many disruptions. For example, the matter of delay relects that train is not reliable,
rails and bridges are not in the prime condition, the signal has been fade, overlow
electric current (pantograph)is frequently disrupted.

The purpose of this study is to understand and evaluate the provision of PSO in order to
maximize the commuter train services. The beneit of this research is to contribute ideas
related to the administration of PSO so that people can feel the beneits.

The method used is qualitative approach, descriptive analysis, and evaluation on the
policy of PSO provision.

The results of this study are divided into: PSO provision for economy-class trains,
commuter services in Jabodetabek, asserting the separation of service types, support for
PSO service improvement, and performance-based planning concept.

Keywords: PSO provision, performance-based planning.

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Introduction driven train) was only Rp5,000, thus with


the assumption that the PSO distribution
Train is one mode of transportation
is evenly spread, the PSO subsidy needed
that attracts many people in the area of
is Rp4,000 per passenger. With this
Jabodetabek to use it. In addition to its
assumption and predicted number of KRL
ability to carry many passengers, this mode
passengers by the end of 2013 as many
of transportation is much environment-
as 96.8 million, the PSO subsidy needed
friendly and there are no barriers for its trip
for Jabotabek KRL is Rp387.1 billion.
because it has its own way (track bound).
However, from 2010 to 2012, there was no
Every day we can see and perceive the
service of economy class air-conditioned
view that the number of passengers and the
KRL because the pattern of KRL operation
number of trains are not balanced, causing
has been changed to a single operation (all
the passengers jostle especially in the rush
KRL stops in each station and no express
hours and making the air circulation in
train service). While the additional fund
the train cabin disrupted due to so many
for evenly spread PSO as mentioned
passengers.
above has not been received or budgeted, a
Before July 2013 the number of segmented subsidy is provided as much as
commuter line passengers is 400,000 approximately Rp156 billion.
people per day. By May 2014 it becomes
When the tariff changed, the
600,000 people per day. Whereas the target
government role through Public Service
set by PT. KAI (Persero) is that in 2019
Obligation (PSO) is needed in order
the number of commuter line will reach
that people can afford the price. PSO is a
1.2 million people per day with waiting
subsidy from the government provided
time at the station 4 (four) minutes. In
for the passengers of economy class train,
order to achieve this target, PT. Kereta Api
including the service for disadvantaged
Indonesia Commuterline Jabodetabek (PT.
communities. The formulation of PSO is
KCJ) consistently adds hundreds of trains
the difference between the tariff made by
every year to increase the capacity and
the train facilities operator and the one
replace the old ones that has been obsolete.
stipulated by the government.
In 2013, PT KAI has bought 180 trains
which will arrive in Indonesia from the end In the Parliamentary Journal issued
of this week up to January 2014. In the end
in 2013, the amount of Public Service
of October 2013 30 trains have arrived. Obligation (PSO) for train in 2013 approved
by the Budget Committee (Banggar) and
When the tariff of air-conditioned
Commission V of the Parliament was
Commuter Line was Rp9,000 and the
Rp704 billion, less than the proposal as
people purchasing power based on the
much as Rp804 billion. The realization of
Ability To Pay (ATP)/Willingness To Pay
PSO subsidy in 2012 was Rp624 billion
(WTP) of Jabotabek KRL (electricity-
or 81 percents of the contract value as

354 Jurnal Manajemen Transportasi & Logistik (JMTranslog) - Vol. 02 No. 3, November 2015
ISSN 2355-4721 Evaluation on The PSO Provision for Commuter Trains Through Performance-Based Planning to Improve
The Service Quality of Economy-Class Trains

much as Rp770 billion with the capacity of Department Government Enterprise,


84.6 million seats or 86.3 percents of 98.1 is the state enterprise which is an integral
million seats as projected. part of a governmental department whose
activity is in public utilities.
Evaluation is one of a series
of activities in improving the quality, Statutory Public Corporations, is
performance, or productivity of an the state enterprise which is actually almost
institution in carrying out its programs. The the same as governmental department
focus of evaluation is individual, namely the enterprise, but it is more autonomous in
achievement in study made by a group or a management and its business is still in
thorough evaluation, information on what public utilities.
have been or have not been achieved will
Commercial Companies, is the
be obtained. Furthermore, this information
state enterprise whose capital is mixed
is used to improve a program.
with private capital and treated as a private
Evaluation, according to Grifin company.
& Nix (1991) in Ilham Alian Nor (2007),
The forms of state enterprise
is a judgment on the value or implication
based on Undang Undang Nomor 9 Tahun
of a measurement. According to this
1969 are classiied into three, namely: a.
deinition, it is always preceded by the
Perusahaan Jawatan (Perjan); b. Perusahaan
activity of measurement and assessment.
Umum (Perum); c. Perusahaan Perseroan
According to Tyler (1950), evaluation is
(Persero).
a process to determine how far the aim of
an education has been achieved. There are The implementation of Undang
still many other deinitions of evaluation, Undang Nomor 19 Tahun 2003 tentang
but all of them always include the matter of Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN)
information and policy, namely information puts SOEs in a more dificult position to
on the implementation and success of a compete with other business players. This is
program which is subsequently used for due to the mandate to be executed by SOEs
determining the next policy. is kewajiban pelayanan umum or Public
Service Obligation (PSO) as stipulated in
One role of the state as an economic
Article 66 of UU BUMN. Based on that
player is in the forming of State-Owned
article, the government can give special
Enterprise (SOE) or Badan Usaha Milik
assignment to SOEs to hold the function
Negara (BUMN). The format of state
of public utilities but still considering the
involvement in the economic activity of a
intention and objective of SOE’s activity.
country is based on its political economy.
If the assignment is not feasible according
The state involvement in economy
to inancial study, the government should
according to Friedmann is placed in 3
compensate all the costs incured by the
(three) types of state enterprise, namely:
SOEs including the expected margin.

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Budi Sitorus, Tulus Irpan H. S, Euis Saribanon ISSN 2355-4721

The implementation of PSO in SOEs of other trains will surely be disrupted as


creates a heavier burden, considering that well because only one track can be passed
the fund for PSO comes from the national through. The domino effect is the existence
budget (APBN), for which the accountability of a long queue of KRL and passenger
is subject to the state inancial management congestions at the station.
based on Undang Undang Nomor 15 Tahun
This problem requires full train
2004 tentang Pemeriksaan Pengelolaan dan
operation and improvement in delivering
Pertanggungjawaban Keuangan Negara
the commuter line services needed by
and other related regulations.
people so that they can feel convenient,
The implementation of the safe, and secure.
regulation on state inance frequently
The aims of this study are to know,
impedes the PSO implementation both in
understand, and evaluate the provision
its technical operation and its amount. The
of PSO in order to bring the maximum
technical barrier is much experienced by
commuter line service into reality. The
the SOEs assigned to execute PSO in the
beneit of this research is that it contributes
beginning budget year, and only receive
a thought related to the provision of PSO,
the PSO fund in the end of year, because
so that people can feel the beneits.
the government through the Ministry of
Finance should carry out a veriication The approaching method used here
before giving the PSO fund. The mechanism is qualitative approach and the method of
of such distribution of PSO fund will surely data analysis used is descriptive analysis,
impede the SOE’s cash low. while the data is secondary and obtained
from various sources.
Another problem related to PSO
is the image that although SOEs have
Results And Discussions
received PSO fund, they are still not able
to deliver excellent public services, raising 1. Providing PSO for economy trains
a pro and contra whether PSO fund should
PSO (DJA, Kemenkeu, 2007) is the
still be provided or it should be revoked.
cost that should be incurred by the state
Another alternative is to charge PSO upon
due to the disparity of cost of goods sold
private companies.
between SOEs/privates and the price of
The problem in this research is the certain products/services stipulated by the
matter of delay, relecting such conditions Government in order that the products/
as train is not reliable, the rails and bridges services are secured and affordable for
are not in the prime condition, the signal some people (public). Whereas subsidy is
has been obsolete, overlow electric current the cost that should be incurred by the state
(pantograph) is frequently disrupted. due to the disparity between market price
Imagine, if one train breaks down, the trip and the price for certain products/services

356 Jurnal Manajemen Transportasi & Logistik (JMTranslog) - Vol. 02 No. 3, November 2015
ISSN 2355-4721 Evaluation on The PSO Provision for Commuter Trains Through Performance-Based Planning to Improve
The Service Quality of Economy-Class Trains

stipulated by the Government to fulill the a day which previously 589 trips a day.
need of poor people. PT KCJ as the commuter operator put the
schedule change into effect starting from
The provision of PSO for
1 June 2014. There are 645 trips in 2014,
economy class trains starts from 2008 to
operating 56 loops served by 56 railway
2012, experiencing increases as seen in
trains.
attachment 1.
Up to now, the route from Bogor/
From the table, it can be seen that
Depok provides the most leets by 33 trains
in 2012 kereta jarak dekat (commuter)
a day serving 294 trips, followed by the
received the highets amount of PSO as
route of Bekasi served by 9 (nine) trains for
much as Rp223.53 billion, followed by
117 trips. The next, the route of Serpong
Rp175.85 billion in 2010. However, in fact
is served by 8 (eight) trains for 104 trips;
the PSO fund received for 2010 was Rp535
Tangerang route is served by three trains
billion, whereas the actual operational
for 62 trips a day.
cost of economy class trains throughout
Indonesia reached Rp 635 billion. In 2009 This year Gapeka is different from
it was budgeted Rp845 billion but the the previous year. The completion of
realization was just Rp504 billion. double track in the northern track of Jawa
will make easier the trip and the travel time
The evaluation related to the
for Kereta Api Jarak Jauh (KAJJ) or long
provision of PSO for commuter is that there
distance trains will be shorter.
is no common perception on the deinition
of PSO, not all PSO activities are carried out Moreover, KCJ will operate three
through tender process, no common basic non-commercial (feeder) trains for 68
calculation of needed fund for PSO among trips a day. These feeder trains will serve
the PSO-executing SOEs, no separation in the routes of Manggarai-Sudirman-Karet-
the inancial statement between the PSO Tanah Abang-Duri-Kampung Bandan-
business activity and non-PSO business Jakarta Kota round trip and Kampung
activity, no suficient compensation from Bandan-Jakarta Kota round trip.
the government for PSO assignment,
The additional routes are the
no conformity between the PSO budget
implementation form of procurement
approved by the Parliament and the
program of KRL as many as 488 units. Up
calculation made by the Government.
to now, KCJ has repurchased other 176
units from Japan, which will be done in
2. Commuter Services in Jabodetabek
stages and is expected to inish in August
Commuter Services in Jabodetabek this year. In 2009 KAI had 400 KRLs to
can not be separated from the establishment serve the users of this transportation mode.
of Graik Perjalanan Kereta Api (Gapeka). But now PT KCJ has about 800 trains that
Gapeka for 2014 serves 645 trips of train serve many trips in Jabodetabek.

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Budi Sitorus, Tulus Irpan H. S, Euis Saribanon ISSN 2355-4721

So far, the evaluation related systems and procedures, technology and


to commuter service using loopline informatics as well as management and
system can be considered as good; it has inancing.
implemented electronic tickets, the station
a. Equipment
has been arranged neatly, and no passenger
on the train roof. The production of railway facilities
and infrastructures utilizes local
However, some obstacles still exist:
contents such as metal products
no separation for serving near distance
and iron from PT. Krakatau Steel,
trip, long distance trip, and cargo coach;
electronic and communication
insuficient feeder transport at the transit
devices from PT. LEN and PT.
stations; many crossings still exist; no
Bharata.
depot for storage and balai yasa/workshop
for repairing commuter trains at each area Meanwhile, the existing domestic
of railway trip network so that when broken railway company, PT. INKA, can
they do not disturb other train trips. fulill the domestic need and has
made some exports to Singapore
3. Asserting the Separation of Service
and Malaysia. In 2012, the
Types
government of Singapore ordered
The improvement of railway 20 units of cargo train comprising
services starts from asserting the separation wheel wagon and lat wagon types
of trips, i.e. near distance, long distance, with the contact value US$ 1.69
and cargo coach, so that the attention to the million or Rp16.2 billion using the
service segments can be more focused and exchange rate of 2012. Whereas
easier to be managed. In order to enhance the the government of Malaysia
role of intermode, it is necessary to provide ordered 16 passenger trains with
feeder transport at the transit stations for the contract value US$4.8 million
the ease of consumers to move to another or approximately Rp 46.2 billion.
mode of transport in accordance with their (tempo.co, 2012)
travel pattern. The movement system at the
The use of domestic products will
transit stations should be supported with
be much cheaper than of imported
platforms or facilities for the passengers to
ones. Besides, it also pays attention
go up and down and move to other trains.
to the safety and operation-worthy
4. Support in the Form of PSO Service of the trains in accordance with the
Improvement international standard.

It is suggested that the improvement b. Human Resources


of railway service should be supported with
The quality of railway service
other factors: equipment, human resources,
can be improved with the support

358 Jurnal Manajemen Transportasi & Logistik (JMTranslog) - Vol. 02 No. 3, November 2015
ISSN 2355-4721 Evaluation on The PSO Provision for Commuter Trains Through Performance-Based Planning to Improve
The Service Quality of Economy-Class Trains

from competent, responsible and is done; improvements in systems


qualiied human resources by and procedures are carried out by
recruiting professionals who are improving the weakest link in the
assigned in each line of railway system, holding supervision and
operational services. The human quality control so that the syspro
resources recruitment is carried becomes brief, simple and right in
out through an objective selection target but has higher quality and
done by a professional team, so keeps maintaining the customer
that ready-to-work individuals are satisfaction.
obtained and assigned according to
d. Technology and Informatics
their own expertise.
A new technology can be
It is necessary to build a cooperation
implemented in each component
with universities as well as to hold
of domestic railway facilities and
a training to educate personnels in
infrastructures. What is meant by
railway business. The expertises
new technology is the one that
mentioned above are in arranging
can provide low cost with high
train trips (GAPEKA), arranging
eficiency. The implementation of
schedules, ticketing; station
technology is mutually complement
oficers, road and bridge oficers,
with the national railway industry
sintelis up to oficers for railway
(or domestic capacity) as previously
facilities and infrastructures
described, i.e. using local contents.
maintenance.
The implementation of newest
Today, there are two railway informatic system is in line with
education institutions, namely the implementation of selected
Graduate School of Land Transport technology. This implementation
or Sekolah Tinggi Transportasi needs trial and errors, continuous
Darat (STTD) and Railway School improvement and accomplishment
of Madiun (Sekolah Perkeretaapian to get the technology and
Madiun). So far, the graduates from informatics that are right in target.
these institutions are expected not
e. Cost/Financing
only to work as civil servants but
also to meet the need for personnels With the proposed improvement in
in railway industry both domestic the railway service, the government,
and overseas. state-owned enterprises, and
privates may propose additional
c. Systems and Procedures (Syspro)
cost for inancing in a proportional
To consistently support the smooth way. This is intended to perpetuate
service, a sustainable evaluation the railway services in a suficient

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Budi Sitorus, Tulus Irpan H. S, Euis Saribanon ISSN 2355-4721

quantity and higher quality as networks and the existing demand.


expected by the users. Fund
Internal business process
raising and its appropriate use are
perspective is the process
the duty and responsibility of the
of improving the quality
railway stakeholders. Therefore,
and productivity of railway
the railway management system
infrastructure and service networks.
keeps advancing professionality,
integrity, accountability, and Learning and growth perspective
transparency so that back log or is concerned with the expertise
mismanagement will not happen, of human resources who handle
otherwise it can kill the national and are responsible for planning,
railway industry, kill the innovation engineering, education dan
and human resources of railway enforcement.
business, as well as reduce the trips
5. The Concept of Performance-Based
of train users, which actually can
Planning
drive the national economy.
The concept of aggregate iscal
f. Management
disicipline is implemented to make healthy
An integrated plan for railway and sustainable budgets. This principle
service development to optimize ia a guide to budgeting, especially in
the service can be made by using determining the amount of government’s
Balanced Scorecard (BSC) expenses. (Riant Nugroho and Randy R.
developed by Robert S Kaplan and Wrihatnolo, 2011)
David P Norton in 1992. Since it is
To implement the concept of
to measure the performance, BSC
aggregate iscal disicipline needs an
measures 4 (four) categories of
institutional arrangement stressing on
perspective: inancial perspective,
the role of central agencies. Central
customer perspective, internal
agencies play their role in determining the
business process perspective, and
iscal target, so that they can provide the
learning and growth perspective.
estimation of aggregate human resource
Financial perspective is the availability and then the iscal discipline
inancial advantage obtained from can be planned appropriately through
the handling scenario developed in neutral, comprehensive and cross-sectoral
the form of user cost reduction. considerations.

Customer perspective is the


achievement of balance of
infrastructure and railway service

360 Jurnal Manajemen Transportasi & Logistik (JMTranslog) - Vol. 02 No. 3, November 2015
ISSN 2355-4721 Evaluation on The PSO Provision for Commuter Trains Through Performance-Based Planning to Improve
The Service Quality of Economy-Class Trains

Figure 1 The Route Map of Jabodetabek KRL

Performance-based planning In an outline, there are three steps in


considers allocation eficiency and implementing the concept of operational
operational eficiency. The concept eficiency, namely (1) process to authorize
of allocation eficiency refers to the the ministry/technical institution to set up
government capacity to distribute the the funding allocation: (2) external control,
available resources to the more effective and (3) internal control.
program or activity in order to achieve
Moreover, in order to improve the
the objective of national development
planning performance it needs the support
(strategic objective). The concept of
from performance-based contract (PBC).
allocation eficiency is implemented
As a type of contract that integrates works
through (1) integrated budget, (2) forward
(planning), execution and supervision and
forecast, (3) performance-based budget.
that bases the payment on fulilling the
Operational eficiency emphasizes the
minimum performance indicator using a
eficiency of resources used by the budget
lump-sump system, PBC requires cultural
user compared to the output he produces.

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Budi Sitorus, Tulus Irpan H. S, Euis Saribanon ISSN 2355-4721

shifts of the service providers and users. breaks down, the trip of other
trains will surely be disrupted as
• Focuses on user convenience (customer
well because only one track can be
oriented outcomes).
passed through. The domino effect
• The base to asses the contractor’s is the existence of a long queue of
performance is not on the number of KRL and passenger congestions at
output made. the station.

• The owner does not tell in detail the b) The distribution of PSO for
method or material to be used. economy class commuter trains
is increasing now, but it happens
• The owner stipulates the minimum
in the end of iscal year so that
performance indicator that should be
the commuter operator PT. KCJ
fulilled by the contractor.
via PT. KAI (Persero) faces an
Table 1 Performance Based Contract (IR) obstacle in inancing IMO and
TAC which are burdening the
Management Traditional
PBC operation of economy class trains
Aspect Contract
and consequently not punctual in
Planning Owner Owner
the maintenance of economy class
Design Owner Contractor trains.
Build Contractor Contractor
c) The distribution of PSO considers
Maintenance Owner Contractor
5 (ive) principles, namely Right
Management Owner Owner Target, Right Quantity, Right
Quality, Right Price, and Right
Source: Lembaga Kebijakan Pengadaan Time for subsidy.
Barang/Jasa Pemerintah, 2014

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The Service Quality of Economy-Class Trains

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