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A Study on Agent Based Ergonomic and Intelligent User

Interface Design in Cloud Computing

S. Ravi Kumar1, Md. Abdul Muqsit K.Chandra Y.K.Sundara
Research Scholar, Khan2 Sekharaiah3 Krishna4
Krishna University, Principal, Polytechnic Professor, School of IT, Professor, Dept of
Machilipatnam, A.P., Maulana Azad Jawaharlal Nehru Computer Science,
India National Urdu Technology University, Krishna University,
ravi.saddala@gm University,Darbhanga, Hyderabad, A.P., India. Machilipatnam, A.P.,
ail.com Bihar, India. chandrasekharaia India
Abdul_muqsit_khan h@gmail.com yksk2010@gmail.
@yahoo.co.in com.

ABSTRACT This paper is structured as follows. In the next section, a
Cloud Computing is changing rapidly the way an adoptable cursory presentation of the agent based computing is described.
technology for many organizations with dynamic scalability and In section 3 agent based Ergonomic and UI in the cloud. In
virtualized services through the internet. The design of section 4, we present agent based cloud computing is delineated.
ergonomic user interface for cloud computing environment In section 5, master and slave agent is described.
using the agent based technology for user well-being is required.
In this paper, the design methods of user interface models apply In section 6, we present adaptation as mixed initiative
techniques of Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) looking to process. In section 7, a model adaptivity model adaptivity in
provide all the benefits. The work is aimed for social, user interfaces with mixed initiative is presented.In section 8,
environment, human and ICT developments. classification of MAS framework is described. In section 9,
adaptation vs ergonomics is presented. Section 10 concludes the
paper.
KEYWORDS
Agent Based Ergonomic; Cloud Computing (CC); Model Driven
Architecture (MDA); Multi Agent System (MAS); Agent Based 2. AGENT BASED COMPUTING
Cloud Computing (ABCC); Agent is a system, which works independently for deciding itself
to satisfying the user needs. It has different type of agents called
as multi-agent system.It consist of different agents, which
1. INTRODUCTION interacts each other. In multi agent system require coordination,
Cloud Computing is anything that provides the services cooperation and negotiate with one another to achieve their goal.
available on the internet. A Cloud Service Provider (CSP) is
available for maintaining all services. The user is not required to Cooperation is a process of different agents work together
maintain any services. to share their knowledge for meeting a goal. Coordination is a
According to National Institute of Standard Technology process of state in which agents action is well being each other.
(NIST, U.S.Department of Commerce), cloud has five essential Negotiation is a process of communicating with different agents
characteristics such as On Demand Self Service, Broad Network for acceptable agreement on needs of users.
Access, Resource Pooling, Rapid Elasticity, Measured Service.
And Cloud computing has a mainly three services available
SaaS (Software as a Service), PaaS(Platform as a Service), IaaS 3. AGENT BASED ERGONOMIC AND UI
(Infrastructure as a Service), and four deployment models are IN A CLOUD
public cloud, private cloud, community cloud, hybrid cloud. The user interface design is inherently complex, which has
attracted considerable interest in the exploration of design
methods capable of facilitating the creation of user interfaces,
Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of and which attempt to extrapolate the usual techniques in the
this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee design of the functional part of the system to achieve the major
provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or benefits a well defined development process: automatic
commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and generation/semiautomatic code, reuse, maintainable easily. The
the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or design methods of user interface models apply techniques of
republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) looking to provide all the
requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. benefits.
The application of model-based approaches to designing
UI faces a challenge that usually does not appear in the design of
ICTCS '16, March 04-05, 2016, Udaipur, India the functional part of an application: non-functional
© 2016 ACM. ISBN 978-1-4503-3962-9/16/03…$15.00 requirements, and especially the usability and ergonomics. This
is currently the Achilles heel of the methods of UI design based
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2905055.2905058

builders. mapping and coordination of sharing resources 7. Scheduler: The agent scheduler maintains problem meet ergonomic requirements that users demand.e. Here a set of subagents working on the definition gives rise to some problems of cooperation between population. Decomposer: The agents decompose complete (ABCC) information into subagents and send it to the slave Sharing and pooling. ADAPTATION AS MIXED INITIATIVE sharing and pooling. Next. On the one hand. In CC resource sharing and pooling agents. for certain types of applications. Another factor which Coordinator Scheduler introduces a great influence on the quality perception of the user system latency is adaptation process. included in the estimates based models of user interface design. Improver: This agents takes existing solutions of the adaptation capabilities of the UI as a first-order entity in the problem and modify them to get better solution for the design of the cloud interface. Repairer: The agents repair some constraints to get feasible solutions. Synthesizer: The agents that synthesize subagents understanding of contracts between consumers and providers. If on the other hand is the MAS . When should the system ask the user for additional information to solve a problem? Population Destroyer The time at which the user interacts with the system to Repairer perform a collaborative task is an important factor. objective. The work proposes involves the inclusion design 3. Fig 1 depicts structure of master and slave agents. we Fig 1. it is necessary to provide some kind of model describing the user's attention to Slave allow the system to act at the appropriate time. the user and the system: i. and integrating it with the rest of the specification of the UI. especially maintainability and reusability. 2 describes the classification of the proposed UI according to their ability to adapt and who are the actors that Constructor Improver perform adaptation that extends the one proposed in [4].on models. In highly interactive systems. MASTER AND SLAVE AGENT From the definition of mixed initiative. PROCESS 5. The process of adapting a user interface can be performed in case of three different combinations of agents. When should the system initiate collaboration with the Master user? ii. involves resources can combine among cloud providers. Master agent modeled as a top level agent between several agents (human. this agent based CC can be coordination and cooperation of protocols between agents are adopted of resources in cloud 6. In from slave agents to complete the tasks. in which case user adapts UI. From this to the whole team. definition of adaptation is described. applying an adaptation or request information at the wrong time the user will have a bad Decomposer Synthesizer perception of the system. Destroyer: The agent removes redundant or low method based models. as the current UI generated is not yet mature enough The subagents can be categorized into seven types. 5. When should the system return to the user to refine the solution? iv.The structure of Master and Slave agents [29] have a case in which the adaptation is carried out by the user. to thereby obtain all the benefits of applying a design 4. allowing the modeling of all problem. Destroyer Repairer Fig. What is the best way to contribute to the resolution of a Scheduler Constructor Improver problem? iii. high latency will make the system really unusable due ĂĂ to wait times that the user will have to stand between its Population operations and implementation of the adjustments. and thus increase the efficiency of the adaptive system. has not been specification information (i. necessitating patch somehow created the user interface to add the adaptation capabilities desired. If the system Decomposer Synthesizer starts collaboration. it follows that any A master agent is responsible for developing the solutions for stage in the fitting process may be performed in cooperation the genuine problem. Constructor: The constructor agent constructs initial of many of the benefits of adopting model-based approaches and solutions to the problem. It can be scheduling.). AGENT BASED CLOUD COMPUTING 6. The design of adaptive capacities of UI nowadays needs to 1. functions etc. constraints. Therefore. a description of the proposed quality solutions from population. machine or both). and often result in the deactivation of the adaptation capabilities of the UI. 4. This involves the breakdown 2.

To decide which one or ones are the best adaptations to apply. adaptations. User platform milieu User+Platform / After calculating the goodness of any charge applicable. In our example of the mixed mixed mixed initiative initiative user interface for a car. [28] . such as a Web site on The event that the system can adapt to changes in the user. as it could be in this case a GPS service to detect through which road and the exact point of the road is the car today. the in an environment. Moreover. may resort to external agents. only able to accommodate some of the components of the Once the task at hand and the needs for this task in the context is called semi-context sensitive. it is necessary to decide what adjustments shall plasticity) plasticity) adaptation or actually applied. A MODEL ADAPTIVITY IN UI WITH advisable to ask the user what adaptation prefers. If you get high enough values of goodness means the system has MIXED INITIATIVE a high degree of confidence in the application of these The user or the system can begin the process of adaptation. Again the system can Adapted by use external agents to expand and improve the quality of the Adaptive Adaptive Adaptive Joint Joint repertoire of any adjustments applicable. so the system can determine the possible need for the user given the context of current use and the task being performed. if you like any. tunnel. In the event (Semi (Semi (Semi sensitive sensitive that mandatory laws as the lights inside the tunnel. if you get close to the average values would be 7. to carry out any adaptation that one which does not satisfy the user. so that could be implemented without consulting The system is presented as MAS that performs the acquisition of the user. (semi. If the tunnel was illuminated enough to make driving safer. 2 Classification of UI according to their ability to adapt and too low you can choose not to apply any adaptation. In our case the calculation is performed by evaluating both the benefit and the harm that each adaptation would have if its application. (semi. CLASSIFICATION OF MULTI AGENT choose which adaptation is applied between possible. current context of use have been identified.which perform the adaptation to an adaptive system. and multi-agent system get a UI adaptive mixed initiative. Here the framework represents different kinds of agents works When the user or MAS initiate the adaptation process. The most logical strategy is to choose to implement Platform+milieu milieu adaptation that higher values of goodness. in an adaptive user interface designed to enhance the experience of driving a car. Finally. For example. the system must produce a list of changes that are feasible for the current task. not a degradation usability of the system. If the system is a tunnel. At this time the car sensors would communicate the Fig. Semi. and finally SYSTEM FRAMEWORK apply the adaptation. but does not ensure the usability of user is required or not turn the headlights when driving through the system tends to context sensitive system. the system plasticity) plasticity) plasticity) Context Context(se could even turn them on by him. and the system infers the need for better the adaptation process is carried out in collaboration by the user lighting to improve user safety while driving through the tunnel. If not mandatory turn lights (semi. Therefore. It is best not actors involved in the adaptation process. If the system is not able by itself to detect the current task or context. To apply an adjustment to be appropriate. if a car goes into a tunnel on a highway with poor lighting conditions. the system could consult an external agent. inside the tunnel. semi. It is at this time when the system has compiled a list of (Semi (Semi (Semi sensitive sensitive more appropriate adaptations according to the input data plasticity) plasticity) plasticity) Context Context collected. Adapted identified needs and current usage context. ie. However. first step is to determine the current state is the interaction with the user. another possible adaptation to the system plasticity) plasticity) might suggest the user would be to reduce the speed of the car. you should try to know what the current task the user is doing with the system. driver on the lights with a high degree of certainty. it should be noted that if the maximum values of goodness of adaptations is Fig. mi. the system should calculate the Adaptive Adaptive Adaptive Adaptive Adaptive profit or loss that will produce an adaptation to the user. captures the current state of the context of use. data required for the system capable of reaction and make the adjustments. the system would suggest to the user / initiative initiative initiative semi. the traffic laws to find out if the country is currently leading the platform and environment. which is suitable for the conditions of visibility inside the Adaptive Adaptive Adaptive Semi. User+ User+ milieu/ platform+ each must make the decision on what adaptations or adjustments applied. the system should detect the task "driving on a highway ". 3 Classification of MAS Framework. and produce a benefit. is able to infer the need for adapting the decision to 8. if bad lighting conditions. Horvitz (Semi (Semi (Semi (Semi (Semi [1] proposed to use the expected utility theory proposed by von plasticity) plasticity) plasticity) plasticity) plasticity) Neumann and Morgenstern [2] for this purpose.

9. advise the driver to reduce vehicle speed. 159-66. Here classification of MAS in cloud environment is delineated. among the agents.. 10. in the Agent. user is easy to be broken to frustrate the data entry process. should be careful when choosing what data knowledge base and Mobile Agent set. “Computer Ergonimics-Relooking at Machines Vs and interest to retrieve search area. Md Abdul Musit khan and Upakaram the tasks. In future. of the adaptation process in a manner adequate so as to minimize the impact on the user. It’s therefore necessary for a part 1086-1090. For example. if an adaptation is base. ACM SIGCHI. However. the agent for common tasks.”Towards Aggregation to a UI adapting capability itself does not Metrics for Social Computing” proceedings of world Academy guarantee the improvement of the ergonomics of the system. they are User Agent. It can be used for system [4] Chandra Sekharaiah K. Multiagent based System workflow [1] HorvitzE. Technology”. Management Agent. it is aimed for social. the system. The system could turn on the low beams. ERGONOMICS [5] Chandra Sekharaiah K. 11. and suggest the user to refine the solution turning on the high beams when he thinks necessary. so never hide information necessary for completion of responsible for interaction between users and the main body of the current task. Field agent is a important task to apply cloud Computing:new Dimension of Information models and receive search terms in the field for interest agent.India. The user agent is hiding. If instead the adaptation has been deemed more appropriate turn on the headlights off.pp: may even lead to deterioration. also needs to record users browsing history and also get personalized information to help the interest agent for searching [3] Chandra Sekharaiah K. In this case you should wait to finish the curve. if additional information on the context. 1999. 8.The framework consists content to be displayed on the screen because it has reduced the of four parts. Here master and slave agent in cloud environement is delineated.WAVES 2008 National Conference.5-6 feb 2008. Theory of Games and maintais personalized interface. such as color. Md Abdul Musit khan. Conf. possible to know if the driver is driving at this time by a straight line or a curve. the system will show you a message proposing reducing the speed. but of Science. style and so on. Md Abdul Musit khan. the system should choose the right time to show the message. ”Social management. a presentation space. Agent tasks are important to determine users hobbies Gopal. This agent can kill the no longer required agents and creates new agents. Agents can be divided into four groups. and also ensures that any necessary modifications to the UI on the usability of the system . The mobile agent main tasks is searching for new When performing an adaptation is necessary to consider resources and sort the resources. if an adjustment needs to reduce the framework for search with personality. then sent to the knowledge that the adjustment must be performed at the appropriate time. Princeton University Press. Enivronment”. the system can work with the user to refine the solution proposed.10-12. In order to work an agent efficiently. Human Factors in Computing Systems. ADAPTATION VS. base.2070-3740 (Jan 2009). The cooperation of each agent could work mutually to event that the proposal to align with a higher value of goodness complete the task. for example. Here the common knowledge base is also have for the performed while the user is performing a task of data entry. then the strong since if done at the wrong time the system user's perception is knowledge base is required.2nd international Ergonomics Conf. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK In this paper agent based ergonomic and intelligent system design is described in a cloud environment.Humanizing Management agent needs to cooperate and coordinate work and Work Environment. human and ICT developments.1 Role of each Agent: The User Agent is responsible for storing user' data which is personalized. the main body of the system. The user agent is [2]Von NeumannJ.and MorgensternO. For example.. It Economic Behavior.IIT Guwahati.Fig 3 depicts Agent technology is applied to construct a maintains. 1944.Here model adaptivity in user interfaces with mixed initiative is described. environment. Each agent has its own knowledge degraded significantly. and that adaptation is not directly related to the curve. User Interface. Field Applying these ideas to the example of the UI of the car. so that the system minimizes the distraction of the user's attention while driving.. REFERENCES Fig 3. Interest Agent.Engineering and Tec 37. Sri Kottam Tulasi Reddy College of Engineering.

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