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Sercan Arslan1 and Hakan Temeltaş2

1,2

Istanbul Technical University, Control Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

arslanserc@gmail.com, hakan.temeltas@itu.edu.tr

robustly stabilize a class of reference trajectories which rejects

In this paper robust motion control of a four wheel drive aforementioned effects.

skid-steered mobile robot (4WD SSMR) is presented. We In 1996, Fierro and Lewis introduced a combined kinematic

have developed a motion control system where a kinematic and torque control framework using backstepping technique to

trajectory tracking controller based on the vector field join robot kinematics into dynamics allowing one to apply

orientation (VFO) strategy and a robust dynamic velocity control approaches from model dependent computed torque

controller based on the sliding mode control (SMC) method (CTM) to robust sliding mode control (SMC) technique

technique and the computed torque method (CTM) are [1]. In 1999, Caracciolo et al. studied the dynamics of a 4WD

combined. Asymptotic stability for a class of reference SSMR offering a nonholonomic operational constraint on the

trajectories is guaranteed by the VFO method while the instantaneous center of rotation (ICR) of the vehicle [2]. This

stability of the velocity controller is based on the Lyapunov additional nonholonomic operational constraint acts like an

theory. In addition to the original VFO method a multi outer-loop controller term preventing excessive skidding of the

parameter orienting control is used. A 4WD SSMR is vehicle by limiting the vehicle’s lateral velocity with the yaw

designed in a three dimensional (3D) realistic simulation rate [3, 4]. In 2004, Kozlowski et al. redefined the kinematic

environment to test the performance of the motion control and dynamic model of 4WD SSMR in [4] and [5] based on the

system developed. Simulation results have shown the model given in [2]. Later Michałek and Kozłowski introduced a

stability and robustness of the motion control system even novel VFO feedback control method for trajectory tracking of a

under heavy perturbed conditions and the proposed multi DDV in [6]. Also Michałek et al. extended the VFO control

parameter orienting control strategy has the advantage of method for the case of limited skid-slip phenomena in [7]. In

smoother path tracking. 2008, a decoupling design approach using two new torque

variables for controlling the linear velocity and yaw angle of a

1. Introduction 4WD SSMR platform using SMC technique without the so-

called operational constraint is introduced [8].

Skid-steered mobile robots (SSMR) are well-known for their Here we propose a robust motion control system for the class

robust structure which is suitable for outdoor usage especially of 4WD SSMR platforms based on the backstepping kinematics

on rough terrains. SSMRs are differentially driven vehicles into dynamics framework and VFO trajectory tracking control

(DDVs) because they are rotated by differential speeds or method while controlling the vehicle’s linear and angular

torques on left and right side wheels. SSMRs do not have a velocities using a CTM plus SMC technique considering both

mechanical steering system and lateral skid is necessary for the system dynamics and kinematics.

vehicle to change its heading direction. Because of this nature of A 4WD SSMR platform is being developed at the robotics

skid-steered vehicles, wheel-ground interaction forces play an laboratory in our department. The state of the art computer

important role in the vehicle dynamics. The most important aided design (CAD) model of the mobile robot platform is

ones, lateral friction forces due to sliding of wheels on ground shown in Fig. 1.

may be too high on a hard terrain such as an asphalt road. As a This paper is organised as follows. First the mathematical

result it may become too difficult to control the yaw rate of the model of the vehicle is derived and next, a model based robust

vehicle and require high torques generated by the vehicle motion control system is designed. Then simulation results are

actuators. Hence power loss due to high friction forces is given. Finally simulation results are analyzed and final remarks

inevitable. are made.

Motion control or trajectory tracking for WMRs is often

studied considering only kinematics omitting the dynamic

properties of the vehicle assuming that wheels track commanded

velocities perfectly and they do not slip while rolling. As a

result it is assumed that the nonholonomic constraints of the

vehicle are satisfied all the time during robot motion such that

one can calculate wheel angular velocities for a desired robot

motion. In fact parameter and non-parameter perturbations,

external disturbances, modeling errors due to simplifying

assumptions and unmodeled system dynamics have impacts on

the robot motion directly or indirectly disturbing the slip-skid

phenomena. Hence the wheels to body motion kinematic model

does not hold all the time causing tracking errors. So in this Fig. 1. 4WD SSMR platform

394

ELECO 2011 7th International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 1-4 December, Bursa, TURKEY

2. Mathematical Model

in [2] and [4] except that the kinetic energy of wheels is not

neglected here. We consider only planar motion. Each wheel-

ground contact is a single point and normal forces acting on the

wheel-ground contact points are constant depending on the mass

of vehicle and gravity. We assume that wheels do not slip while

rolling. Wheel-ground interaction forces are represented with a

conventional coulomb friction model. Lateral friction is due to

sliding and longitudinal friction is due to rolling of wheels on

the ground. The vehicle body is represented with a point mass

located at the center, near the front side of vehicle. The wheel

torques are distributed equally on each side and servo drives

track torque commands perfectly such that the electric drives’

dynamics can be neglected. Fig. 3. 4WD SSMR dynamics

2.1 Kinematics Then we can rewrite the Eq. (2) in the form below where

S(q) 3x2 is a matrix and 2 is called as the control input

Kinematics of mobile robot platform is illustrated in Fig. 2. vector at kinematic level defined as

The vehicle configuration vector in global coordinate frames is

q S q (5)

q X

T 3

Y (1)

cos d sin

S q sin , v w

T

where X, Y and θ are the position and orientation of vehicle d cos (6)

respectively. The transformation between the local velocities x

center of mass (COM) and the generalized velocities is

and since the columns of S(q) are always in the null space of

A(q) the following expression is satisfied [2, 4].

X cos sin 0 vx

Y sin cos 0 v y (2) T T

S A 0 (7)

0 0 1

w

2.2. Dynamics

COM is d (0, b) distance away from the center of

Dynamics of mobile robot platform is illustrated in Fig. 3.

geometry (COG). ICR is located on the axis that intersects COG

First we introduce the left and right side forces then we describe

as shown in Fig. 2. In this case the nonholonomic operational

the wheel dynamics

constraint that limits lateral skid is defined as [2]

v y dw 0 (3)

I w w w DF (9)

sin cos d X Y A q q 0 (4)

T

ICR wheel angular speeds vector, = [fl rl fr rr]T 4 is the

w vfl wheel torques vector, F = [FL FR]T 2 is the force vector and

vfly

vflx D 4x2 is the force-torque conversion matrix defined as

y

vrlx

a x T

vrl v

r 1 1 0 0

b

D (10)

2 1

vrly d vy vx

θ

Y

COG

COM

vfr

vfrx

0 0 1

c vfry

vrrx where r is the wheel radius. Next the equations of robot motion

c vrr in global coordinates follow

vrry

mX FL FR cos f x cos f y sin (11)

395

ELECO 2011 7th International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 1-4 December, Bursa, TURKEY

where m is the vehicle’s mass and I is the vehicle’s inertia about 3. Motion Control

z-axis, fx and fy are the rolling and sliding friction forces

respectively and Mr is the resistive moment about z-axis. Motion control of a vehicle is often regarded as trajectory

Rolling friction forces are too small when compared to sliding tracking control. Here we regard it as the motion control system

friction forces in ideal case. A realistic model for rolling friction that has two sub-systems, that is, trajectory tracking controller at

in case of slip can be found, for example in [3]. We define the kinematic level and velocity controller at dynamic level. Such a

friction forces for only front-left wheel as follows control system is illustrated in Fig. 4.

f flx x N fl sgn v flx , f fly y N fl sgn v fly (14) 3.1. Control Problem

where normal forces acting on the wheel-ground contact points trajectory tracking error at origin. Here we restrict the input

due to gravity are calculated as trajectories to be persistently exciting and admissible. Let the

reference trajectory be denoted by qd then the trajectory tracking

b mg a mg error is e(t) qd(t) - q(t). Now define the admissible local

N fl N fr , N rl N rr (15)

velocity vector ηd(t) [vd(t) wd(t)]T then the so-called

ab 2 ab 2

persistently exciting reference trajectory is defined as

and finally the resistive moment is calculated as follows.

q d t S qd t d t , vd (t ) 0 (22)

M r a f fly f fry b frly f rry The trajectory tracking control problem is to find a smooth

(16)

c f frx frrx f flx f rlx velocity control [1]

nonholonomic constraint using Euler-Lagrange principle and

introducing an additional vector for representing disturbances is such that e(t) → 0 as t → ∞, where K is the controller design

parameters vector.

M q q R q Fd B q F A

T

(17)

3.2. Trajectory Tracking

3x3 3

where M is the mass and inertia matrix, R is the A velocity control that achieves tracking for a DDV is given

vector of resistive forces and torques, Fd 3 is the vector of in [1]

disturbances, B 3x2 is the input matrix, F is called as the

control input at dynamic level previously defined, A is the

constraint vector as in Eq. (4), and λ is the vector of Lagrange v xd cos e k1ex

c w (24)

multipliers.

d k 2 v xd e y k3 v xd sin e

m 0 0 cos cos where k1, k2, k3 > 0 are controller design parameters and ex, ey,

M q 0 m 0 , B q sin

sin , e are the components of the error vector in local coordinates.

Another approach, VFO is a motivating control technique to

0 0

I c c calculate such velocity commands for DDVs. The reader can

refer to [6] (an application of VFO to a DDV) and [7] (an

f x cos f y sin extension of VFO in the case of skid-slip phenomena) for more

R q f x sin f y cos (18) about VFO. In VFO strategy the trajectory tracking control

problem is divided into two subtasks, convergence of position

Mr and orientation to their desired values. The vehicle is driven by

the pushing control vc with the careful pushing strategy while

Taking the time derivative of Eq. (5) yields the orienting control wc is responsible for matching the

vehicle’s heading vector with the position convergence vector.

Such tasks are accomplished with the choice of proper

q S q S q (19) convergence vector field which defines the instantaneous

convergence direction and orientation for the vehicle.

and using the relationships Eq. (5), Eq. (7) and Eq. (19) one can

convert the dynamic system in Eq. (17) to

M C R Fd BF (20)

T T T

M S MS , C S MS , R S R , Fd S Fd ,

T

T

B S B (21)

Fig. 4. Motion control system

396

ELECO 2011 7th International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 1-4 December, Bursa, TURKEY

vector qc [Xc Yc]T 2, that is COG, then the new position

tracking error becomes ec qcd - qc where

X c X d cos X cd Xc

Y Y d sin , ec

Y Yc (25)

c cd

[hc* ho]T 3

where hc* 2

defines the convergence direction

and orientation of qc sub-state and ho defines the convergence Fig. 6. Velocity control with SMC technique

orientation of θ variable

3.3. Velocity Control

hc k c ec vd S1 d , ho k1ea a

* *

(26)

Now we need to construct a robust velocity control system

that will track the desired velocities to complete the motion

where S1 (d)

* 2

defines the instantaneous heading direction control system in Fig. 4. The block diagram of velocity control

of the reference vehicle, ea is the auxiliary angle error and a is system is illustrated in Fig. 6. Applying the following nonlinear

the so-called auxiliary angle feedback to the system in Eq. (20) we have

cos d sin d , ea T hc

T

S1 d

* T *

u M BF C R

(27) 1

(31)

cos sin u n ( q , , ) (32)

T ea

*

sin cos , a hc (28)

DB

1

Mu C R I w w w (33)

and we define the pushing and orienting control commands. where n [n1 n2]T 2

is the vector of uncertainties and the

control law is

*

vc hc cos ea , wc ho (29)

u d K e (34)

e ev ew , v w

A geometrical VFO tracking scheme for kc=k1=1 is T 2 T 2

(35)

illustrated in Fig. 5. For system in Eq. (5) to track a reference

trajectory in Eq. (22) it is sufficient to drive the vehicle with the

velocity control ηc(t) [vc(t) wc(t)]T. This is guaranteed by the where K 2x2

is a design matrix, e = d - is the velocity

VFO method. The orienting control in Eq. (26) is similar to a error and is the sliding mode control law. Then one can write

PD plus control but the derivative parameter is fixed to one. the velocity error dynamics

Hence adjusting the controller performance is limited to a single

proportional parameter. Here we propose a PID plus multi

parameter orienting control defined as below.

e K e n (36)

wc k1ea k 2 ea k3 ea dt (30) 2

0 and V ≥ 0 for all e . Taking the time derivative of V and

using the Eq. (36) yields

Y

x

Reference Posture T T

V e K e e n (37)

vdS1*(θd)

y and we define the sliding surface s [sv sw]T 2

and the

θd

Ycd

COG sliding mode control law as

wd

hc*

s V e ev ew

Actual Posture ec

T

y

(38)

vcS1*(θ)

x

ea S1*(θ)

Yc

COG

ho

θ v n1 , w n2 (40)

wc

where v and w are the linear and angular velocity sliding mode

control gains respectively chosen high enough to reject the

X disturbances and uncertainties in the system. It is clear that V is

Xc Xcd 2

zero only for e = 0 and V ≤ 0 for all e so the asymptotic

Fig. 5. VFO trajectory tracking scheme convergence of e to zero is guaranteed.

397

ELECO 2011 7th International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 1-4 December, Bursa, TURKEY

4. Simulation 5. Conclusions

A 4WD SSMR is modeled in a 3D realistic environment In this paper we have developed a robust motion control

using MD-ADAMS View, Tire and Road modules. The system which consists of two sub-systems. In kinematic level

controller is implemented with MATLAB-Simulink interface. A VFO trajectory tracking method with orienting and pushing

circular reference trajectory is applied to test various control strategy is used. In dynamic level robustness is achieved by

systems. The reference vehicle starts at location (2.5m, 0m) with using CTM plus SMC technique which fully rejects

yaw angle d(0)=/2rad and moves along a circle with constant disturbances, modeled and unmodeled system dynamics. A PID

speeds. We assigned the vehicle parameters as m=150kg, plus multi parameter orienting control is used instead of single

I=30kgm2, x=0.003, y=0.6, r=0.2m, a=0.2m, b=0.3m, parameter dependent one in the original VFO method. A 4WD

c=0.45m, d=0.05m, the trajectory tracking controller parameters SSMR is designed in CATIAv5, Siemens NX6 and simulated in

kc=1, k1=5, k2=1, k3=1 and the velocity controller gain K=[10 0; MD-ADAMS multi body dynamics engine. Motion control

0 10]. We assigned the sliding mode gains with a formula, systems are implemented in Simulink and interfaced with MD-

w=vcm/I, v=100, w=225. In order to reduce the chattering ADAMS. Simulation results proved the stability and robustness

effects we used low-pass filters, rate limiter and saturation of the motion control system for persistently exciting admissible

blocks for F, v and w. Figure 7 shows the results for VFO and reference trajectories even under heavy parameter uncertainty

CTM while Fig. 8 shows the results for VFO and SMC based conditions. We also achieved a smoother path tracking by using

motion control system. In Fig. 8a trajectory tracking, in Fig. 8b the multi parameter orienting control.

the desired, commanded and actual velocities and in Fig. 8c the

left and right side control forces are shown. Acknowledgement

6 2.5

This study is supported by The Scientific and Technological

Research Council of Turkey under grant number 110E194.

Reference Trajectory ex [m]

Actual Trajectory ey [m]

5 2 et [rad]

4

1.5

3

1 6. References

Y [m]

2

0.5

1

0

0 [1] R. Fierro, F. L. Lewis, “Control of a Nonholonomic Mobile

−1 −0.5 Robot: Backstepping Kinematics into Dynamics,” Journal

−2

−4 −2 0 2 4

−1

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

of Robotic Systems, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 149-163, 1997.

X [m] t [s]

[2] L. Caracciolo, A. De Luca, S. Iannitti, “Trajectory

Fig. 7. VFO and CTM with 30% parameter perturbation Tracking Control of a Four-Wheel Differentially Driven

Mobile Robot,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and

6 2.5

Automation, Detroit, Michigan, pp. 2632-2638, May 1999.

5

Reference Trajectory

Actual Trajectory

2

ex [m]

ey [m]

et [rad]

[3] J. Yi, D. Song, J. Zhang, Z. Goodwin, “Adaptive Trajectory

4 1.5

Control of Skid-Steered Mobile Robots,” IEEE Int. Conf.

3 1 on Robotics and Automation, Rome, Italy, pp. 2605-2610,

Y [m]

1 0 [4] K. Kozlowski, D. Pazderski, I. Rudas, J. Tar, “Modeling

0 −0.5 and control of a 4-wheel skid-steering mobile robot: From

−1

−4 −3 −2 −1 0

X [m]

1 2 3 4

−1

0 5 10 15

t [s]

20 25 30 theory to practice,” Budapest Polytechnic Jubilee

Conference, Science in Engineering, Economics and

(a)

1.4 0.8

Education, Budapest, Hungary, September 2004.

1.2

vd [m/s]

vc [m/s]

v [m/s] 0.6

wd [rad/s]

wc [rad/s]

w [rad/s]

[5] D. Pazderski, K. Kozlowski, W. E. Dixon, “Tracking and

Regulation Control of a Skid Steering Vehicle,” American

v filtered w filtered

1 0.4

0.6 0

on Robotics and Remote Systems, Gainesville, Florida, pp.

0.4 −0.2

369-376, March 28 - April 1, 2004.

0.2 −0.4

[6] M. Michałek, K. Kozlowski, “Vector-Field-Orientation

Feedback Control Method for a Differentially Driven

0 −0.6

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

t [s] t [s]

200

Actual

200 Technology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 45-65, January 2010.

[7] M. Michałek, P. Dutkiewicz, M. Kiełczewski, D. Pazderski,

Filtered

150 150

100 100

50 50

FR [N]

FL [N]

0 0

Filtered

of Robotic and Intelligent Systems, vol. 59, issues 3-4, pp.

−100 −100

341-365, September 2010.

−150 −150

[8] É. Lucet, C. Grand, D. Sallé, P. Bidaud, “Dynamic sliding

mode control of a four-wheel skid-steering vehicle in

−200 −200

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

t [s] t [s]

Symposium on Robot Design, Dynamics, and Control,

Fig. 8. VFO and SMC with 87.5% parameter perturbation (a) Tokyo, Japan, July 2008.

Trajectory tracking (b) Linear and angular velocities (c) Left

and right side forces

398

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