This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

COUNTING Dr. Felix P. Muga II Mathematics Department School of Science and Engineering Ateneo de Manila University

Felix P. Muga II ()

PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS

AMC 124

1 / 21

Introduction

Felix P. Muga II ()

PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS

AMC 124

2 / 21

Introduction

A permutation of a set of distinct objects is an ordered arrangement of these objects. An ordered arrangement of r elements of a set is called an r -permutation.

Felix P. Muga II ()

PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS

AMC 124

2 / 21

Example Let S = {1, 2, 3}. The arrangement of 3, 1, 2 is a permutation of S.

Felix P. Muga II ()

PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS

AMC 124

3 / 21

Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 3 / 21 . The arrangement 3. 2 is a permutation of S. Felix P. 3}.Example Let S = {1. 1. 1 is a 2-permutation of S. The arrangement of 3. 2.

r ) = n(n − 1)(n − 2) · · · (n − r + 1) Felix P.Theorem The number of r -permutations of a set with n distinct elements is P(n. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 4 / 21 .

Theorem The number of r -permutations of a set with n distinct elements is P(n. r ) = Felix P. r ) = n(n − 1)(n − 2) · · · (n − r + 1) n! (n − r )! P(n. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 4 / 21 .

a second-prize winner.Example How many ways are there to select a ﬁrst-prize winner. and a third-prize winner from 100 different people who have entered a contest? Felix P. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 5 / 21 .

Example Suppose that there are 8 runners in a race. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 6 / 21 . and the third-place ﬁnisher receives a bronze medal. The winner receives a gold medal. if all possible outcomes of the race can occur and there are no ties? Felix P. How many different ways are there to award these medals. the second-place ﬁnisher a silver medal.

She must begin her trip in a speciﬁed city. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 7 / 21 .Example Suppose that a saleswoman has to visit eight different cities. but she can visit the other seven cities in any order she wishes. How many possible orders can the saleswoman use when visiting these cities? Felix P.

Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 8 / 21 .Example How many permutations of the letters ABCDEFGH contain the strings ABC? Felix P.

Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 9 / 21 .Combinations An r -combination of elements of a set is an unordered selection of r elements from the set. Felix P.

Combinations An r -combination of elements of a set is an unordered selection of r elements from the set. An r -combination is simply a subset of the set with r elements. Felix P. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 9 / 21 .

4} is a 3-combination of S. Then {1. 3. Felix P. 2. 3.Example Let S be the set {1. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 10 / 21 . 4}.

C(n. r ) = n r and is called a binomial coefﬁcient. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 11 / 21 .Binomial Coefﬁcient C(n. r ) denotes the number of r -combinations of a set with n distinct elements. Felix P.

d}. d}. {a. c}. {b. 2) = 6.Example C(4. c}. c. d} are the six subsets {a. b}. Felix P. {c. d}. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 12 / 21 . {a. since the 2-combinations of {a. b. {b.

equals C(n.Theorem The number of r -combinations of a set with n elements. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 13 / 21 . where n is a nonnegative integer and r is an integer with 0 ≤ r ≤ n. r ) = n! . r !(n − r )! Felix P.

Then C(n. Felix P. n − r ). Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 14 / 21 .Corollary Let n and r be nonnegative integers with r ≤ n. r ) = C(n.

Example How many ways are there to select three contestants from a 10-member programming team? Felix P. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 15 / 21 .

3!7! Felix P. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 15 / 21 .Example How many ways are there to select three contestants from a 10-member programming team? Solution. 3) = 10! = 120. C(10.

Example How many bit strings of length 20 contains exactly twelve 1s? Felix P. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 16 / 21 .

Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 16 / 21 . 970. C(20. 12!7! Felix P. 12) = 20! = 125.Example How many bit strings of length 20 contains exactly twelve 1s? Solution.

Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 17 / 21 . Felix P.Example A club has 25 members.

Example A club has 25 members. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 17 / 21 . 1 How many ways are there to choose four members of the club to serve on an executive committee? Felix P.

C(25. 1 How many ways are there to choose four members of the club to serve on an executive committee? Solution. Felix P. 4) = 12. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 17 / 21 . 650.Example A club has 25 members.

secretary and treasurer of the club? 2 Felix P. 1 How many ways are there to choose four members of the club to serve on an executive committee? Solution. vice-president. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 17 / 21 .Example A club has 25 members. 650. C(25. 4) = 12. How many ways are there to choose a president.

4) = 303. C(25.Example A club has 25 members. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 17 / 21 . 600. 4) = 12. How many ways are there to choose a president. P(25. 1 How many ways are there to choose four members of the club to serve on an executive committee? Solution. 650. vice-president. secretary and treasurer of the club? Solution. 2 Felix P.

Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 18 / 21 .Example How many bit strings contain exactly eight 0s and ten 1s if every 0 must be immediately followed by a 1? Felix P.

Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 18 / 21 . there are C(10. Hence.Example How many bit strings contain exactly eight 0s and ten 1s if every 0 must be immediately followed by a 1? Solution. 2) = 45 strings satisfying the given condition. Felix P. We have a set of 10 elements where 8 elements of the same kind which is a 01 and 2 elements of the same kind which is a 1. 8) = C(10.

Example How many bit strings of length 10 contain at least three 1s and at least three 0s? Felix P. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 19 / 21 .

Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 19 / 21 .Example How many bit strings of length 10 contain at least three 1s and at least three 0s? Solution. Felix P.

Felix P. Case 1.Example How many bit strings of length 10 contain at least three 1s and at least three 0s? Solution. There are exactly three 1s and exactly seven 0s. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 19 / 21 .

3) = C(10. Felix P. 7) = 120. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 19 / 21 . Case 1.Example How many bit strings of length 10 contain at least three 1s and at least three 0s? Solution. There are exactly three 1s and exactly seven 0s. C(10.

3) = C(10. 7) = 120. Case 1. Felix P. There are exactly three 1s and exactly seven 0s. Case 2. There are exactly four 1s and exactly six 0s.Example How many bit strings of length 10 contain at least three 1s and at least three 0s? Solution. C(10. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 19 / 21 .

Example How many bit strings of length 10 contain at least three 1s and at least three 0s? Solution. 3) = C(10. C(10. Felix P. Case 1. C(10. Case 2. 7) = 120. There are exactly three 1s and exactly seven 0s. There are exactly four 1s and exactly six 0s. 6) = 210. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 19 / 21 . 4) = C(10.

C(10. There are exactly ﬁve 1s and exactly ﬁve 0s.Example How many bit strings of length 10 contain at least three 1s and at least three 0s? Solution. There are exactly three 1s and exactly seven 0s. 4) = C(10. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 19 / 21 . Case 3. Felix P. 3) = C(10. 7) = 120. C(10. 6) = 210. Case 2. There are exactly four 1s and exactly six 0s. Case 1.

Example How many bit strings of length 10 contain at least three 1s and at least three 0s? Solution. C(10. C(10. Case 3. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 19 / 21 . 6) = 210. There are exactly ﬁve 1s and exactly ﬁve 0s. Case 1. 5) = 252. There are exactly three 1s and exactly seven 0s. 4) = C(10. Felix P. Case 2. 3) = C(10. C(10. There are exactly four 1s and exactly six 0s. 7) = 120.

Felix P. There are exactly three 1s and exactly seven 0s. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 19 / 21 . Case 3. Case 2. 7) = 120. Case 1. C(10. 5) = 252. There are exactly six 1s and exactly four 0s. C(10. Case 4. C(10. There are exactly four 1s and exactly six 0s. 4) = C(10. 6) = 210. 3) = C(10. There are exactly ﬁve 1s and exactly ﬁve 0s.Example How many bit strings of length 10 contain at least three 1s and at least three 0s? Solution.

There are exactly six 1s and exactly four 0s. 4) = 210. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 19 / 21 . Case 3. 6) = 210. C(10. C(10. 3) = C(10. There are exactly four 1s and exactly six 0s. C(10.Example How many bit strings of length 10 contain at least three 1s and at least three 0s? Solution. Felix P. Case 4. 7) = 120. Case 1. 5) = 252. There are exactly three 1s and exactly seven 0s. There are exactly ﬁve 1s and exactly ﬁve 0s. C(10. Case 2. 6) = C(10. 4) = C(10.

6) = C(10. C(10. 4) = C(10. C(10. Case 2. 4) = 210. Case 3. C(10. 7) = 120.Example How many bit strings of length 10 contain at least three 1s and at least three 0s? Solution. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 19 / 21 . C(10. Case 4. 3) = C(10. There are exactly ﬁve 1s and exactly ﬁve 0s. Felix P. There are exactly seven 1s and exactly three 0s. Case 1. 6) = 210. There are exactly six 1s and exactly four 0s. Case 5. 5) = 252. There are exactly four 1s and exactly six 0s. There are exactly three 1s and exactly seven 0s.

3) = 120. C(10. C(10. 4) = 210. Case 1. Felix P. 4) = C(10. C(10. C(10. 3) = C(10. 6) = C(10. C(10. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 19 / 21 . There are exactly four 1s and exactly six 0s.Example How many bit strings of length 10 contain at least three 1s and at least three 0s? Solution. 7) = C(10. There are exactly six 1s and exactly four 0s. 5) = 252. There are exactly seven 1s and exactly three 0s. 6) = 210. Case 2. There are exactly three 1s and exactly seven 0s. Case 5. Case 4. 7) = 120. There are exactly ﬁve 1s and exactly ﬁve 0s. Case 3.

Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 20 / 21 .Example How many bit strings of length 10 contain at least three 1s and at least three 0s? Felix P.

There are 120 + 210 + 252 + 210 + 120 = 912 strings containing at least three 1s and at least three 0s. Felix P. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 20 / 21 .Example How many bit strings of length 10 contain at least three 1s and at least three 0s? Continuation.

Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 21 / 21 . How many subsets does S have including the empty set and itself? Felix P.Example Let S be a set with n distinct elements.

How many subsets does S have including the empty set and itself? Solution.Example Let S be a set with n distinct elements. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 21 / 21 . Felix P.

How many subsets does S have including the empty set and itself? Solution. Felix P. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 21 / 21 . |P(S)| = 2n .Example Let S be a set with n distinct elements.

|P(S)| = C(n. |P(S)| = 2n . n − 1) + C(n. Felix P. How many subsets does S have including the empty set and itself? Solution. However. 0) + C(n.Example Let S be a set with n distinct elements. 1) + · · · + C(n. n). Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 21 / 21 .

n − 1) + C(n. 1) + · · · + C(n. 2n = C(n. 1) + · · · + C(n. 0) + C(n. n). However. 0) + C(n. Muga II () PERMUTATIONS and COMBINATIONS AMC 124 21 / 21 . How many subsets does S have including the empty set and itself? Solution. |P(S)| = C(n.Example Let S be a set with n distinct elements. n − 1) + C(n. Felix P. Thus. |P(S)| = 2n . n).

- Exploration Routing Chapter 2
- VLSMv1
- Exploration Routing Chapter 6
- Exploration Routing Chapter 5
- Exploration Routing Chapter 4
- Exploration Routing Chapter 3
- Exploration Routing Chapter 1
- Radial Motion Blur
- Motion Blurring
- Adobe Photoshop Csx Tutorial
- 13822294-cs3
- 23480812-joomla3
- ccna3v3.mod01
- 52 Combinatorics
- Chapter 1-2 Final

- Combination and Permutation
- Permutations and Combinations
- lect.03
- JPEG - Idea and Practice
- Chaitin, Gregory - Paradoxes of Randomness
- CSharp Fundamentals Sample Intermediate Exam Variant 2
- Smarandache Strong Structures
- Pigeonhole
- AMATYC Fall 2012
- Distributed Turbo Coding
- Lecture_2
- Data Link Control Protocol
- Lecture 04
- VIterbi Algorithm
- TURCK-BL20-Modular-Stations.pdf
- Bit Java
- Bunuel Algebra Set Solutions
- HDLCpdf
- Body
- Protocol CAN - Part B
- USART-Universal Synchronous A Synchronous Receiver Transmitter
- RS232-DNC
- Research Paper
- TFCI
- Joeressen94term
- Siemens Simatic S 7 300 - 400 -System and Standard Functions for TI S7 Converter
- Steganography and Steganalysis an Overview 553
- 1-Wire® Communication Through Software
- Hiding Text in Audio
- IJETTCS-2013-07-23-036
- 4 3 Permutations

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd