Tunnel Ventilation System Design and Air Quality

Peter Gehrke and Andrew Purchase

how does the choice of in-tunnel criteria and operational strategies affect the system design and required infrastructure? This affects: • Exhaust/Supply fan capacity • Numbers and size of jet fans • Requirements for smoke ducts • Requirements for ventilation tunnels • Longitudinal or transverse ventilation • Power usage • Capital and maintenance costs .Summary of Our Input Primarily .

Background Experience . tender design) • Eastlink Tunnel – Melbourne (2km. system design) . system design) • Airport Link Tunnel – Brisbane (6km. design reviewer) • Clem7 (North South Bypass Tunnel) – Brisbane (5km. design review) • Cross City Tunnel – Sydney (2km. parallel design) • Lane Cove Tunnel – Sydney (3km. system design) • PR53 Highway Tunnel – Puerto Rico (1km.Road Tunnel Design • M5 East – Sydney (4km. system design) • Victoria Park Tunnel – Auckland (460m.

temperature • In-tunnel air velocity • Controllability .Tunnel Ventilation System Design – Factors Considered • Vehicle emission factors • Portal emissions • Smoke control requirements • Carbon monoxide (CO) • Oxides of nitrogen (NOx/NO2) • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) • Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) • Visibility .particulate matter (PM) • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) • Vehicle heat .

• Tunnel ventilation design considers short time scales and also grades. Emissions as a function of speed are provided but not as a function of grade. • New Zealand has a Vehicle Emissions Prediction Model (VEPM). as applied in Australia. • VEPM documentation outlines that the model is best suited for 1km resolution over a period of 1 hour and is not suitable for predicting instantaneous emissions.Vehicle Emission Factors • In Europe and Australia. VEPM applied to tunnels needs consideration. • Risk that conservative emission inputs results in overdesign of systems. emission factors are determined from PIARC tables correlated to vehicle classes. . • Post construction measurements indicate that PIARC. adequately predicts emissions.

Portal Emissions • No portal emissions criterion eliminates pollutant dispersion at portals with exhaust fans and stacks required to disperse emissions. Some portals can effectively disperse pollutants – PIARC/M5 East experience. • Consideration should be undertaken for individual projects. • Typically the piston effect can generate sufficient airflow for ventilation. • Allowing portal emissions during traffic incident can in some cases reduce system capacity . There is significant energy usage required. • From a sustainability perspective. consideration should be given to allowing portal emissions at night or when traffic volumes are low. For no portal emissions this often results in running jet fans against the traffic flow.

• Design fire size affects number of jet fans. . trucks. but rarely used) • Strategy – Longitudinal or a smoke exhaust duct – Operator response and traffic management • Design fire size – specific for each tunnel – Vehicle types (cars. DGVs) – Concession for deluge • Quantify appropriate design fire size by risk assessment (don’t just select the biggest fire). sizing of exhaust fans and ventilation pathways.Smoke Control • Smoke control requirements can set ventilation sizing – Emissions – affects operating and capital costs (portal emissions) – Smoke control – affects capital costs (essential.

3 lanes Stacks at each tunnel end Portal emissions allowed off peak 4km. twin bore. 3 lanes Stacks at each end Mid-tunnel supply /exhaust with ventilation tunnel No portal emissions 960 exhaust 46 (60kW) 5 CO – 100ppm peak CO – 87ppm 15 min NO2 – 1ppm Vis – 0. 2. In-tunnel CO criterion was made more stringent by RTA based on M5 East air quality perceptions .6km. twin bore. 3.005m-1-0.Road Tunnel Design System Examples – Australian Road Tunnels Tunnel Geometry/System Supply/Exhaust (m3/s)1 Jet Fans Power (MW)2 In-Tunnel Criteria Eastern Distributor Sydney M5 East Sydney 1.005m-1-0.005m-1-0.2km.007m-1 450 supply 1000 exhaust 1000 crossover 800 exhaust 400 crossover 450 exhaust tunnel 119 (mostly 45kW) 12 Cross City Sydney3 54 (60kW) 6 Lane Cove Sydney3 1100 supply 2600 exhaust 120 (75kW) 17 Notes: 1.007m-1 CO – 87ppm 15 min CO – 50ppm 30 min NO2 – 1ppm ? Vis – 0. twin bore.Background Experience . Not all this capacity may be used at one time. Power figures are estimated totals.005m-1-0.009m-1 CO – 87ppm 15 min CO – 50ppm 30 min NO2 – 1ppm ? Vis – 0. twin bore.009m-1 CO – 87ppm 15 min NO2 – NA Vis – 0. 2 lanes One centre stack ‘Circulatory ventilation’ No portal emissions 2. 2 lanes Stack at one end Crossover ventilation Exhaust tunnel for traffic incidents No portal emissions 3km. Flow values are rounded installed capacity.

3.8km. Power figures are estimated totals.70ppm flowing traffic CO – 90ppm slow traffic NO2 – 1ppm Vis – 0. 2. 2 lanes Stacks at each end Smoke exhaust duct No portal emissions 1500 exhaust 120 (75kW) 17 CO – 150ppm peak CO .System Examples – Australian Road Tunnels Tunnel Geometry/System Supply/ Exhaust (m3/s)1 Jet Fans Power (MW)2 In-Tunnel Criteria Eastlink Melbourne 2km.5ppm Vis – 0. Flow values are rounded installed capacity. Not all this capacity may be used at one time.009m-1 CO . 2/3 lanes Stacks at each end plus central stack Smoke exhaust duct No portal emissions 2300 exhaust 800 extra exhaust available via smoke duct 170 (30kW) 10 vent 9 smoke CO . twin bore.005m-1-0.005m-1-0. twin bore.50ppm 15 min NO2 – 1.007m-1 Clem7/North South Bypass Brisbane 1500 exhaust 1000 extra exhaust available via smoke duct 119 (40kW) 10 vent 6 smoke Airport Link Brisbane 6km. twin bore.005m-1-0.70ppm flowing traffic CO – 90ppm slow traffic NO2 – 1ppm Vis – 0. 3 lanes Stacks at each end No portal emissions 4. In-tunnel CO criterion was made more stringent by RTA based on M5 East air quality perceptions .007m-1 Notes: 1.

• Figures based on assessing requirements for all flowing traffic speeds. longitudinally ventilated with no portal emissions. • Vehicle emissions were based on Australian factors (cleaner fleet than NZ). however relative changes would still be valid.Effect of In–Tunnel Criteria • CO. NOx and visibility (PM) considered. . • Criteria modified to estimate relative change in ventilation requirements numbers of jet fans and exhaust stack capacity. • Traffic incidents causing prolonged exposure are not considered. • A ‘typical’ tunnel used as a base – single bore long tunnel.

Approximate values are provided to assess relative changes.Carbon Monoxide (CO) Estimated power (MW) 3. Fire cases and controllability not assessed. .5 Notes: 1.5 5. 3. Only one tube assessed. 2.5 13 CO criterion 90ppm Max 70ppm Max 50ppm Max 50ppm 30min exposure (excluding traffic incidents) Design driver Exhaust rate (m3/s) 300 .500 500 .600 Number of jet fans 40 70 180 5km/h 5km/h 5km/h 5km/h 300 .400 400 . 4.400 60 4. Power figures are estimated totals.

400 600 .5 2.400 600 .0 10 20-40km/h 20-40km/h 20-40km/h Visibility Criterion 0. Approximate values are provided to assess relative changes. .300 300 . Power figures are estimated totals. 4.5 3 10 20km/h 10-20km/h 10-20km/h Notes: 1.Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and Visibility NO2 criterion 1.700 Number of jet fans 12 30 120 Estimated power (MW) 1.005m-1 0.5ppm Max Design driver Exhaust rate (m3/s) 200 – 300 300 . 3. Only one tube assessed.5ppm Max 1ppm Max 0.003m-1 Design driver Exhaust rate (m3/s) 200 .700 Number of jet fans 10 20 120 Estimated power (MW) 1.007m-1 0. Fire cases and controllability not assessed. 2.

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