You are on page 1of 12

ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING

COMPOSITE BRIDGES IN NEW


ZEALAND
S Hicks1, C McKenzie2, N Lloyd3, K Graham4 and GC Clifton5
1NZ Heaving Engineering Research Association, 2Opus International

Consultants (Christchurch), 3NZ Transport Agency, 4SMEC (Australia


& NZ Division) and 5University of Auckland
Introduction
• Since the early 1920’s steel-concrete composite bridges
have been used on New Zealand’s State Highway Network
• Unfortunately, many shear connector types that have
been utilized are not supported by current design rules
within the standards referenced in the Transport Agency’s
Bridge manual
• Present paper presents interim results from a 2-year
research programme that is developing design rules for
the load assessment of existing composite road bridges
within New Zealand

2
Distribution of composite bridges in
each NZTA region (269)

3
Canterbury (Region 11) and West
Coast Case Study (Region 12) data

4
Survey of shear connector types
South Island: 60 composite bridges North Island: 50 composite bridges
located in Canterbury and the West located in Gisborne and Hawke’s
Coast (Region 11 and 12) Bay (Region 5 and 6)

5
Most utilized shear connector types

Welded channel shear connectors Welded V-angle shear connectors

6
Historical material strengths given in
current NZ MoW publications
Structural steel Estimated compressive concrete
strengths based on specifications at
the time of construction
Construction Yield strength Normal design Allowable
date fy stress* [MPa] overstress†
[MPa] [MPa]
Prior to 1935 206,8 (30.000 fs=110,3 144,8 (21.000
psi) (16.000 psi) psi) Normal Allowable
Specified overstress
fv= 75,8 100,0 (14.500 design
Construction date strength *
(11,000 psi) psi) stress*
fck [MPa]
1936 to 1940 206,8 (30.000 fs= 124,1 165,5 (24.000 [MPa] [MPa]
psi) (18.000 psi) psi) Prior to 1932 14,0 4,1 6,2
fv= 86,2 113,8 (16.500 1933-1940 17,0 5,5 7,6
(12.500 psi) psi) 1941-1970 21,0 6,9 9,0
1941 to 1970 227,5 (33.000 fs= 137,9 186,2 (27.000 1971 and later 25,0 - -
psi) (20.000 psi) psi)
fv= 93,1 124,1 (18.000
(13.500 psi) psi)
1970 to 1980‡ 250, 275, 340, - -
355

7
Historical structural steel mechanical
properties from current NZTA project

Yield stress fy Tensile strength


Thickness fu
Year Standard
N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2
mm min min max
1906 BS15 386,12 441,28
1912 - 386,12 455,07
1930 BS15 386,12 455,07
1936 BS15 - 386,12 455,07
1941 CF(15)7376 - 386,12 455,07
1948- ≤19 247,04 386,12 455,07
1961 BS15 38 231,6 386,12 455,07
>38 227,74 386,12 455,07
1934- BS548 ≤31,75 355,12 510,23 592,97
1942
Bridge 44,45 339,68 510,23 592,97
57,15 324,24 510,23 592,97
w/d 1965 69,85 308,8 510,23 592,97
>69,85 293,36 510,23 592,97
1941 BS968 Mechanical properties the same as BS548
1941 Bridge Same as BS548
1943 ≤19,05 324,24 482,65 565,39
>19,05 293,36 455,07 537,81
BS968 ≤15,88 355,12 441,28 537,81
1962 31,75 347,4 441,28 537,81
50,80 339,68 441,28 537,81

8
Channel shear connector design models

• No rules given in Eurocodes, although a popular form of shear


connector in the UK and Germany (in the latter case, connector
type used extensively between 1950 and 1960)
• North American design models based on work by Viest et al.
– CAN/CSA-S16-09 and NZS 3404.1
𝑃𝑅𝑘 = 𝑛 𝑡𝑓 + 0,5𝑡𝑤 𝑏 𝑓𝑐𝑘

where n = 45 in CAN/CSA-S16-09 and n = 36,5 in NZS 3404, tf is the flange


thickness (mm), tw is the web thickness (mm) and b is the length of the
channel (mm)
– ANSI/AISC 360-10 modifies original Viest et al. equation to include secant
modulus of concrete, Ecm
𝑃𝑅𝑘 = 0,3 𝑡𝑓 + 0,5𝑡𝑤 𝑏 𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝐸𝑐𝑚
9
Performance of CAN/CSA-S16-09
cf. push tests (n = 114)

bi ranges from 2,2 to 0,6 and V = 26,2% → V = 1,69 cf. recomm. value of 1.25
10
Many of shorter channel lengths u ≥ 6 mm
Conclusions
• Survey of 124 existing composite bridges (representing
approx. 50% of total composite bridges in NZ’s State
Highway Network), shows that channel shear connectors
are most widely used.
• Unfortunately, channel shear connectors not supported
by many international bridge assessment guides,
including Eurocode 4.
• As well as identifying different shear connector types,
present research has reviewed existing specifications and
design standards to identify the expected material
strengths for use in a suitable design model
11
Conclusions, concluded
• From a review of existing design models, considerable
variability in the predictions given by CAN/CSA-S16-09,
NZS 3404.1 and ANSI/AISC 360-10 cf. push test data
• Next stage of research will develop more reliable design
models for channel shear connectors.
• Measured slip capacity of channel shear connectors
suggest that, in certain circumstances (i.e. fatigue is not
critical), rigid plastic design principles could be applied to
existing composite bridges.
• Results from project to be incorporated within NZTA
Bridge manual or standalone design guide.
12