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HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT

HUMAN BEHAVIOR
- It refers to anything an individual does that involves self-initiated action and/or reaction to a given situation.
- It is the sum total of a man’s reaction to his environment or the way human beings act.

HUMAN BEINGS
- They are intelligent social animals with the mental capacity to comprehend, infer and think in rational ways.

VIEWS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR


1. Neurological
2. Behavioral
3. Cognitive
4. Psychoanalytical
5. Humanistic

NEUROLOGICAL VIEW
- It deals with human actions in relation to events taking place inside the body such as the brain and the nervous
system.

BEHAVIORAL VIEW
- It emphasizes on external functions of the human being that can be observed and measured.

COGNITIVE VIEW
- It is concerned with the way the brain processes and transforms information into various ways.

PSYCHOANALYTICAL VIEW
- It emphasizes unconscious motives that originate from aggressive impulses in childhood.

HUMANISTIC VIEW
- It focuses on the subject’s experience, freedom of choice and motivation toward self-actualization.

TWO TYPES OF BASIC BEHAVIOR


1. Inherited Behavior (Inborn)
2. Learned Behavior (Operant)

INHERITED BEHAVIOR (INBORN)


- It refers to any behavioral reactions or reflexes exhibited by people because of their inherited capabilities or
the process of natural selection.

LEARNED BEHAVIOR (OPERANT)


- It involves knowing or adaptation that enhances human beings’ capability to cope with changes in the
environment in ways which improve the chances of survival.

CLASSIFICATIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR


1. Habitual
2. Instinctive
3. Symbolic
4. Complex

HABITUAL
- It refers to motorized behavior usually manifested in language and emotion

INSTINCTIVE
- These are generally unlearned and simply comes out of man’s instinct which can be seen among instinct-
instinct survival behaviors.

SYMBOLIC
- These are behaviors that are usually carried out by means of unsaid words and shown through symbols or
body signs.

COMPLEX
- These are those behaviors that combine two or more of the classified ones.

CAUSES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR


1. Sensation
2. Perception
3. Awareness

SENSATION
- It is the feeling or impression created by a given stimulus or cause that leads to a particular reason or behavior.

HUMAN SENSES
1. Visual
2. Olfactory
3. Cutaneous
4. Auditory
5. Hearing
6. Taste

PERCEPTION
- It refers to the person’s knowledge of a given stimulus which largely help to determine the actual behavioral
response in a given situation.

AWARENESS
- It refers to the psychological activity based on interpretation of past experiences with a given stimulus or
object.

FACTORS THAT AFFECT HUMAN BEHAVIOR


1. Heredity
2. Environment
3. Learning

HEREDITY
 It is the passing of traits to offspring (from its parent or ancestors).
 This is a process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the
characteristics of its parent cell or organism.

ENVIRONMENT
 It refers to surroundings of an object. It consists of conditions and factors that surround and influence
behavioral pattern.

LEARNING
 It is the process by which an individual’s behavior changes as a result of experience or practice.

THREE PSYCHOLOGICAL POSITIONS OR BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS


1. Child ego state
2. Adult ego state
3. Parent ego state
PARENT EGO STATE
 It is characterized as protective, idealistic, evaluative, righteous, refers to laws, rules and standards

ADULT EGO STATE


 It centers more upon reason, factual, flexible, views as co-equal, worthy, and reasonable human being.

CHILD EGO STATE’


 may be easily described as dependent, rebellious, selfish, demanding, impatient, and emotional

FRUSTRATION
 It refers to the situation which blocks the individual’s motivated behavior.

SUSTAINED FRUSTRATION
 It may be characterized by anxiety, irritability, fatigue or depression.

THREE BASIC FORMS OF CONFLICT


1. Approach-approach
2. Approach-avoidance
3. Avoidance-Avoidance

APPROACH-AVOIDANCE CONFLICT
 It occurs when an individual moves closer to a seemingly desirable object, only to have the potentially
negative consequences of contacting that object push back against the closing behavior.

APPROACH-APPROACH CONFLICT
 This is a conflict resulting from the necessity of choosing two desirable alternatives. There are usually two
desirable things wanted, but only one option can be chosen.

AVOIDANCE-AVOIDANCE CONFLICT
 This form of conflict involves two undesirable or unattractive alternatives where a person has to decide of
choosing one of the undesirable things.

COPING MECHANISM
 It is defined as the way people react to frustration.

FRUSTRATION TOLERANCE
 It is the ability to withstand frustration without developing inadequate modes of response such as being
emotionally depressed or irritated, becoming neurotic, or becoming aggressive.

BROAD REACTIONS TO FRUSTRATION


1. Flight
2. Fight

FIGHT
 It is manifested by fighting the problem in a constructive and direct way by means of breaking down the
obstacles preventing the person reaching his goals.

FLIGHT
 It can be manifested by sulking, retreating, becoming indifferent and giving up.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF REACTION TO FRUSTRATION


1. Direct
2. Detour
3. Substitution
4. Withdrawal or retreat
5. Developing feeling of inferiority
6. Aggression
7. Use of defense mechanism

DIRECT APPROACH
 This can be seen among people who handle their problems in a very objective way. They identify the problem,
look for the most practical and handy way to solve it, and proceed with the constructive manner of utilizing
the solution which will produce the best results.

DETOUR
 When an individual realizes that in finding for the right solution of the problem, he always end up with a
negative outcome or result. Thus, he tries to make a detour or change direction first and find out if the solution
or remedy is there.

SUBSTITUTION
 Most of time are resulted to in handling frustration when an original plan intended to solve the problem did
not produce intended result, thus the most practical way to solve the problem, is to look for the most possible
or alternative means.

WITHDRAWAL OR RETREAT
 It is corresponding to running away from the problem or flight which to some is the safest way.

DEVELOPING FEELING OF INFERIORITY


 It comes when a person is unable to hold on to any solution which gives a positive result. Being discouraged
to go on working for a way to handle a frustration could result to diminishing self-confidence, until the time
when inferiority complex sets in.

AGGRESSION
 It is a negative outcome of a person’s inability to handle frustration rightly. Manifestation in physical
behavior can be observed in one’s negative attitudes towards life both in the personal and professional aspect.

USE OF DEFENSE MECHANISM


 It is the most tolerated way of handling frustration. It is a man’s last result when a person attempts to
overcome fear from an anticipated situation or event.

DEFENSE MECHANISM
 It is an unconscious psychological process that serves as safety valve that provide relief from emotional
conflict and anxiety.

COMMON DEFENSE MECHANISM


1. Displacement
2. Rationalization
3. Compensation
4. Projection
5. Reaction Formation
6. Denial
7. Repression
8. Suppression
9. Identification
10. Substitution
11. Fantasy
12. Regression
13. Sublimation

DISPLACEMENT
 Strong emotion, such as anger, is placed onto another person or object as the recipient of said emotion (anger),
rather than being focused on the person or object which originally was the cause of said emotion.

RATIONALIZATION
 It is the defense mechanism that enables individuals to justify their behavior to themselves and others by
making excuses or formulating fictitious, socially approved arguments to convince themselves and others
that their behavior is logical and acceptable.

COMPENSATION
 It is the psychological defense mechanism through which people attempt to overcome the anxiety associated
with the feelings of inferiority and inadequacy in one’s of personality or body image, by concentrating on
another area where they can excel.

PROJECTION
 It manifests feelings and ideas which are unacceptable to the ego or the superego and are projected onto the
others so that they seem to have these feelings or ideas, which free the individual from guilt and anxiety
associated with them.

REACTION FORMATION
 It is defined as the development of a trait which are the opposite of tendencies that we do not want to
recognize. The person is motivated to act in a certain way, but behaves in the opposite way. Consequently,
he is able to keep his urges and impulses under control.

DENIAL
 When a person uses this, he refuses to recognize and deal with the reality because of strong inner needs.

REPRESSION
 It is an unconscious process whereby unacceptable urges or painful traumatic experiences are completely
prevented from entering consciousness.

SUPPRESSION
 It is sometimes confused with that of repression. It is a conscious activity by which an individual attempt to
forget emotionally disturbing thoughts and experiences by pushing them out of his mind.

IDENTIFICATION
 An individual seeks to overcome his own feelings of inadequacy, loneliness, or inferiority by taking on the
characteristics of someone who is important to him.

SUBSTITUTION
 The individual seeks to overcome feelings of frustration and anxiety by achieving alternate goals and
gratifications.

FANTASY
 This is resulted to whenever unfulfilled ambitions and unconscious drives do not materialize.

REGRESSION
 A person reverts to a pattern of feeling, thinking or behavior which was appropriate to an earlier stage of
development.

SUBLIMATION
 It is a process by which instinctual drives, which are consciously unacceptable, are diverted into a personally
and socially accepted channels. It is a positive and constructive mechanism for defending against own
unacceptable impulses and needs.

NORMAL BEHAVIOR
 This refers to lack of significant deviation from the average.

NORMAL
 Someone who conforms to the predominant behavior in a society.

SOCIAL NORMS
 These are rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors.

ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR
 It literally means ‘away from the normal’. It implies deviation from some clearly defined norm. In the case
of physical illness, the norm is the structural and functional integrity of the body.

BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS
1. Psychosomatic Disorder
2. Neurosis
3. Anxiety Disorders
4. Personality Disorders
5. Schizophrenia

PSYCHOSOMATIC DISORDER
 A disorder in which the physical illness is considered to be highly associated with emotional factors. The
individual may not perceive that his emotional state is contributing to his physical illness.

NEUROSIS
 Neurosis is a class of functional mental disorders involving distress but neither delusions nor hallucinations,
whereby behavior is not outside socially acceptable norms. The distinguishing factor of neurosis is a
sustained characteristic of showing anxiety, fear, endless troubles that carries significant aspects of
individual’s life.
 It is a form of mild or minor mental disorder.

ANXIETY DISORDERS
 These are blanket terms covering several different forms of abnormal and pathologic fear and anxiety. People
experience excessive levels of the kind of negative emotions that we identify as being nervous, tense, worried,
scared and anxious.

FORMS OF ANXIETY
1. Phobia
2. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders

PHOBIAS
 This is an intense, unrealistic fear. In this case, anxiety is focused so intensely on some objects or situations
that the individual is acutely uncomfortable around with and will often go to great pain to avoid them.

ACROPHOBIA
 This is an intense, unrealistic fear of high places.

AGORAPHOBIA (PANIC DISORDER)


 This is an intense, unrealistic fear of open spaces and market places (unsafe places).

MALGOPHOBIA
 This is an intense, unrealistic fear of pain.

ASTRAPHOBIA
 This is an intense, unrealistic fear of storms, thunder, and lightning.
GYNOPHOBIA
 This is an intense, unrealistic fear of dogs.

HEMATOPHOBIA
 This is an intense, unrealistic fear of blood

MYSOPHOBIA
 This is an intense, unrealistic fear of contamination or germs

MONOPHOBIA
 This is an intense, unrealistic fear of being alone.

NYCTOPHOBIA
 This is an intense, unrealistic fear of darkness.

OCHLOPHOBIA
 This is an intense, unrealistic fear of crowds.

HYDROPHOBIA
 This is an intense, unrealistic fear of water.

PATHOPHOBIA
 This is an intense, unrealistic fear of diseases.

PYROPHOBIA
 This is an intense, unrealistic fear of fire.

ZOOPHOBIA
 This is an intense, unrealistic fear of animals or some particular animals.

OBSESSION
 This is an anxiety provoking thoughts that will not go away. Thoughts and impulses which occur in the
person’s mind despite attempts to keep them out. They seem uncontrollable, as if they do not belong to the
individual’s mind.

COMPULSION
 It is an urge wherein a person is compelled to perform some actions against his free will and with duress as
a result of external factors. This is an irresistible urge to engage in certain pattern of behavior.

PERSONALITY DISORDERS
 These are formerly referred to as character disorders. These are a class of personality types and behaviors
defined as “an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the
expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it”. This category includes those individuals who
begin to develop a maladaptive behavior pattern early in childhood as a result of family, social, and cultural
influences.

TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS


1. Paranoid Personality
2. Schizoid Personality
3. Schizotypal Personality
4. Histrionic Personality
5. Narcissistic Personality
6. Antisocial Personality
7. Borderline Personality
8. Avoidant Personality
9. Dependent Personality
10. Compulsive Personality
11. Passive Aggressive Personality

PARANOID PERSONALITY
 This is characterized by suspiciousness, hypersensitivity, rigidity, envy, excessive self-importance, and
argumentativeness plus a tendency to blame others for one’s own mistakes and failures and to ascribe evil
motives to others.

SCHIZOID PERSONALITY
 Individuals with this personality disorder neither deserve nor en;oy close relationship. They live a solitary
life with little interest in developing friendships. They exhibit emotional coldness, detachment, or a
constricted affect.
 It’s also characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle,
secretiveness, and emotional coldness.

SCHIZOTYPAL PERSONALITY
 Individuals with this type of personality disorder exhibit odd behaviors based on a belief in magic or
superstition and may report unusual perceptual experiences.

HISTRIONIC PERSONALITY
 This is characterized by attempt to be the center of attention through the use of theatrical and self-dramatizing
behavior. Sexual adjustment is poor and interpersonal relationships are stormy.
 It’s also characterized by excessive emotionality and attention-seeking, including an excessive need for
approval and inappropriate seductiveness, usually beginning in early adulthood.

NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY
 Individuals with this type of personality have a pervasive sense of self-importance. A disorder and its
derivatives can be caused by excessive praise and criticism in childhood, particularly that from parental
figures.

ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY
 This is characterized by a lifelong history of inability to conform to social norms.They are irritable and
aggressive and may have repeated physical fights. These individuals also have a high prevalence of morbid
substance abuse disorders.

BORDERLINE PERSONALITY
 This is characterized by instability, reflected in drastic mood shifts and behavior problems. Individuals with
this type of personality are acutely sensitive to real or imagined abandonment and have a pattern of repeated
unstable but intense interpersonal relationships that alternate between extreme idealization and devaluation.
Such individuals may abuse substances or food, or be sexually promiscuous.

AVOIDANT PERSONALITY
 Individuals with this personality are fearful of becoming involved with people because of excessive fears of
criticism or rejection.

DEPENDENT PERSONALITY
 This is characterized by inability to make even daily decisions without excessive advice and reassurance from
others and needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of his or her life.

COMPULSIVE PERSONALITY
 This is characterized by excessive concern with rules, order efficiency, and work coupled with insistence that
everyone do things their way and an inability to express warm feelings.

PASSIVE-AGGRESSIVE PERSONALITY
 The individual with personality disorder is usually found to have overindulged in many things during the
early years to the extent that the person comes to anticipate that his needs will always be met and gratified.

SCHIZOPHRENIA
 It is a psychotic condition marked by withdrawal from reality, indifference concerning everyday problems,
and tendency to live in a world of fantasy. It is formerly called dementia praecox by Emil Kreaplin, a German
psychiatrist. This term was given by Eugene Bleuler which literally means “splitting of minds”.

TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
1. Simple
2. Paranoid
3. Hebephrenic
4. Catatonic

SIMPLE SCHIZOPHRENIA
 It is characterized by a gradual decline of interest and ambition. The person withdraws from social contacts
as well as irritable and inattentive.

PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA
 It is characterized principally by delusions of persecutions and/or grandeur. Hallucinations, usually auditory,
are most of time present.

HEBEPHRENIC SCHIZOPHRENIA
 It manifests severe integration of personality and can be observed through inappropriate giggling and smiling
without apparent reasons which to an untrained observer may only be childish playfulness.

CATATONIC SCHIZOPHRENIA
 It manifests extreme violence and shown with excessive motor activity, grimacing, talkativeness and
unpredictable emotional outburst.

COPYCAT CRIME
 It is crime inspired by another crime that has been publicized in the news media or fictionally or artistically
represented in which the offender incorporates aspects of the original offense.

SEXUAL DEVIANCY
 A sexual act that seeks gratification by means other than heterosexual relationship.

HETERO SEXUALITY
 A normal sexual relationship between members of the opposite sex which could lead to reproduction.

TYPES OF SEXUAL DEVIANCY


1. Homosexuality
2. Transvetism
3. Voyeurism
4. Exhibitionism
5. Fetishism
6. Sadism
7. Masochism
8. Sodomy
9. Froilism
10. Pluralism
11. Cunnilingus
12. Fellatio
13. Pedophilia
14. Incest
15. Bestiality
16. Necrophilia

HOMOSEXUALITY
 It refers to having a sexual desire towards the same sex.

TRANSVETISM
 It refers to obtaining sexual gratification by wearing the clothes of the opposite sex.

VOYEURISM
 It refers to obtaining sexual pleasure by watching the members of the opposite sex undressing or engaging in
sexual activities.

EXHIBITIONISM
 It refers to obtaining pleasure by exposing one’s genitals to others.

FETISHISM
 It refers to obtaining sexual gratification primarily and exclusively from specific objects.

SADISM
 It is characterized by enjoyment of inflicting pain to others

MASOCHISM
 It is characterized by enjoyment of inflicting pain upon themselves .

SODOMY
 It refers to a sexual act through the anus of another human being.
FROILISM
 It is a form of sexual perversion in which three (3) persons are participating in sexual act.

PLURALISM
 It is when a group participates in sexual orgies (sexual festival).

CUNNILINGUS
 It refers to licking of woman’s genitals.

FELLATIO
 It refers to sucking of the penis.

PEDOPHILIA
 It refers to obtaining pleasure from sexual contact with children.

INCEST
 These are sexual relations between persons related by blood.

BESTIALITY
 It refers to sexual intercourse with a living animal.

NECROPHILIA
 It refers to the desire to engage in sexual intercourse with a dead body.

CRISIS
 This refers to unstable and dangerous social condition characterized by an impending abrupt change
involving economic, military, political, police, societal or personal affairs that is approaching emergency
level event.

‘CRISIS’
 It’s a Greek word which means ‘to separate’.

EMERGENCY
 It is a sudden condition or state of affairs calling for immediate action.

‘EMERGENTIA’
 It is a Latin word which means ‘dipping or plunging’

CRISIS MANAGEMENT
 It refers to the action undertaken to unify and coordinate resources and efforts to effectively and efficiently
quell a given criminal/life threatening situation.
 It is also defined as the expert handling of emergency or crisis to reduce or eliminate danger or damage.

WHEN CONSIDERED AN EMERGENCY (EMERGENCY, CRISIS AND DISASTER DISTINGUISHED)


 The situation is still controlled and the response given is for the purpose of containing the situation from
getting out of control.

WHEN CONSIDERED A CRISIS (EMERGENCY, CRISIS AND DISASTER DISTINGUISHED)


 The situation is already beyond normal control.

WHEN CONSIDERED A DISASTER (EMERGENCY, CRISIS AND DISASTER DISTINGUISHED)


 The effects of the crisis can no longer be controlled even by its author.

TYPES OF CRISIS
1. Natural
2. Man-made

NATURAL CRISIS
 It is typically natural disasters considered as acts of God, such as environmental phenomena as earthquakes,
volcanic eruptions, tornadoes and hurricanes, floods, landslides, tsunamis, storms, and droughts that threaten
life, property, and the environment itself.

MAN-MADE CRISIS
 These include civil disturbance, revolt, revolution, border incident, war, kidnapping, hijacking, hostage-
taking, terrorists activities, attacks on government facilities, etc.

OBJECTIVES OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT


1. RESOLUTION - Resolve without further incident.
2. SAFETY - Safety of all participants.
3. APPREHENSION - Apprehension of all perpetrators.
4. ACCOMPLISHMENT - Accomplishment of the task within the framework of current community standard.

PURPOSE OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT


 “SALVARI VITAS” or to save lives

PHASES OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT


1. PROACTIVE
2. REACTIVE

PROACTIVE PHASE
 It includes prediction, prevention and preparation.

REACTIVE PHASE
 It includes performance, initial action, action, and post action.

LEGAL REGIMES IN DEALING WITH CRISIS


1. SEC. 6, ARTICLE XVI, 1987 CONSTITUTION (PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE)
2. SEC. 444 and 445, R.A 7160 (MAYOR ACTING AS DEPUTIZED REPRESENTATIVE)

Sec. 6, Article XVI, 1987 Constitution


 “The State shall establish and maintain one police force, which shall be national in scope and civilian in
character, to be administered and controlled by the NPOLCOM. The authority of local executives over the
police units in their jurisdiction shall be provided by law.”

Sec. 444 and 445, R.A. 7160


 “The mayor shall act as the deputized representative of the NAPOLCOM, which shall exercise operational
control and supervision over the local police forces in the city and municipality.”

HOSTAGE INCIDENT
 It is any incident in which people are being held by another person or persons against their will, usually by
force or coercion, and demands are being made by the hostage taker.

CHARACTERISTICS OF NEGOTIABLE INCIDENT


1. There must be a need to live on the part of a hostage taker.
2. There must be a threat of force on the part of the authorities.
3. There must be demands by the hostage taker.
4. The negotiator must be seen by the hostage taker as a person who can hurt the hostage taker but is willing to
help him.
5. There must be time to negotiate.
6. A reliable channel of communication must exists between the hostage taker and the negotiator.
7. Both the location and the communications of the incident need to be contained in order to encourage
negotiation.
8. The negotiator must be able to deal with the hostage taker making the decisions.

HOSTAGE
 He is a person held as a security for the fulfillment of certain terms.

NEGOTIATE
 It means to arrange or settle by conferring or discussing.

CRISIS NEGOTIATION
 means the use of communication techniques and strategies to influence a person to change his behavior in
accordance with goals within legal, ethical and moral constraints.

PRIORITIES IN HOSTAGE SITUATION


1. Preservation of live
2. Apprehend hostage taker
3. To successfully negotiate; there must be need to live on the part of the hostage taker and a threat of force by
the authorities.

CATEGORIES OF HOSTAGE-TAKER
1. PERSONS IN CRISIS
2. PSYCHOTICS
3. COMMON CRIMINALS
4. PRISONER
5. POLITICAL TERRORIST

PERSONS IN CRISIS
- They are people who take hostages during a period of prolonged frustration, despair and problems.

PSYCHOTICS
- They are mentally-ill people who take hostage during a period of psychiatric disturbance.

COMMON CRIMINALS
- They are people who take hostages for personal reason.

PRISONER
- They are people who take hostage because of dissatisfaction and discontent regarding their living condition
in prison.

POLITICAL TERRORIST
- They are people who take hostages because of political and ideological beliefs.

PROFESSIONAL CRIMINAL
- They are the easiest to handle, rational thinker, usually come to terms with the police after assessing the
situation and weighing the odds.

PROPER HANDLING OF PROFESSIONAL CRIMINAL


- Team must show force but refrain from unnecessary violence or useless killing.

PSYCHOTIC INDIVIDUAL
- They present different and somewhat complex problem, irrational.

PROPER HANDLING OF PSYCHOTIC INDIVIDUAL


- The hostage taker may feel a degree of pleasure if he finds himself important or being the center of attraction.
Team must also prolong the time.

TERRORIST
- They are more difficult to handle. When caught, they rationalize by claiming to be revolutionaries a situation
they resolve to die for a cause.

PROPER HANDLING OF TERRORIST


- Their causes may deteriorate in the passage of time. If they kill one of the hostages, the negotiators then must
set to save the remaining hostages.

HOSTAGE TAKER’S DEMANDS


1. Negotiable
2. Non-negotiable

NEGOTIABLE DEMANDS
- It includes food, cigarettes, drinks, alcohol, transportation, media coverage, freedom.

NON-NEGOTIABLE DEMANDS
- It includes weapons, ammunitions, drugs, release of prisoners, exchange of hostages

PRINCIPLES IN HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION


1. The hostage has no value to the hostage taker
2. The priorities in the hostage situations are the preservation of life and the apprehension of the hostage taker,
recover and protect property.
3. The hostage situation must not go violently
4. There must be a need to live on the part of the hostage taker

IMMEDIATE ACTIONS OF THE NEGOTIATOR UPON ARRIVAL AT THE SCENE OF INCIDENT


1. Containment
2. Establish Contact
3. Time Lengthening
4. Telephone Negotiation
5. Need of face-to-face conversation
6. Surrender Approach

CONTAINMENT
- It refers to controlling situation and area by people involved.

ESTABLISHING CONTACT
- It is done by communicating with the leader.

TIME LENGTHENING
- It is done to give more time to the police to organize and coordinate plan of action.

TELEPHONE NEGOTIATION TECHNIQUES


1. Be the caller (talk with the leader only)
2. Plan and prepare
3. Be ready with graceful exit
4. Discipline yourself to listen.
5. Do not tell that you are the commander, neither your rank
6. Just tell “My name is…I am a police negotiator and willing to help.
7. Delay tactic
8. In case hostage taker won’t talk, continue negotiating.

DELAY TACTIC
- A telephone negotiation technique used to wear down hostage taker, physically, psychologically and
emotionally. It will also give more time for police organize and coordinate plan course of action.

ADVANTAGES OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATION


1. Easier to say NO
2. Easier to conclude the conversation
3. Conversation is quicker
4. Important items are more easily committed
5. Caller has the advantage

1. Don’t be over anxious


2. Wear body armor
3. Have tactical back-up (snipers)
4. Maintain proper distance
5. In retreating, face hostage taker slowly backing out of the door.

PROPER FACE-TO-FACE DISTANCE (NEGOTIATING)


- 1 to 3 feet.

INTIMATE FACE-TO-FACE DISTANCE (NEGOTIATING)


- about 6 inches

SURRENDER APPROACH
1. Start with a position approach, act as if hostage taker will surrender.
2. Do not talk too much.
3. Gradually ask him to surrender.
4. Reassurance is the wisest thing to do.
5. Talk details of surrender process.
6. Explain why now is better than later.

CRISIS NEGOTIATION BARGAINING TECHNIQUE


1. The use of time to increase basic needs, making it more likely that the subject will exchange a hostage for
some basic needs.
2. The used of time to collect intelligence on the subject that will help develop a trade.
3. The use of time to reduce the subject’s expectation of getting what he wants.
4. Trades can be made for food, drink, transportation and money.
5. Trades cannot be made for weapons or the exchange of hostages.
6. The boss does not negotiate.
7. Start bidding high to give yourself room to negotiate.
8. Never draw attention to the hostages, it gives the subject too much bargaining power.
9. Manipulate anxiety levels by cutting off power, gas, etc.

STOCKHOLM SYNDROME
- It is the development of unique relations between the hostages and the hostage taker. A strong attachment of
the hostage victim to the hostage takers after a long period of captivity, by the hostage became sympathizer
of the hostage takers.

TEAM
- It is a small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose,
performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.

THE NEGOTIATING TEAM


1. Negotiator Supervisor
2. Primary Negotiator
3. Secondary Negotiator
4. Intelligence Officer
5. Mental Health Consultant
6. Equipment Officer

NEGOTIATOR SUPERVISOR
- He is responsible for the overall functioning of the negotiating team. In addition to his supervisory skills, the
supervisor must have leadership ability. He should see to it that the situation is negotiable, appropriate
personnel is available, intelligence is gathered in timely manner, communications are established, negotiation
strategy is working-out, an appropriate record of the negotiation is kept and the commander is well informed.

PRIMARY NEGOTIATOR
- He is the direct communication link to the hostage taker and is responsible for developing verbal tactics,
monitoring and assessing the hostage taker’s level of emotional arousal and helping the hostage taker engage
in problem solving.

SECONDARY NEGOTIATOR
- He is the pipeline between the negotiation team and primary. He helps to develop verbal tactics, provides
moral support for the primary.

INTELLIGENCE OFFICER
- He is responsible for gathering intelligence from various sources, interviewing all relevant persons involved
in the incident, collating and disseminating that information, maintaining and updating status boards and
making sure that all response units are receiving accurate and timely intelligence.

MENTAL HEALTH CONSULTANT


- He is responsible for evaluating the personality of the hostage taker, recommending negotiation strategies,
monitoring team stress, monitoring stress among the hostage takers and hostages.

EQUIPMENT OFFICER
- He is someone who understands technical information regarding radios, computers, phone systems,
mechanical systems, etc. and can make minor repairs.

COMMAND POST
- It is the position from which a unit commander and his staff exercise command over the hostage incident.

GROUND COMMANDER
- He is the designated senior officer in command of the incident. It is also termed “incident commander”.

INNER PERIMETER
- It is the immediate area of containment as designated by the on ground commander.

OUTER PERIMETER
- It is a secondary control area surrounding the inner perimeter, providing a safe zone for access to the inner
perimeter.

THE TACTICAL TEAM


- It is an assault team responsible in carrying out assault operation whenever negotiation fails. A unit of
specially selected, appointed, trained and equipped officers that provides assistance in those incidents that
would require special tactics, techniques and equipment.

COMPONENTS OF TACTICAL TEAM


1. Tactical Supervisor
2. First Component or Containment Sub-team
3. Second Component or Apprehension and Assault Sub-team
4. Third Component or Sniper/Observer Sub-team

TACTICAL SUPERVISOR
- He is responsible for the mobilization of the members of the team, deployment of the containment team,
development of the tactical plan and operation of the assault and arrest teams.

FIRST COMPONENT (CONTAINMENT SUB-TEAM)


- This component is responsible for maintaining perimeter control both inner and outer.

SECOND COMPONENT (APPREHENSION AND ASSAULT SUB-TEAM)


- This component is apprehension and assault team. Members of this sub-team make an undetected approach
to the location, plan and prepare for the release of hostages, and make an assault if necessary.

THIRD COMPONENT (OBSERVER/SNIPER SUB-TEAM)


- This component:
1. Provide intelligence on factors present at the location. These factors may include physical layout, placement
of walls, furniture, specific location of hostages and hostage takers, clothing and mental state of hostages and
hostage takers.
2. Prepare for a shot on the hostage taker.

ACTIVE LISTENING TECHNIQUES


1. Open-ended Questions or Statements
2. Effective Pauses
3. Minimal Encouragement
4. Mirroring (Reflecting Feelings)
5. Paraphrasing
6. Emotional Labeling (Reflecting Meaning)
7. I-Messages
8. Summative Reflections

OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS OR STATEMENTS


- These are questions or statements directed at the hostage taker designed to get him to open up and give a
long, verbal answer.

EFFECTIVE PAUSES
- It refers to not saying anything when the hostage taker finishes talking, encouraging him to fill the empty or
blank space with additional communications or information. Periods of silence that is used to emphasize a
point or to encourage the subject to say more.

MINIMAL ENCOURAGEMENT
- It refers to saying yes, ok or other verbal indicators that the negotiator is actually listening to the hostage
taker. Brief, well-timed response that let the subject knows the negotiator is paying attention. It is a neutral
non-threatening response that can be used with any subject.

MIRRORING OR REFLECTING FEELINGS


- It is a response in which the negotiator mirrors back to the hostage taker the emotions of the hostage taker in
communicating, the negotiator repeats the last word or phrase.

PARAPHRASING
- It is a response in which the negotiator gives the hostage taker the essence of his message in the negotiator’s
words. The negotiator repeats the subject’s meaning in the negotiators words. It shows that the negotiator is
listening and understands the content of the subject’s message.

EMOTIONAL LABELING OR REFLECTING MEANING


- It is a response in which negotiator let the hostage taker know he understands the facts and the feelings the
hostage taker is communicating. The use of emotionally descriptive words to show that the negotiator
understands the feelings the subject is experiencing.

I-MESSAGES
- It’s a response in which the negotiator expresses his emotions in response to the hostage taker. These are
messages that personalize the negotiator without becoming a personal attack and allow negotiator to
introduce new ideas without raising excessive resistance.

SUMMATIVE REFLECTIONS
- It is a response in which the negotiator summarizes the main facts and feelings that the hostage taker has
expressed over a relatively long period.