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POLICE PATROL OPERATIONS

WITH POLICE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM (LEA 3)

PATROUILLER
- Origin of the word “PATROL”, meaning rough by, to travel on foot.

OVERVIEW OF PATROL
- is the only unit working round the clock.
- is the working horse of the Police Department.
- is the Backbone of Police Department.
- is the Operational Heart of Police Organization in crime prevention.
- is the Show Window of Police Department
- is the center or focal point of all police activities.
- is very vital to police organization because society cannot exist without people who will help maintain law and order.

BRIEF HISTORY OF PATROL


- The history of patrol is as old as organized society. Men have always needed protection, first from animals, and then his
own kind. His first attempt is to protect himself and his family which involves barricading the entrance to his cave.

CAPTAIN GEORGE CURRY


- first chief of Police of Manila

COL. ANTONIO C. TORRES


- first Filipino Police Chief

DECEMBER 8, 1941
- Col. Torres declared Manila as an open city

COL. LAMBERTO T. JAVALERA


- first Filipino Chief of Police of Manila, appointed by Pres. Manuel Roxas

1939
- the Manila Police District introduced the bicycle patrol.

MARCH 17, 1954


- Automobile Patrol was introduced in Metro Manila.

ISAIAS ALMA JOSE


- first chief of Mobile Patrol of MPD

BASIC POLICE FUNCTIONS


1. Crime Prevention – it includes crime suppression
2. Crime Solution – covers investigation of crimes
3. Traffic Management – covers direction and control, traffic accident investigation

IMPORTANCE OF POLICE PATROL


1. Patrol as the Backbone of Police Organization
2. Patrol as the Essence of Police Function
3. Patrol as the Operational Heart of Police Organization

PATROL AS THE BACKBONE OF POLICE ORGANIZATION


- Patrol is the single largest element in the police organization. The actions taken by the officers have direct impact on the
citizens.
- Patrol provides the “ears and eyes” of the department.

PATROL AS THE ESSENCE OF POLICE FUNCTION


- Patrol is the only police service that directly attempts to eliminate the desire and opportunity to commit crime.

PATROL AS THE OPERATIONAL HEART OF POLICE ORGANIZATION


- The patrol force incorporates all objectives inherent in the police organization.

OBJECTIVES OF POLICE PATROL


a. Crime Prevention and Suppression
b. Crime Investigation
a) Preliminary Investigation
c. Law Enforcement
d. Maintenance of Social Order
e. Police Service

3 PURPOSES OF PRELIMINARY
1. To determine what, if any, crime has been committed.
2. To determine who has jurisdiction.
3. To attempt the immediate apprehension of the suspect.
P = Proceed to the scene with safety and dispatch
R = Render assistance to the injured
E = Effect arrest of the perpetrator
L = Locate and identify the perpetrator
I = Interview complainants and witnesses
M = Maintain scene and protect evidence
I = Interrogate suspects
N = Note all conditions, events
A = Arrange for collection of evidence
R = Report incident fully and accurately
Y = Yield Responsibility to investigators
Follow-up Investigation

Law Enforcement
- Primary function of the police the greatest responsibility is on patrol officers because of the nature of their duties.

Maintenance of Social Order


- Fundamental and primary obligation of the police department which includes the element of “Peace Keeping”.
- considered as the most important function performed by the patrol officers.

Police Service
- It is one that creates confusion and discord among police authorities in which police officers should provide public service
or social service which is an important part of police patrol.

GENERAL GOAL OF PATROL


- “SAFEGUARD THE COMMUNITY”

PATROL FUNCTIONS TO ACHIEVE ITS GOAL


a. Protection of Life and Property
b. Preservation of Peace and Order
c. Prevention of Crime
d. Suppression of Criminal Activities
e. Apprehension of Criminals
f. Enforcement of Laws and Ordinances
g. Regulation of Non-Criminal Conduct
h. Performing Necessary Services and Inspection

PURPOSES OF PATROL
1. To prevent the commission of crime.
2. To safeguard life and property.
3. To maintain peace and order.

BASIC DUTIES OF POLICE PATROL


- The duties and objectives of police patrol are many, but the basic duties could probably be summed up in two words,
protection, and service.

OBJECTIVES OF POLICE PATROL


1. Preventive Enforcement
2. Selective Enforcement
3. Traffic Enforcement
4. Emergency Call for Service
5. Routine Call for Service

Preventive Enforcement
- Preventive enforcement falls under the heading of protection, and involves the prevention of crime through the noticeable
presence of police vehicles and personnel.
- Sir Robert Peel first presented preventive enforcement as a criminological philosophy. And this had been regarded as
the soundest of all criminological theories. “It is much easier to patch a crack in the dike than to repair the wall after it
has broken. An ounce of prevention being worth a pound of cure.”

Selective Enforcement
- This involves going either where the trouble is, or where the trouble likely to occur.
- If a certain area is subject to a high crime rate, the patrol cars spend a greater part of their patrolling time in that area.

Traffic Enforcement
- Large police departments have traffic divisions, but the majorities of the departments are small, and have only patrol
division to handle traffic enforcement.
- Traffic enforcement is strongly dependent upon personal contact between the patrol officers and the violators. The
important thing is that the violator is stopped and the violation is brought to his attention.

Emergency Call for Service


- One of the duties and purposes of patrol is the handling of emergency calls for service. Since the handling of emergency
calls for service is one of the basic duties of the patrol officer, he should be trained in first aid and water life-saving
emergencies.

Routine Call for Service


- Routine call account for the majority of services provided by the patrol division. Because of this, officers have to guard
against becoming callused and indifferent to calls of this nature.

CLASSESS OF PATROL ACTIVITIES


1. Called for Service = incidents requiring immediate police action
2. Inspectional Service = patrol activity tends to reduce criminal opportunity and accidents
3. Routine Patrol = directed at less tangible hazards such as poor lighted areas, business section, etc.

FACTORS THAT DETERMINE PATROL DEPLOYMENT


1. Resident and transient populations in the business and tourist district, and University belt
2. Number and types of crimes and arrests
3. Location of crimes and arrests
4. Traffic collision statistics and patterns
5. Location of frequent incidents or hazard requiring concentrated police coverage
6. Disproportionate concentration of population
7. Socio-economic factors
8. Zoning plan of the city
9. Size and shape of Area of Responsibility (AOR)
10. Location, size and access to parks and recreational facilities
11. Age, gender and civil status ratio of population
12. Homogeneity of population
13. Modes of transportation and location of criminals
14. Number and qualification of officers available for field duties
15. Level of trust and confidence of the people to the police

PATROL FORCE
- an organization within an organization. It serves as the nucleus or focal point of the department. Functions are distributed
as follows:
1. Patrol Function = 50%
2. Criminal Investigation = 15%
3. Traffic Functions = 10%
4. Vice and Juvenile Related Functions = 10%
5. Administrative Functions = 10%
6. Auxiliary Functions = 5%

MANNING LEVEL OF PATROL FORCE


- The patrol unit must have the most number of personnel.

RULE OF THE THUMB


- regarding manning level of any police department must be observed.

FACTORS AFFECTING EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE DISTRIBUTION OF PATROL FORCES


1. Police Hazard
2. Chronological Distribution
3. Geographical Distribution
4. Walking
5. Beats
6. Motor Patrol Distribution

POLICE HAZARD
- Situations or conditions that may induce incidents calling for some kind of police action.
- Includes any person, place, thing, situation, condition possessing a high potential for criminal attack or for creation of any
other type of problem necessitating a demand for immediate police service.

KINDS OF POLICE HAZARDS


1. Persons
2. Property
3. Places

PERSONS
- such as criminals, alcoholics, addicts, gamblers, prostitutes, drug peddlers, juvenile delinquents, insane persons

PROPERTY
- includes piers, warehouse, unoccupied dwellings, gambling joints, banks, pawnshops, drug dens, gambling dens

PLACES
- terminals, demonstrations, parks, bars, parades, conventions, political meetings, lodging houses, schools, athletic events

FACTORS THAT CREATE HAZARDS


1. Deficient Visibility
2. Insecurity of Premises
3. Presence of Conditions of Things
4. Presence of People
5. Lack of regulation

DEFICIENT VISIBILITY
- resulting from inadequate illumination or obstruction of views

INSECURITY OF PREMISES
- created by the absence of suitable locks, bars and gratings

PRESENCE OF CONDITIONS OF THINGS


- poorly designed roadways, defects or obstruction in public spaces and presence of combustibles

PRESENCE OF PEOPLE
- crowd offers opportunities for theft, loss of persons or things, fights and panics.

CHRONOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION

- Involves consideration of the nature and causes of crimes. Patrol officers should know how crimes are committed, when
and who commits them.

CRIME CLOCK
- signifies what time crime is often or frequently committed

CRIME MAP
- location or place or crime prone areas wherein crime is frequently or often committed.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION
- Involves weighing categories of incidents and accounting the number of identifiable hazards and street mileage.

WALKING BEATS
- It involved determining man hours needed to cover the streets and alleys to inspect the police hazards predominating the
AOR.

MOTOR PATROL DISTRIBUTION


- Involves determining the need to shift motor patrol units hour-by-hour at the area according to where and when crime
mostly likely to occur.

POST ASSIGNMENT
1. Regular Post
2. Post Rotation
REGULAR POST
- Assigning members to regular/usual post which usually based on seniority.

POST ROTATION
- Is the process of assigning members of patrol force from post to post

PREPARATIONS FOR PATROL OPERATIONS


1. General Preparation
2. Pre-Patrol Preparation
3. Vehicle Inspection
4. In-Field Preparation
5. District Orientation Tour

GENERAL PREPARATION
- Attitude is the first and foremost preparation of patrol officer since he will be dealing with different persons in the society.
His value system must be in harmony with the objective of law enforcement and sense of fair play.

PRE-PATROL PREPARATION
- the police officer should be armed with knowledge and equipment. This can be done thru fall-in formation in the
headquarters, precincts or police blocks devoted to giving of assignments.

VEHICLE INSPECTION
- involves inspection of patrol vehicle to be used before going out on patrol

IN-FIELD PREPARATION
- this is made by having debriefing conference with the officer who is being relieved and who has just spent the previous
tour of duty.

DISTRICT ORIENTATION TOUR


- this involves familiarization of assigned area for patrolling upon arrival in the field.

STREET KNOWLEDGE
- This refers to thorough geographical knowledge of the patrol area or an understanding of the character, fears, concerns,
problems and attitudes of the local residents

TERRITORIAL UNITS IN PATROL


1. Post
2. Route
3. Beat
4. Sector

POST
- a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty

ROUTE
- a length of street or streets designated for patrol purposes

BEAT
- area assigned for foot patrol purposes

SECTOR
- area containing two or more beats, routes or posts

TYPES OF PATROL
1. Foot Patrol
2. Automobile Patrol
3. Motorcycle Patrol
4. Bicycle Patrol
5. Horse Patrol
6. Marine or Boat Patrol
7. Air Patrol
8. Plain Clothes Patrol
9. Canine (K-9) Patrol or Dog Patrol

FOOT PATROL
- it is the most expensive type of patrol in terms of human resources and most departments had reduced their foot patrols
to a minimum because of this. However, it does have certain advantages that warrant its continued use if even on a limited
basis.
Usually, foot patrol is used to secure two types of geographical units:
a. Post
b. Beat

TYPES OF FOOT PATROL


1. Fixed Foot Patrol
2. Mobile Foot Patrol

FIXED FOOT PATROL


- usually used for traffic, surveillance, parades and special events.

MOBILE FOOT PATROL


- used where there is considerable foot movement such as business and shopping center, family dwellings and the like.
1. Line Beat
2. Random Foot

LINE BEAT PATROL


- used in securing certain portion of the road.

RANDOM FOOT PATROL


- used in checking residential buildings, business establishments, dark alley, parking lots

FOOT PATROL PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES


1. Don’t establish a set of patterns of patrol.
2. When checking doors for forced entry, use flashlight on or around the clock to see if there are noticeable jimmy marks.
3. When an open door is found, NEVER ENTER ALONE.
4. At least once a night use the fire escapes to check the roof in the downtown area for possible ‘cut through” burglaries as
they are sometimes referred to.
5. Be alert for boxes that are being pulled up behind building, or ropes that are hanging down the sides of building, or ladders
that might have been used to gain access to a roof.
6. At night time, the foot patrol officer should occasionally step into alleys or store entrance, and get out of the light as
much as possible.
7. When patrolling at night, always approach each building with caution, always assume that a felon may be lurking inside.
8. Know the personalities in the area, particularly wanted person, establishments which usually fall prey to armed robbery
and burglary.
9. Walk close to the curb during day time and close to the building during night time. The objective of patrolling during
night time is to be seen by as few people as possible and to catch the criminals in the act.
10. Foot patrol must walk his best during all type of weather.
11. A foot patrol officer should never smoke while in uniform on the street, nor should chew gum.
12. The foot patrol officer should make a conscious effort to make friends on the beat.
13. Use all five senses while walking the beat.

ADVANTAGES OF THE FOOT PATROL


1. The foot patrolman can provide immediate traffic control when it is needed.
2. More person-to-person contact can be made with the public.
3. The officer can actually get to know the physical layout of his beat better.
4. He can also get to know the people in his beat better, and can develop criminal informants easier.
5. A foot officer can sneak up on situation, where a patrol car is easily noticed when it approaches.
6. By the use of a two-way radio, the officer can maintain communications with the department and the mobile unit.

DISADVANTAGES OF FOOT PATROL

1. Low mobility resulting to limited coverage


2. Low response time to telephone complaints
3. It involves large numbers of personnel.

AUTOMOBILE PATROL
- is the most economical type of patrol and offers tactical ability when used in numbers. It is considered as the most
extensively used and most effective means of transportation for police patrol.

FEATURES OF STATE-OF-THE-ART PATROL CAR


1. Vehicle-Mounted TV
2. Mobile Data Terminal (MDT)
3. High-Intensity Emergency Lighting Plan (HELP)

VEHICLE-MOUNTED TV
- high resolution video camera with wide angle lens

MOBILE DATA TERMINAL (MDT)


- computer that allow officers in patrol cars to access files from NHQ and other Law Enforcement agencies

HIGH-INTENSITY EMERGENCY LIGHTING PLAN (HELP)


- a heavy duty light that can provide 2 million candle power of light.

AUTOMOBILE PATROL TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES


1. Check the police car thoroughly before leaving the garage.
2. Do not establish route patterns in patrolling.
3. Do not develop the habit of using the main roads, most criminal activity occurs at the back streets.
4. Do not spent too much time in drive-inns or coffee spots.
5. Always take note the plate number of suspicious vehicles.
6. Avoid driving too fast on general patrol except during emergencies in pursuing criminals. Maintain a cruising speed of 20-
25kph.
7. Make it a habit to never leave the keys in the police car, even if it is just for a minute.
8. Since we are creators of habits, a police officer must make a habit to use the seat belt at all times.
9. Frequently get out of the car to be visible and accessible to the public.
10. Minimize hiding behind hills, curves or signboard to trap traffic violators, this may erode community confidence
11. Park the patrol car in legal manner unless, in case of emergency.
12. Patrol the district so that patrol car will be seen by the greatest number of people, frequently turning the corners and
covering the side streets as well as the main thoroughfares.
13. Whatever patrol pattern is used, do it in irregular and unpredictable manner.
14. When conducting solo patrol, frequent contact should be made with other units in the field.
15. When patrolling with a partner, divide the observation area inside the vehicle
a. Driving Officer – must cover 100% of his vision in front.
b. Passenger Officer – cover a field of view twice more than the driving officer. Take into consideration the safe
operation of patrol vehicle.
c. Driver and passenger officer must be alert for possible informants

CALLS ENCOUNTERED BY AUTOMOBILE PATROL


1. Routine Call
2. Urgent Call
3. Emergency Call

ROUTINE CALL
- a call where mobile car is required to observed the traffic laws and does not normally used flashing lights and siren while
on its way to the scene of the crime

URGENT CALL
- the responding patrol car has to observed the traffic laws without need of using flashing lights and siren but proceed directly
to its destination without stopping en-route unless incident of far more serious occurs

EMERGENCY CALL
- requires the use of flashing lights and siren except when there is an attempt to surprise the criminals in the act.

ADVANTAGES OF THE AUTOMOBILE PATROL


1. Where speed and mobility are needed such as in a large area that must be covered by few officers, the speed of the
automobile allow them to service the whole area and do so efficiently.
2. It is one of the best means of Preventive Enforcement.
3. It offers the officer protection.
4. It permits the officer to carry extra equipment.
5. The patrol car allows the police officer to have a partner when needed, and to transport one or several prisoners.
6. In the case of station wagons, which are becoming popular as patrol vehicles, they can be used to carry police dogs on
patrol and emergency ambulance during disaster.
7. Patrol cars can be used as barricades in roadblocks, and they offer a high degree of safety during high-speed pursuits.

DISADVANTAGES OF AUTOMOBILE PATROL


1. It diminishes personal contact with the public and sources of information
2. It hampers apprehension and surveillance operations

ONE MAN PATROL CAR


1. Having twice as many police cars on the street doubles the preventive enforcement.
2. When the officer is alone he devotes full attention to his driving and the beat rather than to the conversation with his partner.
3. A one man alone developed self-reliance.
4. Personality clashes are reduced.

TWO MAN PATROL CAR


1. A two-man patrol car provides the officer with a greater safety factor by doubling the firepower and the physical
protection.
2. The mistakes that one-man make may be caught by his partner, and vice versa.
3. One officer does not have to drive a full eight hours, and he is therefore more rested and can do a better job.
4. Two pair of eyes is better than one.
5. One man can operate the radio while the other drives.
6. On the quiet night, the driver can have someone to talk to and help keep him awake.

MOTORCYCLE PATROL
- The two-wheeled motorcycle is quite adaptable to traffic enforcement, parades, escort duty and congested areas because
of its high mobility. Motorcycle Patrol is usually fielded in areas where banks and pawnshops are concentrated.
- It has the disadvantages of being used only in fair weather, of causing a greater number of accidents which are usually
quite serious, and in the long run costing the department almost as much as a patrol vehicle despite the apparent low first
cost.

BICYCLE PATROL
- It is considered as the simple and inexpensive means of silent transportation in patrol operation. Its versatility makes
it indispensable for covering crowded areas unreachable by automobile and motorcycle.

ADVANTAGES OF BICYCLE PATROL


1. It has the combine advantage of mobility and stealth
2. Inexpensive to operate
3. It can cover areas not accessible by motorcycle or patrol cars.
4. Effectively used by plainclothes officers on surveillance.
5. It is quiet in patrolling without alerting the criminal, thus the element of surprise is attained.
6. Found effective in combating theft, burglary, vandalism in residential areas, parks and shopping malls which difficult to be
covered by foot patrol.
7. Expedite the delivery of police assistance in congested areas.
8. Biking is a good form of exercise to maintain fine physique and good health.

DISADVANTAGES OF BICYCLE PATROL


1. Transport of apprehended criminals is difficult.
2. There is limited chances of bringing equipment needed by patrol officers in patrolling.

HORSE PATROL
- Next to walking patrol, the horse patrol is one of the oldest types of patrol. It is useful in areas where in automobile or
motorcycle is suitable for patrolling.
- The following are some of the more common uses of the Horse patrol:
a. Park Patrol
b. Beach Patrol
c. Parade and Crowd Control
- Mounted officers can see three blocks away than on foot patrol

MARINE OR BOAT PATROL


- This is specialized type of patrol which is used in large bodies of water for the purpose of controlling smuggling.
- The recorded history of our earliest civilization indicates the use of tariffs. Where there are tariffs there is smuggling, and
the control of smuggling in any community near water necessitates the use of water patrol.

AIR PATROL
- A type of patrol using Helicopter or Fixed-Wing Aircraft. This is considered as the most economical type of patrol in
terms of human resources.

ADVANTAGES OF FIXED-AIR WING AIRCRAFT PATROL


1. Patrolling of long stretches of highway of inaccessible land.
2. Excellent of traffic control in long stretches of highways, for search and surveillance and other special missions.

DISADVANTAGES OF FIXED-AIR WING AIRCRAFT PATROL


1. It has very little flexibility in congested areas.
2. Needs wide span of flat land for lift and landing.
3. Very expensive to procure and maintain.
ADVANTAGES OF HELICOPTER PATROL
1. Agency calls foe service.
2. Increase apprehension of offenders.
3. Increase prevention of crime.
4. Improved efficiency of regular patrol units through air borne information.
5. Increase ability in conducting roof searches for suspected felons.
6. Easier location of both lost and escaped persons.
7. More efficient rescue operations and emergency ambulance service.
8. A better system of floodlighting areas at night.
9. Information can be broadcast to large areas through airborne loudspeakers.
10. Able to travel at low speed, to hover if necessary, and to land in small patch of flat land.
11. Added security to patrol officers through “backup” offered by aerial patrol.
12. Possible use in fire fighting.

DISADVANTAGES OF HELICOPTER PATROL


1. Bad weather will ground the helicopter.
2. Smog and light or intermittent clouds might affect vision.
3. This type of service requires special skills and training.
4. There is a danger from high wire, trees, and similar object.
5. There can be difficulty of landing in urban areas.
6. Special facilities are required for housing and repairs.
7. Refuelling problems.

PLAIN CLOTHES PATROL


- This is particularly effective for “saturation drive coverage” of high crime areas. This allows police officers to infiltrate
the crime areas without alarming the criminals following the element of surprise.

CANINE (K-9) PATROL OR DOG PATROL


- Dog was first used by Egyptians in patrolling.
- “A single K-9 team can complete building searches seven times faster than four officers working together.”
- “Dog team can find hidden suspects 93 percent of the time, while human officers can only find hidden suspects 53
percent.”
- “Dog is capable of recognizing an odor 10 million times better than a human.”

BREEDS OF DOGS BEST SUITED FOR POLICE WORK


1. German Shepherd – high scoring dog, most frequently used for police work.
2. Black Labrador Retrievers
3. Giant Schnauzers
4. Rootweilers
5. Doberman Pinschers
6. Bouvers
7. Newfoundlands
8. Airedale Terriers
9. Alaskan Malamutes

BLOODHOUNDS
- Is a large dog formerly used for tracking. It has sagging jaw, dropping ears and keen sense of smell.

WIRELESS OPERATIONAL LINK AND VIDEO EXPLORATION SYSTEM (WOLVES)


- It is the system of attaching miniature camera and transmitter to a search dog which makes the dog the eyes and ears of his
handler.

TELEVISION PATROL
- It is basically used for traffic control which originates in West Germany.
- Television cameras are mounted in a weatherproof housing. They were equipped with Zoom lenses and were remotely
controlled by the operator at the control board who can adjust each camera to a panoramic view of 270 degrees. It makes
possible to pick up the license of fleeing automobiles.

THE TRADITIONAL FOOT PATROL PATTERN


1. Clockwise Patrol Pattern
2. Counter-clockwise Patrol Pattern
3. Zigzag or Free Wheeling Pattern
4. Straightway and Criss-cross Patrol Pattern
5. Cloverleaf (Cloverleaf Pattern)
CLOCKWISE PATROL PATTERN
- The officer walk from one beat to another making sure that he stays on the left side and at the center or middle portion of
any street between adjoining beats. For every beat, the officer calls the station until the clockwise patter is completed.
Ideal for rectangular of square beat.
- Usually conducted during the first hour of duty.

COUNTER-CLOCKWISE PATROL PATTERN


- The reverse of clockwise pattern with the same characteristic of an area to be patrolled. Usually done during the last hour
of the tour of duty to ensure that nothing unusual happened in the AOR.

ZIGZAG OR FREE WHEELING PATTERN


- Done by patrolling the streets within the perimeter of the beat not at random but with definite target location where he
knows his presence is necessary.
- It starts at one corner of the patrol area and work your way diagonally across it to the opposite corner

STRAIGHTWAY AND CRISS-CROSS PATROL PATTERN


- It is considered as Hazard Oriented Patrol.
- In straightway pattern, it involves patrolling the length of the street, therefore, movement of officer is easy to observe. On
the other hand, criss-cross is almost similar with zigzag.
o “In any patrol pattern, the relieving patrol officer shall make his first hourly call before starting his patrol duty.”

CLOVERLEAF (CLOVERLEAF PATTERN)


- a highway intersection designed to route traffic without interference, by means of a system of curving ramps from one level
to another, in the form of a 4-leaf clover

PATROL TACTICS AND STRATEGIES


1. The Psychology Of Omnipresence
2. Proactive and Reactive Patrol
3. Crime Prevention and Crime Suppression
4. High and Low Visibility
5. Directed, Interactive and Aggressive Patrol
6. Stop and Frisk
7. Street Interview/Interrogation
8. Decoy

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF OMNIPRESENCE


- Psychology of omnipresence as an initial police strategy is to establish the aura of police presence in the community
through uniformed foot patrol and mobile (marked and equipped) patrol cars.
- Patrol officer cannot detect the thinking or desire of the criminal, yet he can destroy the opportunity to commit a crime by
his presence, thus, it best for crime prevention.

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES OF POLICE OMNIPRESENCE


- High visibility police presence
- Feeling of security for law abiding
- Feeling of fear for would be criminal
- Feeling of confidence for the public that police are constantly available

PROACTIVE PATROL
- it is the deployment of patrol officers in their area with prescribe objectives and verifiable task for the day.
- More economical alternative patrol system, it addresses crime at its very root before it can be developed into felonious act.

REACTIVE PATROL
- It involves going around the area of responsibility waiting for something to happen and to react accordingly if something
does happen

CRIME PREVENTION
- It involves recognition of crime risk and initiation of positive action to remove or reduce risk
- its objective is to eliminate or reduce the desire to commit crime

CRIME SUPPRESSION
- Is the actual prevention of the commission of crime

POLICE VISIBILITY
- Not just presence of patrol officer but actual presence which involves: 1) Physical Presence 2) Patrolling Scheme 3)
Response Time.

RESPONSE TIME
- is the running time of the dispatched patrol car from his position where the assignment was received and the arrival at the
scene (the ideal time is 5minutes)

CRITICAL TIME
- it is the time between the call of concerned individual to the police regarding crime incident and the arrival at the scene of
patrol officer.

HIGH VISIBILITY
- it is accomplished by deploying uniformed patrol officers and marked patrol cars in the AOR with the objective of
increasing the “aura of police omnipresence”.

LOW VISIBILITY
- a strategy wherein patrol officers are in civilian clothes or in unmarked patrol cars with the primary purpose of increasing
the apprehension of criminal engage in street crimes and deterrence of criminal activity as a result of greater probability
of apprehension.

DIRECTED PATROL STRATEGY


- patrol activities designed by patrol officers are based on analysis of specific community problems. The emphasis is on
participative decision making and sophisticated methods of crime analysis.

INTERACTIVE PATROL STRATEGY


- the emphasis in on police-citizen interaction wherein the community input is sought in resolving patrol problems

AGGRESSIVE PATROL STRATEGY


- the emphasis is on positive, target oriented activities which includes physical security inspection. This is effective if the
information regarding identifiable crime trends is based on crime analysis.

STOP AND FRISK


- It involves stopping of person on the street whose behavior is suspicious, questioning them and frisking them for concealed
weapons. This heightens the effect of high visibility.

STREET INTERVIEW/INTERROGATION
- It is an aspect of stop and frisk strategy where individuals of doubtful character are being questioned.

DECOY
- Decoy means trap, bait or induce. This strategy involves disguise or deception which is specifically used in high crimes
areas by highly trained specialist rather that regular patrol officer.

BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF POLICE INTERVENTION OPERATIONS


- All police intervention operations (arrest, raid, search and seizure, checkpoint, demolition, civil disturbance management)
shall be conducted:
a. with a marked police vehicle;
b. preferably led by a Police Commissioned
c. Officer (PCO); and
d. with personnel in prescribed police uniform.

WARNING BY USE OF MEGAPHONES


- During actual police intervention operations, the TL shall use peaceful means including the use of megaphones or any other
similar instruments to influence/warn the offenders/suspects to stop and/or peacefully give up.

WARNING SHOTS
- The police shall not use warning shots during police interventions.

ISSUANCE OF WARNING
- The police officer must first issue a warning before he could use force against an offender. The warning is issued for the
police officer to identify himself and to give opportunity to the offender to surrender.
- The duty to issue a warning is however not absolute. The directive to issue a warning is necessary only in situations where
several options are still available to the police officer but in cases where the threat to the life of a police officer is already
imminent, and there is no other option but to use force to subdue the offender, the law enforcer’s failure to issue a warning
is excusable.
REASONABLE FORCE
- During an armed confrontation, only such necessary and reasonable force should be applied as would be sufficient to
overcome resistance put up by the offender; subdue the clear and imminent danger posed by him; or to justify the force/act
under the principles of self defense, defense of relative, or defense of stranger. The Officer-in-Charge of the operation
shall, at all times, exercise control over his men in the area, and shall exhaust all possible means so that no innocent civilian
is caught in the crossfire.
- The reasonableness of the force employed will depend upon the number of aggressor, nature and characteristic of the
weapon used, physical condition, size and other circumstances to include the place and occasion of the assault. A police
officer, however, is not required to afford a person attacking him the opportunity for a fair or equal struggle. His duty
requires him to overcome his opponent. In the lawful performance of his duty, the police officer must stand his ground to
accomplish his mandated task of enforcing the law and maintenance of peace and order.

USE OF WEAPON

- The excessive use of force is prohibited. The use of weapon is justified if the suspect poses imminent danger of causing
death or injury to the police officer or other persons.
- The use of weapon is also justified under the Doctrines of Self-Defense, Defense of Relative, and Defense of Stranger.
However, one who resorts to self-defense must face a real threat on his life, and the peril sought to be avoided must be
actual, imminent and real.
- Moreover, unlawful aggression should be present for self-defense to be considered as justifying circumstance.

UNLAWFUL AGGRESSION
- refers to an attack amounting to actual or eminent threat to the life, limb, or right of the person claiming self-defense.

NECESSARY AND LEGAL MEANS


- as used in the definition shall include, but not limited to, the employment of appropriate number of troops, armor assets
and tactical or special units to effectively and permanently quell the threat or present danger, or to swiftly restrain or arrest
the suspect or suspects.

IMMINENT DANGER
- the danger is “imminent” if it is on the point of happening. It is not required that the attack already begins, for it may be
too late. (The Revised Penal Code, Book I, JBL Reyes). The elements of imminent danger are the following:
1. Intent of the suspect to harm the policeman;
2. The capability of the suspect to harm the policeman or other persons; and,
2. Accessibility or the proximity of the suspect in harming the policeman and other persons.

REPORTORIAL REQUIREMENTS
- Any police officer who used his firearm against a suspect must submit an after-encounter report outlining the circumstances
necessitating the use of weapon against the suspect.

MOVING VEHICLES
- A moving vehicle shall not be fired upon except when its occupants pose imminent danger of causing death or injury to the
police officer or any other person, and that the use of firearm does not create a danger to the public and outweighs the likely
benefits of its non-use.
- In firing upon a moving vehicle, the following parameters should be considered:
a. the intent of the fleeing suspect/s to harm the police officer or other persons;
b. the capability of the fleeing suspect/s to harm in certainty the police officer or other persons; and
c. accessibility or the proximity of the fleeing suspect/s with the police officer and other persons.

THINGS TO BE DONE AFTER AN ARMED CONFRONTATION


- Immediately after an armed confrontation, the Officer-in-Charge shall:
a. Secure the site of confrontation;
b. Take photographs;
c. Check whether the situation still poses imminent danger;
d. Evacuate the wounded to the nearest hospital;
e. Ensure that all persons who died on the spot are not moved from their original position. Arrested suspects, on the other
hand, should be kept in isolation;
f. Conduct debriefing on all involved PNP operatives; and
g. Submit After-Operations Report.

SPOT CHECK/ACCOSTING
- It is the brief stopping of an individual, whether on foot or in a vehicle, based on reasonable suspicion/probable cause, for
the purpose of determining the individual’s identity and resolving the officer’s suspicion concerning criminal activity.

REASONABLE SUSPICION
- Acts that, within totality of the circumstances, lead an officer to reasonably suspect, or to have probable cause to believe,
that criminal activity has been, is being, or is about to be committed.

GROUNDS FOR SPOT CHECK


1. The appearance or demeanor of the individual suggests that he is part of a criminal enterprise or is engaged in a
criminal act;
2. The actions of the individual suggest that he is engaged in a criminal activity;
3. Questionable presence of the individual in the area;
4. The subject is carrying a suspicious object;
5. The suspect’s clothing bulges in a manner that suggests he is carrying a weapon;
6. The suspect has been found in the time and place proximate to an alleged crime;
7. The police officer has knowledge of the suspect’s prior criminal record or involvement in criminal activity; and
8. The individual flees at the sight of a police officer.

PROCEDURES FOR SPOT CHECK / ACCOSTING


1. When approaching the individual, the police officer shall clearly identify himself as a police officer. If not in uniform,
by announcing his identity and displaying official identification card and/or badge.
2. Police officers shall be courteous at all times but maintain caution and vigilance for suspicious movements like tending
to retrieve weapon, conceal or discard contraband, or other similar actions.
3. Before approaching more than one individual, police officers should determine whether the circumstances warrant a
request for back-up and whether the spot check/ accosting can and should be delayed until such back-up arrives.
4. Police officers shall confine their questions as to suspect’s identity, place of residence, and other inquiries necessary
to resolve the police officer’s suspicion. However, in no instance shall a police officer hold a suspect longer than the
period reasonably necessary to be able to make these limited inquiries and to resolve suspicions.
5. Police officers are not required to give the suspect Miranda Warning unless the person is placed under arrest.

PAT-DOWN SEARCH
- It is a “frisk” or external feeling of the outer garments of an individual for weapons only.

GROUNDS FOR BODY FRISK/PAT DOWN


1. The type of crime believed to be committed by the subject – particularly crimes of violence where the threat of use or
use of deadly weapon is involved;
2. Where the police officer handles several suspects;
3. The time of the day and the location where the pat-down search took place;
4. Prior knowledge by the police officer of the suspect’s use of force and/or propensity to carry deadly weapons;
5. The appearance and demeanor of the suspect;
6. Visual indications suggesting that the suspect is carrying a firearm or other deadly weapon; and
7. Whenever possible, pat-down searches should be performed by police officers of the same gender.

PROCEDURES OF PAT DOWN SEARCH


1. Whenever possible, pat-down searches should be conducted by at least two (2) police officers, one to perform the
search while the other provides protective cover.
2. Because pat-down searches are cursory in nature, they should be performed with the suspect in a standing position, or
with hands placed against a stationary object, and feet spread apart. However, should an officer visually observe a
weapon, a more secure search position may be used like the prone (lying face down) position.
3. In a pat-down search, officers are permitted only to feel the outer clothing of the suspect. Police officers may not
place their hands inside the pockets of the subject’s clothing unless they feel an object that could probably be a
weapon, such as a gun, knife, club, or the likes.
4. If the suspect is carrying an object such as handbag, suitcase, briefcase, sack, or other similar items that may conceal
a weapon, the police officer should not open the item but instead put it in a place out of the suspect’s reach.
5. If the external patting of the suspect’s clothing fails to disclose evidence of a weapon, no further search may be made.
If a weapon is found and the possession of which amounts to a violation of the law, the police officer shall arrest
the suspect and conduct a complete search.

REPORTING AFTER THE SPOT CHECK/ACCOSTING OR PAT-DOWN SEARCH


1. If after conducting a spot check/accosting or pat-down search, the police officer has no basis for making an arrest, he
should record the facts of such spot check/accosting or pat-down search and forward a report to the appropriate
authority.
2. If the spot check/accosting or pat-down search gives a justification for a valid warrantless arrest, then an arrest shall
be made.

POLICE CHECKPOINt
- It is a location where the search, which is duly authorized by the PNP, is conducted to deter/prevent the commission of
crimes, enforce the law, and for other legitimate purposes.

COMPOSITION OF CHECKPOINT OFFICERS


1. Team Leader (TL)
2. Spotter
3. Spokesperson
4. Investigation Sub-team
5. Search/Arresting Sub-Team
6. Security Sub-
7. Team
8. Blocking/Pursuing Sub-Team

TEAM LEADER (TL)


- shall lead and take responsibility in the conduct of checkpoint preferably an officer with the rank of at least Police Inspector;

SPOTTER
- PNP personnel who will point/profile suspected vehicle subject for checkpoint;

SPOKESPERSON
- TL or member who is solely in charge of communicating with the motorists subject for checkpoint;

INVESTIGATION SUB-TEAM
- in charge of investigation and documentation of possible incidents in the checkpoint to include issuance of Traffic Citation
Ticket (TCT) or Traffic Violation Report (TVR);

SEARCH/ARRESTING SUB-TEAM
- designated to conduct search, seizure and arrest, if necessary;

SECURITY SUB-TEAM
- tasked to provide security in the checkpoint area; and

BLOCKING/PURSUING SUB-TEAM
- team tasked to block/pursue fleeing suspects/vehicle.

GUIDELINES OF CHECKPOINT
1. Mobile checkpoints are authorized only when established in conjunction with ongoing police operations. Only officially
marked vehicles shall be used in establishing mobile checkpoints.
2. Checkpoints may be established when there is a need to arrest a criminal or fugitive from justice.
3. The composition of the personnel manning the checkpoint shall be left to the sound discretion of the PNP unit commander.
4. Encourage the participation of, but not limited to, the Local Government Units (LGUs), Civil Society Groups, Non-
Governmental Organizations (NGOs), business organizations, other civic groups, media and other stakeholders during the
conduct of Police Checkpoint.
5. The participation of the civilians and the presence of the media in the conduct of checkpoint must be confined only as
observers to give police additional eyes and promote transparency of activities in the area.
6. All civic groups or organizations to include the media, who are inclined to participate in police checkpoints, must be duly
registered and accredited by the PNP for such purpose. The accreditation of the civilian groups to join in the conduct of
checkpoint shall be administered by the Police Regional and Provincial Offices.
7. PNP personnel manning the checkpoint must have a presentable appearance, wearing the prescribed PNP uniform.
Likewise, the civilian members must also be in their organization’s uniform with their names conspicuously displayed for
identification. In no case shall the civilian components be allowed to bear firearms during the checkpoint.
8. In Metro Manila and other major cities, police officers manning the checkpoints should not wear Field Service Uniforms
(FSU) or black fatigues in lieu of the PNP General Office Attire unless the conduct of checkpoint is a result of a Hot
Pursuit Operation or a High Risk Checkpoint. The use of mixed uniforms (GOA, FSU, black fatigue) in the conduct of
checkpoint is strictly prohibited.
9. As much as possible, the area where the checkpoints shall be established must be properly lighted, with a noticeable signage
bearing the name of the PNP unit and the participating organization/s visibly displayed in the checkpoint site, to prevent
any apprehension from the public of the existence of the same.
10. Due courtesy must be accorded to the motorists, traders and the commuters during the conduct of checkpoint.
11. The spokesperson must greet the people subject for inspection, ask apology for the inconvenience, appeal for understanding
and state the reasons of the operation. Thank the person/s searched.
12. Except in the actual commission of crime during checkpoints or in a hot pursuit operation, the conduct of inspection of
vehicle during a routine checkpoint is limited to a visual search and therefore must be done with due respect to innocent
passersby, commuters, or bystanders and be conducted in a manner that is least inconvenient to the public. Searches,
seizures, and arrest made during checkpoints shall be within the ambit of the law.
13. Violations/Infractions of the law discovered during the checkpoint operation shall be expeditiously disposed of following
legal procedures. Arrested persons must be apprised of their rights in reference to the Miranda Doctrine.
14. The security of the PNP personnel, and most especially that of the civilians participating in the checkpoint operation, must
be given due consideration in the planning stage of the operation.
15. Only the security sub-team and blocking/pursuing sub-team members are allowed to display high-powered firearms and
are positioned where they can best provide security to the Checkpoint team including themselves.
16. Checkpoint personnel must not limit their task in law enforcement and crime deterrence. They should also be ready to
provide police assistance in the vicinity e.g., giving directions to inquiring motorists or passersby.
17. The PNP operating units must provide their own logistical and financial requirements to avoid soliciting support from the
civilians for their personal or operational needs.
18. Police personnel assigned in the checkpoint shall not mulct, extort, or harass drivers, passengers, and traders. Designated
TL assigned at the checkpoint shall be responsible for the actuations and behavior of his personnel and shall be accountable
under the doctrine of Command Responsibility.
19. Voluntary offers of cash or in kind from the traders/motorists passing the checkpoint should be absolutely refused because
the offer might be misconstrued as a bribe.
20. The police and the civilian component must separately submit their After Checkpoint Operation Report to their respective
units or organization for proper evaluation of the efficacy of the operation.

PROCEDURE IN THE CONDUCT OF REGULAR POLICE CHECKPOINT


a. Unit Commanders should inform Higher Headquarters (HHQs) Tactical Operations Center (TOC) and coordinate with
adjacent units, such as Public Safety Management Forces and other friendly forces, personally or through an official
representative, before commencing with the checkpoint to avoid misencounter and any untoward incident;
b. The TL shall brief the PNP personnel, as well as the civilian components present, including the media regarding the
proper conduct of the checkpoint and their assigned tasks prior to their deployment;
c. The TL shall initially account for the PNP personnel and check if they are in the prescribed uniform. PNP personnel
conducting the checkpoint shall display their nameplates at all times. If wearing a jacket, the flap of the jacket bearing
their names should also be displayed. Likewise, the equipment will include, but not limited to, the following:
1. Marked Patrol vehicles;
2. Firearms with basic load of ammunition;
3. Handheld and vehicle base radios;
4. Flashlights;
5. Megaphone; and
6. Signage
d. The Spotter of the team will be pre-positioned in a place where he can best point/profile suspected vehicles prior to
their approach to the checkpoint;
e. Search/Arresting Sub-Team shall flag down suspected vehicles and conduct search, seizure and arrest if necessary;
f. Arrested persons and seized items shall be turned-over to the investigation sub-team for documentation and proper
disposition;
g. In the event that the checkpoint is ignored, and the occupants of the vehicle open fire on the personnel manning the
checkpoint, reasonable force to overcome the suspects’ aggression may be employed;
h. Inform Higher Headquarters before terminating the conduct of Checkpoint;
i. The TL shall conduct debriefing of personnel after termination of the Checkpoint; and
j. Unit Commander shall submit After Activity Report to Higher Headquarters.

HASTY CHECKPOINT
- It is an immediate response to block the escape of lawless elements from a crime scene, and is also established when nearby
checkpoints are ignored or during hot pursuit operations. It is set up by police personnel conducting mobile patrol on board
a marked police vehicle, or those conducting ISO and foot patrol operations within the vicinity/periphery of the national or
provincial highways.

HOT PURSUIT (CROSS JURISDICTIONAL PURSUIT)


- (also termed in the US as fresh pursuit) shall mean an immediate, recent chase or follow-up without material interval for the
purpose of taking into custody any person wanted by virtue of a warrant, or one suspected to have committed a recent offense
while fleeing from one police jurisdictional boundary to another that will normally require prior official inter-unit coordination
but which the pursuing unit cannot, at that moment, comply due to the urgency of the situation.

PROCEDURES IN THE CONDUCT OF HASTY CHECKPOINTS


a. PNP personnel conducting mobile patrols on board patrol vehicles will initially man the checkpoint, to be complemented
by additional personnel upon arrival of reinforcement. A collapsible signage with markings: “Stop, Police Checkpoint”,
indicating also the name of the concerned police office/unit conducting the operations, will be used for the purpose;
b. In the case of PNP personnel conducting Internal Security Operation (ISO) or foot patrol, where a vehicle and collapsible
signage is not readily available, the checkpoint shall be manned initially by said personnel;
c. The team shall immediately inform Higher Headquarters of the exact location of the Hasty Checkpoint to include personnel
involved and available equipment;
d. In a hasty checkpoint, where there is a possibility of high risk stop and high risk arrest, and that there is an urgency for
troop deployment and that public safety might be at risk, the participation of the civilian component and the presence of
the media in the checkpoint operation shall not be allowed;
e. The Unit Commander of the personnel manning the hasty checkpoint shall immediately send additional personnel,
equipment and signage to the area in order to convert the Hasty Checkpoint into a Regular Checkpoint; and
1. f. As soon as the Hasty Checkpoint is converted into a Regular Checkpoint, TL shall follow the procedures in the Conduct
of Regular Police Checkpoint paragraph c.

PROCEDURES TO BE FOLLOWED WHEN CHECKPOINTS ARE IGNORED


a. In the event that checkpoints/roadblocks are ignored and the motorists/suspects bumped the roadblock in an attempt to
elude arrest or avoid inspection, the TL shall immediately contact adjacent units to inform them of the situation so that
these units can conduct dragnet operation, while the members of the blocking/pursuing team shall block or pursue the
errant fleeing motorist;
b. Warning shots shall not be allowed due to the confusion it may create to the driver and passengers of the vehicle.
Megaphones or police sirens shall be used instead during the pursuit. The plate number of the vehicle shall be noted and
given to other units in adjacent areas to prevent the possibility that the vehicle may elude the pursuit operation; and
c. In the event that the occupants of the vehicle open fire on the personnel manning the checkpoint, reasonable force to
overcome the suspects’ aggression may be employed.

PROCEDURES IN FLAGGING DOWN OR ACCOSTING VEHICLES WHILE IN MOBILE CAR


a. Call Headquarters to inform of the make or type and plate number of the motor vehicle to be accosted including the number
and, if possible, identity of occupants;
b. State the reason(s) for the planned intervention of the suspected motor vehicle;
c. Give mobile car’s location and its direction before making actual intervention;
d. Try to get alongside the suspects’ vehicle and check the occupants without alarming them of your purpose. You can even
overtake the vehicle and wait for it at an advantageous location before stopping the suspects’ vehicle;
e. Determine whether the suspects are hostile or not;
f. Make known to the suspect that you are after them through the use of a siren or megaphone;
g. Instruct the driver to pull over or stop on the side of the road;
h. Park behind the suspect’s vehicle at an appropriate distance and cautiously approach the vehicle on the driver’s side;
i. If the vehicle’s windows are heavily tinted and the occupants cannot be seen, instruct the driver to open all windows to
have a clear view of the interior of the vehicle;
j. Instruct the driver to turn off the ignition, if this was not done when the vehicle stopped;
k. The other members of the team must be on guard for any eventuality while the vehicle is being approached;
l. Talk to the driver in a most courteous manner and inform him of the nature of his violation. Demand to see the driver’s
license, photocopies of the certificate of registration and the official receipt. Examine these documents and counter-check
the driver on the information reflected therein;
m. If it concerns traffic violations, immediately issue a Traffic Citation Ticket (TCT) or Traffic Violation Report (TVR). Never
indulge in prolonged, unnecessary conversation or argument with the driver or any of the vehicle’s occupants;
n. In cases of other violations that require the impounding of the vehicle, inform the driver regarding this situation and instruct
him to follow you, after issuing the TCT/TVR; and,
o. Before moving out, inform Headquarters regarding the situation/ status and disposition of the person and motor vehicle
accosted.

PROCEDURES TO BE FOLLOWED IN DEALING WITH HOSTILE DRIVERS, STOPPING VEHICLES


1) Follow the Procedure in Flagging Down or Accosting Vehicles While in Mobile Car stated in paragraphs a to c;
2) Immediately request for back-up;
3) Follow the suspect and always keep him within visual range;
4) Expect that the suspect will notice your action at any time. Be prepared for a car chase or actual hostile confrontation;
5) If the back-up is already in the vicinity, inform Headquarters that you are proceeding to accost the suspect;
6) Inform the suspects that you are after them through the use of siren or megaphone and instruct the driver to pull over
or stop on the side of the street;
7) Park at an appropriate distance behind the suspect’s vehicle;
8) While the vehicle is being approached, the other members of the crew and back-up must be on guard for any
eventuality. Overreactions should be avoided;
9) If the vehicle’s windows are heavily tinted and the occupants cannot be seen, instruct the driver to open all windows
for a clear view of the vehicle’s interior;
10) Direct the driver and other occupants of the vehicle not to make unnecessary movements and to show their hands
outside the car;
11) Instruct the driver to turn off the ignition and toss the key to the ground. Demand to see the Driver’s License and
photocopies of the vehicle’s certificate of registration and the official receipt. Examine the documents and counter-
check the driver on the information reflected therein; and,
12) If there are other suspects aside from the driver, separate them from one another.

PROCEDURES TO BE FOLLOWED IN DEALING WITH HOSTILE DRIVERS, FLEEING VEHICLES


1) In the event that the motor vehicle did not stop despite the warning given, inform Headquarters or adjacent units so
that roadblocks or hasty checkpoints can be set-up;
2) Call Headquarters to inform of the make or type, plate number and color of the motor vehicle to be accosted including
the number of occupants and, if possible, their identity;
3) State the reason(s) for flagging down the suspected motor vehicle;
4) Give mobile car’s location and its direction before making actual intervention;
5) When the vehicle of the suspect is cornered or stopped, instruct the driver and other occupants in a clear and
commanding voice to follow specifically what you will require of them. Failure on their part to follow will be
construed as a hostile act on their part. Execute instructions on the use of reasonable force;
6) Instruct the driver to turn off the ignition and toss the key to the ground, open the door and step out of the vehicle,
followed by his hands to be placed on top of the vehicle, or to move towards you with his hands up;
7) Instruct other occupants of the vehicle, if any, to come out one by one, and follow what the driver has been instructed
to do earlier;
8) Arrest, handcuff and search the suspects and bring them to Headquarters for proper disposition; and
9) Before moving out, inform Headquarters about the situation, status and disposition of the suspects and motor vehicle
accosted.

HIGH RISK STOP


- is the actual stopping or accosting of armed and dangerous person or persons, aboard a vehicle or on foot, including the power
to use all necessary and legal means to accomplish such end.

HIGH RISK ARREST


- is the actual restraint of armed persons following a high-risk stop.

PRE-DETERMINED AREA
- is the specific or projected spot where the armed and dangerous person or persons would pass or likely to pass and so tactically
located as to gain calculated advantage against said person or persons.

STOPPING ZONE
- is the strategic predetermined area strongly sealed off, barricaded and occupied by tactical forces in a lawful display of
authority to maintain law and order or in defensive response to an event of criminal nature or of such gravity that occurred or
likely to occur calling for a high risk stop or arrest.

DRAGNET OPERATION
- is a police operation purposely to seal-off the probable exit points of fleeing suspects from the crime scene to prevent their
escape.

HIGH RISK STOP AND HIGH RISK ARREST


1. Initial Stage
2. Effecting a High Risk Stop
3. During Violent Stage

INITIAL STAGE
- Upon receipt of information involving movement of armed person or persons, either singly or in group, including unauthorized
movement of government troops, or in immediate response to a reported commission of crime perpetrated by armed persons,
the PNP shall immediately:
1) Organize appropriate tactical security forces utilizing maximum firepower and armor assets;
2) Deploy the security forces to stopping zones in defensive position; and
3) Seal off the area and establish strong roadblocks/ barricades.

EFFECTING A HIGH RISK STOP


- When effecting high-risk stop, the police officer shall:
1) Exert utmost effort to persuade the suspects to halt or stop their movement.
2) Start with the procedural conduct of regular warrantless arrest where arrest is inevitable.
3) Ensure proper documentation of the process.
4) Respect the rights of all the persons involved.

DURING VIOLENT STAGE


- The PNP shall strictly adhere to the PNP Operational Procedures (POP) particularly on the use of reasonable force.

PUBLIC ASSEMBLY
- It means any rally, demonstration, march, parade, procession or any other form of mass or concerted action held in a public
place for the purpose of presenting a lawful cause; or expressing an opinion to the general public on any particular issue; or
protesting or influencing any state of affairs whether political, economic or social; or petitioning the government for redress of
grievances.

PUBLIC PLACE
- shall include any highway, boulevard, avenue, road, street, bridge or other thoroughfare, park, plaza, square, and/or any open
space of public ownership where the people are allowed access.

FREEDOM PARK
- shall mean the venue or place established or designated by local government units within their respective jurisdictions where
a public assembly could be held without securing any permit for such purpose from the local government unit concerned.

MAXIMUM TOLERANCE
- means the highest degree of restraint that the police, military and other peace keeping authorities shall observe during a public
assembly or in the dispersal of the same.

LIMITATIONS ON THE ROLE OF THE PNP ON PUBLIC ASSEMBLY


- The PNP shall not interfere with the holding of a public assembly. However, to ensure public safety and to maintain peace and
order during the assembly, the police contingent under the command of a PCO preferably with the rank of Police Senior
Inspector may be detailed and stationed in a place at least one hundred (100) meters away from the area of activity.

GUIDELINES FOR CIVIL DISTURBANCE MANAGEMENT (CDM) CONTINGENT DURING RALLIES /


DEMONSTRATIONS
a. CDM contingent shall be in prescribed uniform and without firearm.
b. Tear gas, smoke grenades, water cannons, or any similar anti- riot device shall be used only when the public assembly is
attended by actual violence or serious threats of violence, or deliberate destruction of property.

DISPERSAL OF PUBLIC ASSEMBLY WITH PERMIT


- All public assembly with a permit shall not be dispersed. However, when an assembly becomes violent, the police may disperse
such public assembly in the following manner:
a. At the first sign of impending violence, the Ground Commander of the PNP contingent shall call the attention of the leaders
of the public assembly and ask the latter to prevent any possible disturbance;
b. If actual violence reaches a point where rocks or other harmful objects from the participants are thrown at the police
officers or at the non-participants, or at any property causing damage to it, the Ground Commander of the PNP contingent
shall audibly warn the participants that if the disturbance persists, the public assembly will be dispersed;
c. If the violence or disturbance does not stop, the Ground Commander of the PNP contingent shall audibly issue a warning
to the participants of the public assembly, and after allowing a reasonable period of time to lapse, he shall immediately
order it to disperse; and
d. No arrest of any leader, organizer or participant shall be made unless he violates during the assembly a law, statute, or
ordinance.

DISPERSAL OF PUBLIC ASSEMBLY WITHOUT PERMIT


- When the public assembly is held without a permit where a permit is required, the said public assembly may be peacefully
dispersed. However, when the leaders or organizers of public assembly can show an application for permit duly filed at the
Office of the Mayor which has jurisdiction over the place where the rally will be held, at least five (5) days prior to the intended
activity and the Mayor did not act on the same, the grant of the permit being then presumed under the law, and it will be the
burden of the authorities to show that there has been a denial of the application, in which case, the rally may be peacefully
dispersed following the procedure of maximum tolerance prescribed by law.

POLICE RESPONSES DURING PUBLIC ASSEMBLY


1. During Planning Stage
2. During Initial and Peaceful Stage
3. During Breach of Peace/Confrontational Stage (With or without permit)
4. During Violent Stage
5. Post-Operation Stage

DURING PLANNING STAGE


1. Initiate dialogue with the leaders/organizers to ensure the peaceful holding of a public assembly, including among others,
the detail of police escorts.
2. Prepare appropriate security and CDM contingency plans.

DURING INITIAL AND PEACEFUL STAGE


1) With Permit or Held in Freedom Parks/ Private Properties
1.1 The PNP shall not interfere with the holding of a public assembly. However, to adequately ensure public safety,
a CDM contingent, under the control and supervision of a PCO shall be stationed at least one hundred (100) meters
away from the area where the public assembly is being held.
1.2 Monitor the activities at the public assembly area and respond to any request for police assistance.
2) Without Permit or Permit has been Revoked
2.1 As soon as it becomes apparent that an assembly is being held in a public place, the Ground Commander shall
immediately conduct an inquiry whether the assembly is covered with a permit or not.
1.1 If a permit could not be shown, verification should immediately be done with the Office of the Mayor having
jurisdiction over the place where the public assembly is being held. Should the Office of the Mayor confirm that a
permit has not been issued, the leaders/organizers shall be informed of the fact that they are violating the law and
will be asked to disperse peacefully.
2.2 The PNP shall exhaust all peaceful remedies to persuade the demonstrators to disperse. This may include the
involvement of Local Chief Executives / community leaders when available to intervene in the situation so that
dispersal operations could be avoided.
1.3. Should negotiation fail and the demonstrators refuse to disperse voluntarily and peacefully, thereby causing public
inconvenience, CDM contingents may commence dispersal operations.

DURING BREACH OF PEACE/CONFRONTATIONAL STAGE (WITH OR WITHOUT PERMIT)


- No public assembly with a permit shall be dispersed. However, when a public assembly becomes violent, the CDM contingents
may disperse such public assembly in the following manner:
1) At the first sign of impending violence, the Ground Commander shall call the attention of the leaders/organizers of
the public assembly and ask the latter to prevent any possible disturbance. CDM contingents shall hold the line to
prevent demonstrators from proceeding to other areas where the holding of a public assembly is prohibited.
2) If actual violence reaches a point where rocks or other harmful objects from the participants are thrown at the CDM
contingents or the non-participants, or at any property causing damage to it, the Ground Commander shall audibly
warn the participants that if the disturbance persists, the public assembly will be dispersed;
3) If the violence or disturbance does not stop, the Ground Commander shall audibly issue a warning to the participants
of the public assembly, and after allowing a reasonable period of time to lapse, shall immediately order it to disperse.
With the use of CDM formations, the rank of demonstrators shall be disbanded, contained, and isolated from each
other, and should be prevented from regrouping.
4) Water cannons and riot sticks maybe used to repel aggression and to disperse demonstrators and reserve CDM
contingents may be employed when situation requires.
5) No arrest of any leader, organizer or participant shall be made unless he violates during the assembly a law, statute,
or ordinance.

DURING VIOLENT STAGE


1) Non-lethal weapons and equipment may be used to suppress violence, to protect lives and prevent further damage to
properties.
2) The PNP security elements shall be tactically deployed to provide immediate assistance to the CDM contingents.

POST-OPERATION STAGE
1) CDM contingents shall be withdrawn after the area has been cleared of possible danger to public safety.
2) Sufficient police force shall be maintained to ensure peace and order in the area.

Guidelines in the Use of Non-Lethal Weapons, Shield and Truncheon


1. During the confrontational stage, truncheon may be utilized only to push back demonstrators and not as an instrument to
strike individuals. However, when demonstrators become aggressive, truncheon shall be the principal non-lethal weapon
for dispersal. In such situation, CDM contingents shall nonetheless, use the same with caution and due diligence to avoid
unnecessary injury.
2. Water Cannons
3. Water cannons may be utilized when demonstrators become unruly and aggressive forcing troops to fall back to their
secondary positions.
4. Tear Gas
5. Tear gas may be utilized to break up formations or groupings of demonstrations who continue to be aggressive and refused
to disperse despite earlier efforts.

INTEGRATED PATROL SYSTEM (IPS)


- PNP’s answer to the requirement of police visibility.
- PATROL means – Policemen Assigned To Reinforce Order in the Locality
- best way of immersing policemen in various activities
- provides a symbiotic relationship between the police and the community which would eventually draw active support and
cooperation of the populace.

THREE COMPONENTS OF IPS


1. Fixed Components
2. Patrol Components
3. Auxiliary Components

FIXED COMPONENTS
- these are different stations, precincts, police visibility points, traffic posts and headquarters

STATION DESK
- serves as the 3 C’s of police force: Communication; Coordinating; Center/Command Post

SITUATION/LOCATOR MAP
- capable of providing visual IPS situation which shows the AOR, Real Time Current Situation and Real Time Status of the IPS
PCP
- headed by PCO with a rank of Chief Inspector or Superintendent with a minimum of 30 personnel including the Commander
divided in 3 shifts of 8-hours duty.

PATROL COMPONENTS
- include line beat, mobile patrol, motorcycle, bicycle, air patrol and detective repressive patrol

POLICE BEATS
- consist of identifiable boundaries within the AOR where an officer can conduct patrol. Police Beats identification:

PBS FOR NCR


1) Identifiable by a 5 digit number. 1st digit refers to the numerical assigned to the district
2) 2nd refers to the number assigned to each of the city/municipality within the district
3) 3rd digit refers to the number assigned to particular PCP
4) 4th and 5th digits refer to the numbers assigned to particular beat

PBS FOR REGIONAL OFFICERS


1) Identifiable by a 7 digit number
2) First 2 digits refer to the number of the region
3) 3rd digit refer to the number assigned to a particular province within the region
4) 4th digit refers to the PCPs
5) 5th and 6th refer to the beat

MOBILE PATROL
- similar with mobile patrol discussed

DETECTIVE BEAT SYSTEM


- contiguous area where a team of police investigators is assigned with a specific task of conducting follow-up investigation to
all complaints, reports, referrals and other requests with the end in view of full compliance and/or filing of case

DETECTIVE BEAT SYSTEM (DBS)


- one of the concrete responses of PNP in reinventing the field of investigation.
- it is concerned with crime solution and detectives are charged with total investigation responsibility

POLICE BEAT
- is concerned with crime prevention
- the patrol officers usually respond to crime incidents for arrest, protection of crime scene until detectives arrive to investigate.

GUIDELINES IN THE CONDUCT OF PATROL


1. Pre-Deployment Phase
2. Deployment Phase
3. Post-Deployment Phase

PRE-DEPLOYMENT PHASE
- conducted by means of formation or assembly in police stations for at least 30minutes which will be allotted for:
a. inspection as to appearance and completeness of individual equipment.
b. dissemination of assignments, instructions and orders.

DEPLOYMENT PHASE
1) Upon arrival at the patrol beat, officer shall report to the desk officer or dispatcher
2) while on patrol, they shall adopt the “buddy-buddy system”
3) upon reaching the end of the line beat, officer shall make a situation report before returning to their point of origin
4) any unusual incident must be reported and/or recorded in the patrol sheet report.

POST-DEPLOYMENT PHASE
- after the tour of duty, officers shall return to police stations for the following:
a. surrender the equipment
b. accomplish the Daily Patrol Report
c. Turn-over to the Front-Desk Officer all items confiscated or recovered during the tour of duty
d. Patrol commander shall conduct an accounting of patrol officers before being dismissed

AUXILIARY COMPONENTS
- include security guards, traffic enforcers, barangay tanods, civilian volunteers and non-governmental
organizations

TEAM POLICING SYSTEM


- Is an attempt to integrate the police and the community interest into a working relationship so as to produce the desired objective
of peace keeping in the community.
- Originated in Aberdeen, Scotland
- Team of 5-10 men is assigned according to concentration of crimes and citizens-calls for police service.
- Effective police-community cooperation is critical to the success of a team policing system.

CHARACTERISTICS OF TEAM POLICING


1. Geographic Stability of the Patrol Force
2. Maximum Interaction between Team Members

GEOGRAPHIC STABILITY OF THE PATROL FORCE


- The application of permanent patrolling to foster greater awareness and sensitivity to local police problems by team
members.

MAXIMUM INTERACTION BETWEEN TEAM MEMBERS


- Members must be given opportunity to work closely together in solving problems.
- Members are encouraged to share information with one another through informal meetings or conference.

MAXIMUM COMMUNICATION BETWEEN TEAM MEMBERS AND COMMUNITY RESIDENTS


- Team policing is intended to develop a greater sense of understanding and increased cooperation between members of the
team and community residents.
- Encourage members of the community to attend informal sessions in which they discussed community problems with the
team.

COMMUNITY-ORIENTED POLICING SYSTEM


1. In Japan, they have operationalized and even institutionalized it through the Koban or Police Box System.
2. In Singapore, they are wielding it through the Neighborhood Police Post.
3. In the United States about 60 % of the police departments are implementing it through Community
4. Oriented Policing/Problem Oriented Policing COP/POP.
5. In Canada and several countries in Europe and other parts of the world, they are into it also.
6. In the Philippines, the implementation of National Anti-Crime Strategy (NACS) at the community level started
as mere initiative of some innovative police commanders.
7. In Bacolod City, the Negros Occidental Provincial Commander of the defunct PC/INP managed to mobilize the
community to support and team up with Bacolod City Police Station through the Bacolod Citizens for Unity and
Peace (BAC–UP) Foundation from June 7, 1986 to date.
8. On August 8, 1991, the Davao Del Norte Provincial PNP Commander instituted the KAUBAN, an integrated
undertaking of the police/barangay/citizenry to maintain peace and order.
9. It was also in 1991 when the PNP started implementing the “Koban Philippine style” dubbed as Pulis Patrol
Lingkod Bayan (PPLB).
10. On May 04, 1993, the PNP started establishing the KABABAYAN Center as Community Oriented Policing
Units.
11. Finally on August 15, 1994, the PNP adopted and started implementing the Community Oriented Policing
System (COPS).

BASIC PRINCIPLES / FOUNDATION OF COPS


1. Democracy
2. Criminal Justice
3. Who are the Police
4. People’s Power

DEMOCRACY
- Philippines is a democratic and republic state.
- It is imperative for the people to participate in and support the processes, programs and activities of the government to
attain SUMMUM BONUM or the greatest good for the greatest number of our people.

CRIMINAL JUSTICE
- a machinery used by a democratic government to protect the society against crime and disorder.

WHO ARE THE POLICE


- according to Robert Peel, “The police are the public and the public are the police.”

PEOPLE’S POWER
- the greatest source of power to wage war against crime and other threats to society lies among the people.

CONCEPT OF COPS
- “COPS is a philosophy of full service, personalized policing where the same patrol officers works in the same area on a
permanent basis, from a decentralized place, working in a proactive partnership with the citizens to identify and solve
problems.”

ELEMENTS OF COPS
1. Philosophy
2. Personalized
3. Patrol
4. Permanent
5. Place
6. Proactive
7. Policing
8. Problem Solving
9. Partnership

PHILOSOPHY
- the present and future crime and other disorder requires the police to provide full service policing and problem solving
with the active participation and support of the community.

PERSONALIZED
- officers should have person to person contact with the members of the community

PATROL
- officers must work and patrol their defined beat or AOR as often as possible.

PERMANENT
- officers should be assigned permanently for at least 18 months to defined beat.

PLACE
- the AOR should be divided/sectorized into distinct neighborhoods in urban areas and clusters of barangays in rural areas.

PROACTIVE
- shall have proactive focus of pre-empting, preventing, suppressing, and deterring crimes. Anticipate or at least detect as
early as possible the occurrence of crimes.

POLICING
- provide full service policing in the community

PROBLEM SOLVING
- includes those abets or serves as breeding grounds of crime

PARTNERSHIP
- establish community partnership

COMMUNICATION
- in general, it is the transfer of thought or idea from one person to another through channel or medium. Technically, it refers
to equipment used which can be electrical or electronic used to exchange information.

COMMUNICATIONS
- refers to the technical field of study or science which involves exchange of information through various channels.

COMMUNICATIONS MEDIUM
- the language or code used in transferring information or idea.

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
- modulation in which the amplitude of a wave is subject to variation of changes. This is used in single side band, double
side band, and independent side band.

FREQUENCY MODULATION
- the amplitude is made constant in the carrier wave together with the signal.

ANTENNA
- metallic wire or rod used for radiating and receiving waves to and from space. Also termed Aerial.

COORDINATING CENTER
- is a center base station of a police or law enforcement communications. Also called Center.

INTERCOMMUNICATION (INTER-COM)
- wires system used within a building or compound for direct exchange of calls

INTRA-COMMUNICATION
- a communication existing within a province, organization or communication that exists between institutions of farthest
distance.

RADIO
- a communication by means of electromagnetic waves transmitted through space.

LANDLINE
- is a wired form of communication

TELEVISION BROADCASTING (TELECAST)


- a form of broadcasting through television

SUBSCRIBER
- refers to person, residence or office connected to the Private Base Exchange (PBX)

DISPATCHER
- personnel in police communication center charged with receiving and transmitting of messages.

POLICE COMMUNICATIONS
- refers to the technical means used by the police which consists of interrelated but relatively independent sub-systems such
as telephone, telegraph, teletype, radio and television systems and other electronic and automated processes.

ESSENTIALS OF POLICE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM


1. Training
2. Dependability
3. Security
4. Accessibility
5. Speed
6. Confidentiality/Secrecy

TRAINING
- messages should be committed to standard handling procedures by trained personnel

DEPENDABILITY
- provides that communications must be reliable and available at all times in good condition

SECURITY
- provides that communications system must be secured from any criminal action toward destruction of police organization’s
functions.

ACCESSIBILITY
- provides that operational units must have convenient access to every communication that is essential to its efficient
operation.

SPEED
- provides that communications must be adequate considering that the quick response of officers depend on the transfer of
information.

CONFIDENTIALITY/SECRECY
- provides that informations in the organization must be private and should not be held public as it relates to suspects or
victims.

POLICE COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK


1. Administrative Communications Net
2. Operational Communications Net

ADMINISTRATIVE COMMUNICATIONS NET


- it involves the exchange of non-operational information among police precincts, units, departments or headquarters.

OPERATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS NET


- it pertains to exchange of police field informations involving peace, law and orders as well as general public well being.

POLICE RADIO OPERATOR/VOICE RADIO OPERATOR/ DISPATCHER/ COORDINATOR


- is a person charged with receiving and transmitting information and is trained in his job.

REQUISITES OF A GOOD POLICE RADIO OPERATOR


1. Alertness
2. Pleasantness
3. Naturalness
4. Expressiveness
5. Distinctiveness

ALERTNESS
- gives an impression that the operator is awake and interested what the person is saying on the other line

PLEASANTNESS
- creates a proverbial voice with smile

NATURALNESS
- it involves the utilization of simple straightforward words and avoidance of repetition.

EXPRESSIVENESS
- use of normal tone of voice which should not be too fast or too slow. The tone of voice will vary on meaning of sentence
that the operator is saying

DISTINCTIVENESS
- it involves speaking clearly and distinctly by moving the lips, tongue and jaw freely.

RADIO
- is a system of communication using electromagnetic waves propagated through space

RADIO WAVES
- The radio or electromagnetic waves travel as fast as the speed of light at 186,000 miles per second or 300,000 kilometers
per second.

TWO GENERAL TYPES OF RADIO WAVES


1. Ground Wave
2. Sky Wave

GROUND WAVE
- is radiated energy that touches along the surface of the earth

SKY WAVE
- is a radiated energy that travels to the ionosphere and is reflected back to earth.

RADIO TRANSMITTERS
- generates electrical oscillations at a radio frequency called the carrier frequency

OSCILLATION GENERATOR
- converts electrical power into oscillations of a predetermined radio frequency

AMPLIFIERS
- increases the intensity of oscillations while retaining the desired frequency

TRANSDUCER
- converts the information to be transmitted into varying electrical voltage proportional to each successive instantaneous
intensity.

PARTS OF RADIO RECEIVERS


1. Antenna
2. Amplifier
3. Demodulator
4. Speaker
5. Oscillators

ANTENNA
- receives the electromagnetic waves and converts them into electrical oscillations

AMPLIFIER
- increases the intensity of oscillations

DEMODULATOR
- detection equipment for demodulating

SPEAKER
- converts the impulses into sound waves audible by the human ear

OSCILLATORS
- to generate radio frequency that can be mixed with incoming waves.

FREQUENCY NEEDED BY THE POLICE DEPARTMENT


1. Above 30 MHz or within Very High Frequency (30–300MHz) is the frequency needed by the police departments.
2. 30–300 MHz – is intended for short distances transmission.

ABC’s OF RADIO TRASMISSION


1. Accuracy
2. Brevity
3. Courtesy

ACCURACY
- the correctness and truthfulness what is being communicated

BREVITY
- using of few words. No unnecessary words or repetitious words in the transmission

COURTESY
- politeness of the words being used in the communication.

Associated Public Safety Communication officers, In APCO TEN SIGNALS

10-0 Caution 10-79 Notified


10-1 Unable to copy/Change Location 10-80 Kidnapping
10-2 Signal good 10-81 Stolen vehicle
10-3 Stop transmitting 10-82 Reserve lodging
10-4 Acknowledgement/ Roger 10-83 Found vehicle
10-5 Relay 10-84 If meeting advice ETA
10-6 Busy-standby unless urgent 10-85 Will be late
10-7 Out of service 10-86 Missing person
10-8 In Service 10-87 Pick-up checks for distribution
10-9 Repeat/ Say again 10-88 Advice precent telephone number of
10-10 Fight in progress 10-89 Found person
10-25 Report in person (meet) 10-90 Bank alarm
10-26 Detaining subject, expedite 10-91 Unnecessary use of radio
10-27 Drivers License Information 10-92 Wanted person
10-28 Vehicle Registration Information 10-93 Blockade
10-29 Check record for wanted 10-94 Drag racing
10-30 Illegal use of radio 10-95 Stole cattle
10-31 Crime progress 10-96 Mental subject
10-32 Man with gun 10-97 Secret
10-33 Emergency 10-98 Prison jail break
10-34 Riot 0-99 Record indicate wanted or stolen
10-35 Major crime alert
10-53 Road Blocked
10-54 Firestock highway
10-55 Intoxicated driver
10-56 Intixicated pedestrian
10-57 Hit and Run
10-58 Direct traffic
10-59 Convoy or escort
10-60 Squad in vicinity
10-61 Personnel in area
10-62 Reply to message
10-63 Prepare to make written copy
10-64 Message to local delivery
10-65 Next message assignment
10-66 Message cancellation
10-67 Clear to net message
10-68 Dispatch information
10-69 Message received
10-70 Fire alarm
10-71 Nature of fire
10-72 Report progress in fire
10-73 Smoke report
10-74 Negative
10-75 In contact with
10-76 En route
10-77 ETA (estimate time of arrival)
10-78 Need assistancE