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3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making 3D solid objects from a digital life.
The creation of 3D printed object is achieved using additive process. In an additive process an
object is created by laying down successive layers of material until the entire object is created.

It all starts with making a virtual design of the object you want to create. This virtual design of
the object is created using a CAD(Computer Aided Design) file using a 3D modeling program or
3D scanner for virtual design. This scanner makes a 3D digital copy of an object and puts it into
a 3D modeling program.

The prepared file is uploaded in the 3D printer, thus software slices the final model into hundreds
or thousands of horizontal layers The printer creates the object layer by layer, resulting in one
three dimensional object.
3D printer is a machine which capable of doing complex and difficult tasks in one long step and it only requires a 3D
model of the object to be made with a defined set of parameters and scaling ratios, which can then be converted into
This data is then used for controlling the motors and extruding plastic based on the g-code generated. This
approach towards fabricating contrasts with the traditional way of manufacturing, where an object is formed by
removing excess material or folding and shaping materials based on certain dimensions. It also eliminates the needs of
tools and machinery for cutting, shaping and fabricating. It also reduces the time needed for reproducing a prototype
when making changes to it.
Fused Deposition printing is one of the most widely used 3D printing technique. In fused deposition process a plastic
polymer in the form of a filament is used as the raw material for printing. Its structure and mechanics is similar to that
a CNC machines and its print head is known as an extruder. The tip of the extruder has a nozzle that is heated to a
certain temperature, as the filament reaches this nozzle it softens to a semi solid state. This molten polymer is then
pushed through the nozzle and deposited onto a heat bed, layer by layer. Some machines work by using of acrylonitrile
butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer as its filament. Some of the printers use a biodegradable compound called PLA or
polylactic acid or a plastic made from food starch.
One of the advantages of fused deposition over Digital Light Processing (DLP) and other printers is that it can have
multiple “extruders”. Making it possible to print in different colors simultaneously, similar to how normal inkjet
work. The methods also have some limitations to it, regarding its resolution, and printing of overhanging structures
will require supporting frames to be printed along with it. The resolution of these printers depends on the type of
being used. The resolution of the newer commercially available 3D printers is now down to 75 microns, which is
close to the limits of the plastic. At this resolution the layers are no longer visible. The most commonly used axis
mechanism for an fused deposition type 3D printer is to move the extruder along the linear trail from one point to
another. The extruder will be moved along the X and Z axis, and the bed plate or base along the Y axis. One of the
International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJLTET)
Vol. 4 Issue 4 November 2014 1 ISSN: 2278-621X
disadvantages of moving the Y plate is that, the total space occupied by the printer will be more. However the
precisionand the troubleshooting options offered by this method is of greater uses and hence it is more preferred over
other types.
A. Purpose of 3D printers
The purpose of this work is to develop a FDM based 3D printer that not only corrects the errors found on other FDM
Printers but also provide higher resolution and print size. Another factor to be considered is the cost of making a
FDM printer was chosen since the relative cost of making it and the cost of raw materials is very less. Fused
deposition process also offers a great deal of customization, in terms of resolution as well as materials used. For
different materialtypes only the temperature of the hot end need to be adjusted.

• To increase the speed of arm movement.

• Using developed software.
• Low cost material is used.
• Limiting the length of x-axis and y-axis.
• To reduce Power Consumption.
• Using light weight component to construct the 3D printer


• To minimize the cost of 3D printers.

• To decrease the manufacturing time of 3D models.
• To reduce the 3D printer component size.
• To overcome the wastage of materials

Kreiger, M., Mulder, M. L., Glover, A. G., & Pearce, J. M. (2014). Life Cycle Analysis
of Distributed Recycling of Post-consumer High
Density Polyethylene for 3-D Printing Filament. Journal of Cleaner Production, 70, pp.

[2] Wittbrodt, B. T., Glover, A. G., Laureto, J., Anzalone, G. C., Oppliger, D., Irwin, J.
L., & Pearce, J. M. (2013).Life-cycle economic analysis
of distributed.

[3] Mohammed R.F. and Mahmoud A.S.(2012), Emphasizing the advantage of 3D

printing technology in packaging design development and
production in local industries, International design Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, pp. 111-119.

[4] Feeley ,S.R. Wijnen,B & Pearce J.M.(2014),’ Evaluation of potential fair trade
standards for an ethical 3D printing Filament’,Journal of
Sustainable development,Vol.7,No.5, Published by Canadian center of science and
foundation, pp.1-12.

[5] Molitch-Hou, M. (2014). $1 Million Award to Fund Integrated Electronics 3D

Printing. 23 October 2014. 3D Printing Industry .