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# M PREFACE ..................................

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Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION ............................ 3
1.1 The Contents of the Book ................... 3
Chapter 2: Principles of Graph Construction . . . 3
Chapter 3: Graphical Methods .............. 4
Chapter 4: Graphical Perception ............ 7
1.2 The Power of Graphical Data Display .......... 9
l 1.3 The Challenge of Graphical Data Display ........ 12
Aerosol Concentrations ................... 12
Brain Masses and Body Masses of
Animal SPECIES ....................... 13
W 1.4 Sources and Goals ......................... 17
Pr1nc1ples of Graph Construction ........... 17
Graph1cal Methods ...................... 18
Graphical Perception .................... 18
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Chapter 2. PRINCIPLES OF GRAPH CONSTRUCTION ....... 21
2.1 Termirwlegy ....»......,..........__ , ____ 21
2.2 Clear Vision ............................. 24
2.3 Clear Understanding ....................... 56
2.4 Scales ...........................,...... 68
2.5 General Strategy .......................... 89 W
2.6 A Listing of the Principles of Graph 3
Construction ..............r...... I ........ 100
Chapter 3. GRAPHICAL METHODS ...................... 103
. 3.1 General Methods: Logarithms and Residuals ..... 104
3 Logarithms ............................ 104
a Leg Base 2 and Log Base e ................. 106
Graphing Percent Change ................. 111
Residuals ...........,................. 1 1 4
The Tukey Sum-Difference Graph ........... 118
3.2 One or More Categories of Measurements of
One Quantitative Variable: Graphing
Distributions ...........,................. 123
Point Graphs and Histograms .............. 124
Percentile Graphs ......... ji ............. 127
Box Graphs ............................ 129
Percentile Graphs with Summaries .......... 134
Percentile Comparison Graphs ............. 135 g
A 3.3 One Quantitative Variable With Labels: 3
Dot Charts ............................... 144
Ordinary Dot Charts ..................... 144
‘ Two-Way, Grouped, and Multi-Valued
V Dot Charts .......................... 151
3 3.4 Two Quantitative Variables __________________ 154
M Overlap: Logarithms, Residuals, Moving,
Sunflowers, littering, and Circles .......... 154
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Box Graphs for Summarizing Distributions
of Repeat Measurements of a "
Dependent Variable .................... 163
Strip Summaries Using Box Graphs .......... 166
Smoothing: Lowess ..................... 167
Time Series: Connected, Symbol, Connected
M Symbol, and Vertical Line Graphs ......... 178
Time Series: Seasonal Subseries Graphs ...... 186 A
An Equally-Spaced Independent Variable
with a Single-Valued Dependent Variable . . . 188
Wi Step Function Graphs ........... , ......... 189
3.5 Two or More Categories of Measurements of
Two Quantitative Variables: Superposition 4
and Iuxtaposition ......................... 191
Superposed Plotting Symbols .............. 191
Superposed Curves in Black and White ....... 196
Iuxtaposition .....................; . Q, . . . 198
Color ................................ 205
3.6 Three or More Quantitative Variables .......... 208
Framed-Rectangle Graphs ....i . ............ 208
W 1 Scatterplot Matrices ..................... 210
A View of the Future: High—Interaction W
Graphical Methods .................... 213
. 3.7 Statistical Variation ...................... .. . 218
Empirical Distribution of the Data ...7 . ....... 219
Sample-to—Sample Variation of a Statistic ...... 222
One¥Standard-Error Bars .......... A ........ 223 .
Two-Tiered Error Bars .................... 226
Chapter 4. GRAPHICAL PERCEPTION .................... 229
4.2 The Elements of the Paradigm ................ 233
E , Elementary Graphical-Perception Tasks ....... 233
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Distance ...........,...... Q ........... 238
Detection ............................. 239
4.3 Theory and Experimentation ................. 241
Weber’s Law ........................... 241
Stevens' Law .......................... 243
Angle Iudgments ....................... 245
The Angle Contamination of Slope y
Iudgments ............................ 245
Experiments in Graphical Perception ......... 247
summary and Discussion ................. 254
4.4 Application of the Paradigm to Data Display ..... 255.9
Slope judgments: Graphing Rate of Change . . . 255
Length Judgments: Divided Bar Charts ...... 259
Angle Judgments: Pie Charts .............. 264
Cognition ............................. 264
Distance and Detection ................... 265 _
9 Detection: Superposed Curves ............. 271
4 Area ................................. 278 A
Density and Length: Statistical Maps ........ 284
Residuals ..................... A ........ 288
Dot Charts and Bar Charts ................ 291
Summation ............... ’ ............. 294 W
2 REFERENCES ................. . ....... A ...... 295
GRAPH INDEX ............................. 307
rnxr INDEX ..................... A . .· ..... , . . ais