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SPE 26642

L.X. Nghiem, * M.S. Hassam, and Ram Nutakki, * Computer Modelling Group, and

A.E.D. George, * CANMET/ERL

'SPE Members

This paper was prepared for presentation at the 68th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers held in Houston, Texas, 3-6 October 1993.

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper,

as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are SUbject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect

any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are SUbject to pUblication review by Editorial Committees of the Society

of Petroleum Engineers. Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words. Illustrations may not be copied. The abstract should contain conspicuous acknowledgment

of where and by whom the paper is presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A. Telex, 163245 SPEUT.

can be avoided or minimized.

An efficient modelling technique based on the

representation of the precipitated asphaltene as a pure dense Asphaltenes are heavy hydrocarbon molecules that are in

phase is presented. The success of the approach is based on the colloidal suspension in the oil, stabilized by resins adsorbed on

division of the heaviest component in the oil into a non- their surface [5,6,7]. Changes in pressure, temperature and

precipitating and a precipitating component. The composition may cause asphaltene precipitation. The nature of

characterization of these components is discussed. This model the precipitated asphaltene is still under investigation. Two

was able to make quantitative predictions of experimental data scenarios are possible [2]: i) the asphaltene/resin micelles

from the literature as well as additional data from industry. precipitate essentially unaltered and ii) there is a dissociation

This was achieved with only a small number of adjustable of the asphaltene/resin micelles which cause the precipitation

parameters (two or three). The mechanistic aspect of the of the asphaltene.

model with regards to colloidal nature of asphaltene/resin

In field situations, asphaltenes will first flocculate and

micelles is also discussed. An algorithm for three-phase flash

depending on the flow dynamics mayor may not deposit. Only

calculations with asphaltene precipitation is described.

laboratory experiments are considered in this paper and all the

Introduction flocculated asphaltenes will be refemed to as precipitated

asphaltenes.

Asphaltene precipitation from reservoir fluids during oil

production is a serious problem because it can result in Modelling approaches

plugging of the formation, wellbores and production facilities.

Several approaches for modelling asphaltene precipitation

A description of asphaltene problems and remedial actions in

have been reported in the petroleum literature:

many areas throughout the world are given in [1,2,3,4].

Currently, mechanical and chemical cleaning methods of Solubility model

wellbores are being improviSed to maintain production, but The first important approach in modelling asphaltene

these methods are time-consuming and expensive. Asphaltene precipitation in petroleum engineering is due to Hirschberg et

precipitation also occurs frequently during enhanced-oil- al [5]. Vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations with a cubic

recovery by gas injection which impedes seriously the recovery. equation of state were first applied to split the mixture into a

A model for correlating and predicting asphaltene precipitation vapor and a l~quid phase. The liquid was then divided into

is highly desirable because it would allow the design of three components: asphaltene, resin and a component for the

remaining oil and solvent. The fugacities for these

2 EFFICIENT MODELLING OF ASPHALTENE PRECIPITATION SPE 26642

solution theory [8]. The performance of the model depends on

This paper proposes a model for asphaltene precipitation

the molar volumes and solubility parameters of the oil, resins

which satisfies the following requirements:

and asphaltenes. Burke et al [9], Novosad and Costain [10]

and Kokal et al [11] used this approach to match their Ability to make quantitative predictions.

experimental data with a limited degree of success. These Compatibility with flash calculations with an equation of

authors reported that this model reproduces the asphaltene state.

behavior qualitatively, but further improvements are required

Small number of adjustable parameters.

for quantitative predictions. Kanakawa et al [12] extended this

approach by considering asphaltenes to be heterogeneous Computationally efficient for potential inclusion in a

polymers instead of homogeneous polymers as in [5]. compositional model.

pure dense phase. This phase is referred to as the asphalt

The simplest model for the precipitated asphaltene is the

phase and can either be a liquid or solid. A novel approach for

single-component solid model that was tried by Gupta [13] and characterizing the asphaltene component is proposed which

Thomas et al [14]. The precipitated asphaltene is represented

resolves most of the modelling deficiencies associated with the

as a pure solid while the oil and gas phases are modelled with a

solid model reported in the literature [13,14]. A robust flash

cubic equation of state. Thomas et al reported that the solid

calculation procedure for vapor/liquid/asphalt systems is

model may require the introduction of a large number of

described. The model was tested using data from the literature

empirical parameters and excessive tuning in order to match

and the industry. The mechanistic aspect of the model with

experimental data: e.g. compositional dependence for

regards to the colloidal nature of the asphaltene/resin micelles

interaction coefficients and solid fugacity. These modifications

is also discussed.

made the model highly empirical and difficult to use. Thomas

et al [14] also investigated the representation of the Modelling the Precipitated Asphaltene

precipitated asphaltene as a multicomponent solid phase. They Thermodynamic model

used a liquid-solid model due to Won [15]. This model has

also a large number of parameters. Thomas et al observed that The precipitated asphaltene is represented as a pure dense

this model did not exhibit the correct behavior with increasing phase. This phase is referred to as the asphalt phase. The

solvent concentration and suggested some modifications to this fugacity of asphaltene in the asphalt phase is:

model.

lnf =lnt + va (p-p )

•

Thermodynamic-Colloidal model (1)

a a RT

The previous approaches are based on molecular

thermodynamics and are suitable for modelling situations where fa and f: are respectively the fugacities of pure

where the asphaltene/resin micelles precipitate essentially asphaltene at pressures p and p*, va is the molar volume of

unaltered. Leontaritis and Mansoori [7] proposed a different pure asphaltene, R is the universal gas constant and T is the

approach for asphaltene flocculation based on a temperature. As Equation (1) is valid for both pure liquid or

thermodynamic-colloidal model. Their approach is more pure solid, the asphalt phase can be either considered as a

applicable to situations where there is a dissociation of the liquid or solid.

asphaltene/resin micelles. As in [5], vapor-liquid equilibrium

Characterization of the asphaltene component

calculations were first performed with an equation of state to

establish the liquid phase from which asphaltenes may In a mixture of n c components, let the asphaltene

flocculate. Based on experimental measurements of the onset component be the nc-th component. When the vapor, liquid

of precipitation, a critical chemical potential for resins is and asphalt phases coexist, the following thermodynamic

estimated using Flory-Huggins polymer solution theory. This equilibrium equations are satisfied:

critical chemical potential is subsequently used to predict the

onset of precipitations at other conditions.

In f jv = In f il i=I,...,nc (2)

(3)

376

SPE 26642 LONG NGHIEM, MOHAMED HASSAM, RAM NUTAKKI and ALBERT GEORGE 3

The fugacities fiv and fn are calculated from a cubic gn c, +1 ;: In K nc:a + In cIIn ca - In cIIn c1 = 0 (5)

equation of state. In this work. the Peng-Robinson equation of

state [16] is used. where cIIij is the fugacity coefficient of Component i in Phase j.

The crucial step in modelling asphaltene precipitation is ~y the vapor-liquid K-values. and K n a the asphalt-liquid K-

~

the characterization of the asphaltene component both in value for the asphaltene component

solution and in the asphalt phase. One of the important

In conjunction with the above equations. the following

contributions of this paper is the approach for characterizing

material balance equations can be derived:

the asphaltene component. Previous approaches with the solid

model assumed that asphaltene was the heaviest component in

the oil. This assumption is flawed as it contradicts

I. (K iy -1)zi = 0

i=II+Fv (K iv -1)+Fa (Kia -1) (6)

observations reported in the literature of other heavy

components (e.g. resins and paraffins) that may not precipitate.

Accordingly. in this work. the heaviest component is split into (7)

two components: a non-precipitating component and a

precipitating component. These two components have where Fy and Fa are respectively the phase mole fraction of

identical critical properties and acentric factors. but their vapor and asphalt phases. and zi the feed composition. Note

interaction coefficients with the light components are different. that Kia=O for i=I •...•nc-1.

The precipitating component has larger interaction coefficients

The phase compositions are given by:

with the light components. Larger interaction coefficients

correspond to greater "incompatibility" between components Yil = zi

and favor the formation of the asphalt phase. I+Fy (K iy -1)+Fa (Kia -1) i=I •...•nc (8)

Mechanistic aspect of the model

Yiy = K iy Yil i=I •...•nc (9)

The non-precipitating component can be related to resins.

asphaltene/resin micelles that will not dissociate. and heavy

(10)

paraffins. The precipitating component corresponds to both

the asphaltenes that could dissociate and precipitate and to the Algorithm

asphaltene/resin micelles that precipitate unaltered. Because of

The multiphase flash calculation algorithm of Nghiem

identical critical properties and acentric factors. the non-

and Li [17] was modified to solve Equations (4) - (6).

precipitating and precipitating components behave as a single

Equations (4) and (5) are converged using the Quasi-Newton

component in solution. The larger interaction coefficients

Successive Substitution (QNSS) technique [17]. After each

between the precipitating component and the solvent

QNSS iteration. Equations (6) and (7) are solved for F y and Fa

components causes the precipitation of the former when

using Newton's method.

solvent is added.

Stability test

Estimation of model parameters

The above calculations are complicated by the fact that

The use of the model in Equation (l) requires the

knowledge of f:· and va at p. and T. f:is estimated from

the number of phases in equilibrium is not known a priori.

This was resolved by using a procedure where the number of

experimental solubility data as elaborated later. The molar phases is increased or decreased according to a phase stability

volume va can be estimated from solubility data at different analysis based on the Gibbs energy surface [17]. The flow

pressures. chart for the three-phase calculation procedure is shown in

Figure 1. The testing of the existence of another fluid phase

Three-Phase Vapor/Liquid/Asphah Flash Calculations

requires the solution of a set of nonlinear equations as

Equations described in [17]. The testing of the existence of the asphalt

phase requires the following simple check:

The equilibrium equations (2) and (3) can be rewritten in

terms of equilibrium ratios (K-values) as: If In f n 1 ~ In fa. the asphalt phase exists.

~

If In f n 1 < In fa. the asphalt phase does not exist.

~

377

4 EFFICIENT MODELLING OF ASPHALTENE PRECIPITATION SPE 26642

(11)

Outline

In this section, the proposed model was validated using

data from Hirschberg et al [5], Burke et al [9], and from an oil where the exponent e is a regression parameter used for

matching the saturation pressures. The interaction coefficients

company.

between C3IB+ and the hydrocarbon components of the solvent

Burke, Hobbs and Kasbou (1990) data were assumed to have the same value ~ which was used to

Table 1 reports the compositions of an oil and solvent match the amount of precipitate. Both the parameters e and ~

(Oil 2 and HCG 2) from Burke et al [9]. Table 2 shows the influence the saturation pressures and the amounts of

precipitation and saturation pressure data for different precipitate and had to be regressed simultaneously. However,

concentrations of solvent. The last column of Table 2 shows it was found that the coupling between e and ~ was weak and

the existence of material balance errors in the measurements of they could be obtained by regressing alternately on the

the amounts of asphaltene. In particular, the measurement at saturation pressures and amounts of precipitate. Two iterations

70 mole % of solvent deviated substantially from the other were required to obtain the desired match.

values. Ignoring this value gives an average value of total Matching both the saturation pressures and the amount of

precipitate of 7.80 weight %. precipitate yield e = 0.5761 and ~ = 0.120. The interaction

Based on the oil C7+ fraction specific gravity and coefficients for C3IA+ and C3IB+ are shown in Figure 2. The

molecular weight, application of the characterization method component C3IB+ has higher interaction coefficients with

of Li et al [18] and Nutakki et al [19] gave 10 pseudo respect to the solvent components than the component C3IA+.

components shown in Table 3. Note that the heaviest Figures 3 and 4 show the comparison between calculated

component of the solvent is not part of the oil. The heaviest amount of precipitate and saturation pressures and the

component of the oil, C 31 +, is split into two components: corresponding experimental values. If the precipitation data at

C3IA+ (non-precipitating component) and C3IB+ (precipitating 70 mole % solvent was discounted as discussed above, the

component). The mole fraction of C31B+ is calculated based on match data was excellent up to 78 mole % solvent. Note that

a total 7.80 weight % of precipitate: the precipitate measurements were performed over a wide

range of pressure (3014.7 psia [20786 kPa] to 5014.7 psia

Zc 31B+ =wc31B+ xM 01'[ +M c 31B+ [34575 kPa]) which validates the pressure dependence term in

Equation (1).

zC31B+ = 0.0780 x 202.4 + 617.6 = 0.0256 For solvent concentration above 78 mole %, the

To estimate f;, the precipitation data at 0 mole % measurements indicated a substantial drop in the precipitated

solvent and p* = 3014.7 psia [20786 kPa] and T* = 218 OF amount The model could not predict this behavior as the

[103.3 0c] was used. The amount of precipitate (0.14 weight predicted values were respectively 5.02 weight % and 5.11

weight % at 85 mole % and 90 mole % of solvent. Burke et al

% C3IB+) was removed from the feed. The fugacity of tc31B+

[9] and Chabak [20] attributed the decrease of precipitate at

in the remaining mixture was then calculated with the Peng- high solvent concentration to the switching of the mixture from

Robinson equation of state and equated to f;. A value for a bubble-point fluid to a dew-point fluid. The ability of the

volume va of 0.9 m3/kmol was found adequate for model to reproduce this behavior is under investigation.

extrapolating the asphaltene fugacity with respect to pressure Industry data

(the value of pure asphaltene given by the Peng-Robinson

Table 4 shows the composition of an oil and gas used to

equation of state is 0.776 m3/kmol). The above values of f; model asphaltene precipitation data provided by an oil

and va were used to calculate the fugacities of asphaltene at the company. The oil was modelled with 35 components. Figure

different test pressures in Table 2. 5 shows a good match between the predicted precipitation

The interaction coefficients between all hydrocarbons values and experimental data at 13000 kPa and 45 OC. The

components and CO2 are 0.15. The interaction coefficients values of the parameters used in the match are: e =1.4512 and

between hydrocarbons up to and including C3IA+ were ~ =0.126 for interaction coefficients between C30B+ and CO2 ,

was not measured. This value was used as a matching

378

SPE 26642 LONG NGHIEM, MOHAMED HASSAM, RAM NUTAKKI and ALBERT GEORGE 5

precipitating component, C30B+, to be 65 mole % of C30+ gave

This research was supported by the Canada Centre for

good results. For this fluid, the calculations showed a decrease

Mineral and Energy Technology (CANME'I) and the Members

in the amount of precipitate at high solvent concentration as in

of the Computer Modelling Group (CMG). We thank

the experimental measurements. The calculated bubble-point

Professor R.A. Heidemann of the University of Calgary, and

pressure is 5564.6 kPa at 48°C compared to the experimental

Dr. Dennis A. Coombe of CMG for many enlightening

value 5509 kPa. The calculated GOR is 64.9 std m3/std m3 at

discussions.

89.63 kPa and 21.1 OC which is close to the experimental value

of 62 std m3/std m3. Nomenclature

Hirschberg, deJong, Schipper, and Meijer (1984) data interaction coefficient between Component i and k

exponent for interaction coefficient in Equation (11)

The liquid titration data with nCs and nC7 in the above

fugacity of precipitated asphaltene

reference was also matched with the proposed model. Table 5

shows the composition of the tank oil. Table 6 shows the split reference fugacity of precipitated asphaltene

of the C29+ component into a non-precipitating component fugacity of Component i in Phase j

(C29A+) and precipitating component (C29B+) based on the mole fraction of Phase j

experimental values of asphaltenes of 3.9 weight % and 1.9 function defined in Equations (4) and (5)

weight % for nCs and nG respectively. The respective K-values of Component i in Phase j

interaction coefficients are also reported. Figure 6 shows a molecular weight

good agreement between the calculated and experimental number of components

results. p pressure

P

. reference pressure

Conclusions

R universal gas constant

The following conclusions can be drawn from this research: T temperature

• An approach for modelling efficiently and quantitatively critical volume

asphaltene precipitation is proposed. weight fraction of Component i

global composition of Component i

• The division of the heaviest component of the oil into a value for interaction coefficients between the

non-precipitating and a precipitating component together precipitating component and the light components

with a proper characterization of these components is

'ij fugacity coefficient of Component i in Phase j

essential to a successful application of this model.

Subscripts

• From a mechanistic point of view, the precipitating

component can be related to asphaltenes that dissociate a asphalt

and to asphaltene/resin micelles that precipitate component

unaltered. The non-precipitating component corresponds j phase

to asphaltene/resin micelles that do not precipitate nor k component

dissociate, and to heavy paraffins. 1 liquid phase

v vapor phase

• The model was able to make quantitative predictions of

experimental data from the literature as well as additional References

data from the industry. 1. Leontaritis, K.J., and Mansoori, G.A.: "Asphaltene

• Two or three adjustable parameters were required to Deposition: A Survey of Field Experiences and Research

match experimental data. Approaches," J. Petrol. Sci. and Eng., Vol. I, 1988, pp.

229-239.

• As shown in one example, the model has the ability to

2. Leontaritis, K.J.: "Asphaltene Deposition: A

predict a decrease in asphaltene precipitation at high

Comprehensive Description of Problem Manifestation

solvent concentration. The general behavior of this

and Modelling Approaches," paper SPE 18892, presented

model as the solvent concentration increases is under at the 1989 SPE Production Operations Symposium,

investigation. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, March 13-14.

379

6 EFFICIENT MODELLING OF ASPHALTENE PRECIPITATION SPE 26642

3. Leontaritis, K.J., Amaefule, J.O., and Charles, R.E.: "A 14. Thomas, F.B., Bennion, D.B., Bennion, D.W., and

Systematic Approach for the Prevention and Treatment of Hunter, B.E.: "Experimental and Theoretical Studies of

Formation Damage Caused by Asphaltene Deposition," Solids Precipitation From Reservoir Fluid," J. Can.

paper SPE 23810, presented at the 1992 SPE IntI. Petrol. Technol., Vol. 31, No.1, January 1992, pp. 22-31.

Symposium on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette,

15. Won, K.W.: "Thermodynamics for Solid-Liquid

Louisiana, February 26-27, 1992.

Equilibria: Wax Formation from Heavy Hydrocarbon

4. Thawer, R., Nicoll, D.C.A., and Dick, G.: "Asphaltene Mixtures," Fluid Phase Equilibria, Vol. 30, 1986, pp.

Deposition in Production Facilities," SPE Prod. Eng., 265-279.

Vol. 5, No.4, November 1990, pp. 475-480.

16. Peng, D.-Y., and Robinson, D.B.: "A New Two-Constant

5. Hirschberg, A., dejong, L.N.J., Schipper, B.A., and Equation of State," Ind. Eng. Chern. Fundam., Vol. 15,

Meijer, J.G.: "Influence of Temperature and Pressure on 1976, pp. 59-64.

Asphaltene Flocculation," Soc. Petrol. Eng., Vol. 24, June

17. Nghiem, LX., and Li, Y.-K.: "Computation of

1984, pp. 283-293.

Multiphase Equilibrium Phenomena With and Equation

6. Kawanaka, S., Leontaritis, K.J., Park, S.J., and Mansoori, of State," Fluid Phase Equilibria, Vol. 17, 1984, pp. 77-

G.A.: "Thermodynamic and Colloidal Models of 95.

Asphaltene Flocculation," ACS Symposium Series, 1989,

18 Li, Y.-K., Nghiem, LX., and Siu, A.: "Phase Behaviour

pp.443-458.

Computations for Reservoir Fluids: Effect of Pseudo-

7. Leontaritis, K.J., and Mansoori, G.A.: "Asphaltene Components on Phase Diagrams and Simulation Results,"

Flocculation During Oil Production and Processing: A J. Can. Petrol. Technol., Vol. 24, November-December

Thermodynamic-Colloidal Model," paper SPE 16258, 1985, pp. 29-36.

presented at the Proc. SPE Int. SYQ1p. on Oil Field

19. Nutakki, R., Nghiem, L., Li, Y.-K., and George, A.:

Chemistry, San Antonio, Texas, January 1987.

Optimal Representation of Heavy Fractions in the

8. Prausnitz, J.M., Lichtenthaler, R.N., de Azevedo, E.G.: Simulation of Multiple-Contact Processes," Paper No.

Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria, CIM/AOSTRA 91-57, presented at the Petroleum of

Second Edition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New CIM/AOSTRA Technical Conference, Banff, Alberta,

Jersey, 1986, pp. 306-316. April 21-24, 1991.

9. Burke, N.E., Hobbs, R.E., and Kashou, S.F.: 20. Chaback, J.J.: "Discussion of Measurement and

"Measurement and Modeling of Asphaltene Modeling of Asphaltene Precipitation," J. Petrol.

Precipitation," J. Petrol. Technol., November 1990, pp. Technol., Vol. 43, No. 12, December 1991, pp. 1519-

1440-1456. 1520.

10. Novosad, Z., and Costain, T.G.: "Experimental and

Modeling Studies of Asphaltene Equilibria For a

Reservoir Under C02 Injection," paper SPE 20530,

presented at the 1990 SPE Annual Technical Conference

and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, September 23-

26,1990.

11. Kokal, S.L., Najman, J., Sayegh, S.G., and George, A.E.:

"Measurement and Correlation of Asphaltene

Precipitation From Heavy Oils by Gas Injection," J. Can.

Petrol. Technol., Vol. 31, No.4, April 1992, pp. 24-30.

12. Kawanaka, S., Park, S.J., and Mansoori, G.A.: "Organic

Deposition From Reservoir Fluids: A Thermodynamic

Predictive Technique," SPE Res. Eng., Vol. 6, No.2, May

1991, pp. 185-192.

13. Gupta, A.K.: A Model for Asphaltene Flocculation Using

an Equation of State, M.Sc. thesis, Department of

Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of

Calgary, June 1986.

380

TABLE 1

Oil and Solvent Composition

Burke et aI (1990) fluid

Composition (mol%)

0.51 3.17 Asphaltene Precipitation Data

6.04 30.33 Burke et al (1990) fluid

7.00 26.92

6.86 13.09

0.83 1.26 Mixture Precipitates

Satutation Test Precipitates in Residual Total

3.35 4.66

Solvent Pressure Pressure From Live Stock-Tank Precipitates

0.70 0.17 (mol%) (psia) (psia) Oil Oil (wt%)

3.46 1.26 (wt%) (wt%)

3.16 0.78 0 600 3014.7 0.14 8.83 8.97

66.68 20 1050 3014.7 0.27 7.56 7.83

50 2310 3014.7 1.46 5.50 6.96

70 3750 4214.7 1.65 2.69 4.34

Oil C7+ molecular weight 281 78 4510 5014.7 3.21 4.63 7.84

Oil C7+ specific gravity 0.902 85 5000 5014.7 1.29 6.73 8.02

Oil molecular weight 202.4 90 4250 5014.7 1.10 6.01 7.17

TABLE 3

Modelled Oil and Solvent Composition for Burke et al (1990) Fluid TABLE 4

Modelled Oil and Solvent Composition for Industry Fluid

Composition (mol%)

Oil Solvent

Component Oil Solvent

Component mol% Component mol % Component mol%

C~ 1.42 17.76 0.009 CIS 2.153 0.060

N2+C I 6.55 33.50 0.751 C I6 1.872 0.000

14.377 CI7 1.735 29.140

~ 7.00 26.92

5.560 C I8 1.666 7.780

C3 6.86 13.09

6.649 CI9 1.605 31.760

C4G+ 0.00 8.73 1.762 ~o 1.221 6.780

C4-c; 24.66 4.637 ~I 1.132 14.280

C W C I6 22.41 2.433 ~2 0.981· 3.650

C n -C3o 19.62

2.976 ~3 0.919 3.290

3.933 ~ 0.782 1.950

C 3IA+ 8.92

6.055 ~ 0.713 1.020

C31B+ 2.56 6.858 ~6 0.658 0.240

5.706 ~7 0.617 0.050

4.581 ~8 0.576

3.449 ~9 0.501

2.894 C30A+ 1.471

3.326 C30B+ 2.732

2.709

TABLES TABLE 6

Modelled Composition for Hirschberg et al (1984) Tank Oil Non-precipitating and Precipitating Components for Different Solvents

Hirschberg et al (1984) Fluid

Component mol%

Interaction coefficient

CI 0.10

Composition (mol%) component-solvent

~ 0.48

Component nCs n~ nCs n~

C3 2.05

iC4 0.88 ~A+ 10.58 11.42 0.026 0.016

nC4 3.16 ~B+ 1.63 0.79 0.160 0.160

iCs 1.93

nCs 2.58

C6 4.32

~-CI6 47.45

Cn -C28 24.84

~A+&~B+ 12.21

381

2-PHASE FLASH 2-PHASE FLASH

(FLUID-ASPHALT) (FLUID-FLUID)

Three-Phase VaporlLiquidiAsphalt Flash Calculation

0.20 I I I

DC;",...

• C31 B+

+'

l::

CI>

0.15

• -

'0

ECI>

0

• • • •

0

l::

0.10 -

0

+'

0

e

CI>

+' 0

E 0.05 ~ -

0

0

0

0

0.00 I

g I:J:I

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Component i (i=1 •...• 10)

382

4.00 I

experimental

0 3014.7 psia

0 4214.7 psia X

J1

........ 3.00 J1 5014.7 psia

~

X calculated

.....

..c:

Ol

X

'ii)

~

'-"

.....c

Q)

2.00 -

..... X 0

'0. 0

'0

J1

~

a.. 1.00 J1

I

0.00 L.--...L..---L..----'-_--l.._--'_ _L-_...L..-_....L_---'-_--l

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00

Mole fraction of solvent

Burke et al (1990) Fluid

6000

0 experimental

calculated

5000

........

c

'iii

a.

'-"

4000

Q)

L..

::J

Ul

Ul

~ 3000

a.

c

0

:;:;

cL.. 2000

.....::JC

(/)

1000

0

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00

Mole fraction of solvent

Burke et al (1990) Fluid

383

30.00

0 experimental

calculated

0 25.00

'0

Q)

"'0

::J

.... 20.00

-'-

0

0>

15.00

'-J

Q)

.....

c

..... 10.00

'0.

'0

Q)

....

0- 5.00

0.00

0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00

Solvent-Oil ratio (1/1)

Figure 5 • ASphaltene Precipitation from Industry Crude Oil

4.0

~ o experimental

.....

.J::

calculated

0> calculated

'm

3=

.........

2.0

.....C

Q)

--~-----~------------------

~

.e-

0

Q)

L...

0... 1.0

0.0

10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00

0.00

Dilution (ml/g)

Hirschberg et al (1984) Fluid

384

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