Steel Structures
Layout Drawing
General instructions:
• The givens are only B & L
Assume B (short direction) & L (long B
direction)
L
B B
S S
S = 5-8 m S = 5-8 m
Layout for concrete structures Layout for steel structures
1/15
Layout 1
• The direction of column must be, so that the long direction (the
strongest inertia) is in the direction of Truss (direction of moment)
[Larger inertia resists the moment]
500
M X X
200
Note that: We can assume using I-section 500. Using scale 1:100, we
draw 5mm, and flange 2mm.
Drawing of section A – A
Given: Clear height
The clear height is the distance between zero levels (ground level) to the
lowest level of Truss (To its lower chord)
span" B"
H= h (at column) 1.25
12 − 16
1:5 to 1:20
h H
clear
height
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Layout 1
1:20
h H If h < 1.25
1:20
1.25
H
new
Secondary beams:
The ceiling ( ) is corrugated sheets with
maximum panel length "a" 1.50à 2 m, so we put secondary beams a
parted with a = 1.50à 2 m. The secondary beams are called purlins.
Since weight of corrugated sheets is (6-8) kg / m2, so the moment is small
S
& the section is channel. The height of purlin is ≈ ≈ 140
40
à 1.5 mm (with scale )
• The number of panel lengths "a" must be even so that the truss is
symmetric.
2
6-8 kg/m t=10cm
1m
1m
1m
Purlin
a=1.5-2.0
B
Plan Elevation
3/15
Layout 1
Det A Det B
T C
h
=35-55
a=1.5-2
B
Det A Det B
Comp tension
At mid span there is 2 purlins (See detail B)
2 ( )
.
The position of purlin:
(See detail A)
Position 1 is preferable 1 2
• In order to be sure that the angle lies between 350 and 550, we can
h H
check tan-1 a and tan-1 a .
4/15
Layout 1
upper and lower steel "As and As' ", while the verticals are similar to
stirrups.
So the upper and lower chords carry moment and their maximum
forces are at mid span, while for verticals and diagonals, the maximum
forces are near support.
4
1 2
3
Rienforcement of R.C. beam
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Layout 1
to plan of truss
to plan of truss
( truss )
We name this horizontal truss (horizontal bracing) .This bracing is
constructed between the upper chords of the 1st 2 trusses & the last 2
trusses.
Plan 30-60 OR OR
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Layout 1
The horizontal bracing may be each 2a, 3a, 4a, …. as shown before.
We must keep the angle between 30 0 and 60 0. Also it must be symmetric
2- Vertical bracing:
The wind loads are transmitted from 1 st truss to horizontal bracing (level
of horizontal bracing is the level of the upper chord), so we must make
another truss carry the load (the truss must be in the load direction) &
transmit the load to the ground level. This truss is called vertical bracing.
horizontal
bracing
purlin
Pt 2
Pt 1 column
vertical bracing
Mem 1
height h
height h
Column
clear
clear
OR
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Layout 1
Note that: Member 1 shown above is added at the level of the lower
chord joining point "1 and 2" in all successive trusses.
•
frame
14 60
10
vertical bracing •
horizontal bracing
. My
3- Longitudinal bracing:
• The joints of the truss must be restrained ( )out side plan.
• If the chord is compression, so longitudinal bracing must be added
every 2 a – 3 a ("a" is the panel length).
• If the chord is tension, so longitudinal bracing must be added every
(6 – 8) m.
For upper chord (compression) all the joints are restrained outside
plan with purlins at distance "a".
For lower chord (tension) only 2 joints are restrained with spacing
"B" (due to the presence of column and the horizontal member "mem 1"
we added at the level of the lower chord), so we must restrain joints at
distances not more than 8m. For this we use longitudinal bracing.
8/15
Layout 1
Important note:
The distance between bracings in the longitudinal direction (direction of
"L") must be not more than 30m.
Note: 6-8m in direction of "B" and 30m in direction of "L"
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Layout 1
horizontal
bracing
purlin
side
girt
vertical bracing
ROOF SLOPE
5 7m End gable
END GABLE part of plan
Note that: The direction of the end gable column is in the direction of
wind.
10/15
Layout 1
Example:
A factory building is to be constructed over a rectangular area (21 m * 42
m), the main system is made up of steel trusses. Steel columns are
provided along perimeters ( ) only. Clear height = 7 m. The covering
material used is galvanized steel sheets.
It is required to:
1- Draw a complete general layout.
2- Explain how wind loads in both directions are transmitted to
foundations. (Important)
Solution:
1-Choice of system: ( ):
• H = 21/(12-16) = 1.3 – 1.75m à take H = 1.75m
• Use slope 1:10 down to get h à 0.7m < 1.25m
• Take h = 1.25m and use slope 1:20 up to get H à H = 1.775m
• Number of panels = 21m / (1.5-2) = 10.5-14 àwe can take n
=12 or14 panels [take n=14] à a = 21 / 14 = 1.5m --- O.K.)
1.25 1.775
• Check angle: tan-1 = 39.80, tan-1 = 49.8 0 (35-55) ok
1.5 1.5
• 16 < B < 24 à use 2 longitudinal bracings
• Number of spacing in long direction = 42m / (4 – 8) = 5.25 –
10.5 take number of spacing = 7 à S = 42 / 7 = 6m (optimum)
11/15
Layout 1
vl bracing R
vl bracing R
S
1
H H
12/15
MA
IN
SY
ST
I NG EM
R AC
LB
I NA
T UD
N GI
LO
Layout 1
NG
ACI
R
ALB
IC
ERT
V
EN
D
GA
BL
E
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ISOMETRIC DRAWING OF THE LAYOUT
H VAR.
h
clear
height
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Layout 1
A
H
B
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E
S S S
S=5.0 7.0m PLAN
Layout 1
ROOF SLOPE
height
clear
5 7m
END GABLE
@ AXES (1) & (13)
H
h
a=1.5 2.0m
B
MAIN SYSTEM
{TYPICAL TRUSS}
@ AXES FROM (2) TO (12)
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