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Layout 1

Steel Structures

• Sections used are angle, channel, I-section, Box, Z-section, pipes


------etc

• We usually use angles if the member is subjected to pure normal


force, (tension or compression) as in case of truss members.
• We usually use channels for sections subjected to small moment.
• We usually use I – section for sections subjected to large moments
or sections subjected to M & N

Layout Drawing
General instructions:
• The givens are only B & L
Assume B (short direction) & L (long B

direction)
L

• The main System (Trusses) must be in short direction with spacing


5–8 m

B B

S S
S = 5-8 m S = 5-8 m
Layout for concrete structures Layout for steel structures

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Layout 1

• The direction of column must be, so that the long direction (the
strongest inertia) is in the direction of Truss (direction of moment)
[Larger inertia resists the moment]

500
M X X

200

Note that: We can assume using I-section 500. Using scale 1:100, we
draw 5mm, and flange 2mm.

Drawing of section A – A
Given: Clear height
The clear height is the distance between zero levels (ground level) to the
lowest level of Truss (To its lower chord)
span" B"
H= h (at column) 1.25
12 − 16

1:5 to 1:20
h H
clear
height

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If h < 1.25, so take bigger H & less slope (1: 20)


If "h" is still < 1.25, so take h = 1.25 & use min slope

1:20
h H If h < 1.25

1:20
1.25

H
new

Secondary beams:
The ceiling ( ) is corrugated sheets with
maximum panel length "a" 1.50à 2 m, so we put secondary beams a
parted with a = 1.50à 2 m. The secondary beams are called purlins.
Since weight of corrugated sheets is (6-8) kg / m2, so the moment is small
S
& the section is channel. The height of purlin is ≈ ≈ 140
40
à 1.5 mm (with scale )
• The number of panel lengths "a" must be even so that the truss is
symmetric.

Corrugated R.C. slab


sheets 2
250 kg/m
1m

2
6-8 kg/m t=10cm
1m

1m
1m

Purlin
a=1.5-2.0

B
Plan Elevation

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Vertical & diagonals of Truss:


To make a truss, we must make joints under purlins so we add vertical
member under each purlin.
To make diagonals:
• If the diagonal is tangent with moment , so the member will be
tension
• It is preferable to make the steel members subjected to tension

Det A Det B

T C
h

=35-55
a=1.5-2

B
Det A Det B

Comp tension
At mid span there is 2 purlins (See detail B)
2 ( )
.
The position of purlin:
(See detail A)
Position 1 is preferable 1 2

• In order to be sure that the angle lies between 350 and 550, we can
h H
check tan-1 a and tan-1 a .

Note that: Important:


The shape of truss is similar to shape of concrete reinforced beam
without concrete. The upper and lower chords of truss are similar to

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Layout 1

upper and lower steel "As and As' ", while the verticals are similar to
stirrups.
So the upper and lower chords carry moment and their maximum
forces are at mid span, while for verticals and diagonals, the maximum
forces are near support.

4
1 2
3
Rienforcement of R.C. beam

Member 1 is maximum tension for diagonals


Member 2 is maximum compression for verticals
Member 3 is maximum tension for lower chords
Member 4 is maximum compression for upper chords
Note that: Since all the forces in the truss are tension and compression,
all the members are angles.

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Stability of system in directions perpendicular to main Truss:


1- Horizontal bracing:
Any truss carry only in 2
Vertical
directions (in its plan but
cannot carry load in direction
to its plan.

to plan of truss
to plan of truss

( truss )
We name this horizontal truss (horizontal bracing) .This bracing is
constructed between the upper chords of the 1st 2 trusses & the last 2
trusses.

The wind loads are transmitted


from 1 st truss to horizontal
bracing (level of horizontal
bracing is the level of the upper
chord) wind
horizontal bracing

Plan 30-60 OR OR

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The horizontal bracing may be each 2a, 3a, 4a, …. as shown before.
We must keep the angle between 30 0 and 60 0. Also it must be symmetric

2- Vertical bracing:
The wind loads are transmitted from 1 st truss to horizontal bracing (level
of horizontal bracing is the level of the upper chord), so we must make
another truss carry the load (the truss must be in the load direction) &
transmit the load to the ground level. This truss is called vertical bracing.

horizontal
bracing

purlin

Pt 2

Pt 1 column

vertical bracing

Mem 1
height h

height h
Column
clear

clear

OR

VERTICAL BRACING VERTICAL BRACING

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Layout 1

Note that: Member 1 shown above is added at the level of the lower
chord joining point "1 and 2" in all successive trusses.


frame
14 60
10

vertical bracing •
horizontal bracing
. My

3- Longitudinal bracing:
• The joints of the truss must be restrained ( )out side plan.
• If the chord is compression, so longitudinal bracing must be added
every 2 a – 3 a ("a" is the panel length).
• If the chord is tension, so longitudinal bracing must be added every
(6 – 8) m.
For upper chord (compression) all the joints are restrained outside
plan with purlins at distance "a".
For lower chord (tension) only 2 joints are restrained with spacing
"B" (due to the presence of column and the horizontal member "mem 1"
we added at the level of the lower chord), so we must restrain joints at
distances not more than 8m. For this we use longitudinal bracing.

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longitudinal bracing (vertically)

Important note:
The distance between bracings in the longitudinal direction (direction of
"L") must be not more than 30m.
Note: 6-8m in direction of "B" and 30m in direction of "L"

End gable system:


-
1.5 3–2 -
.
- The purlins used to carry the corrugated sheets at the side of
factory are called side girt; while those used to carry corrugated
sheets of the first & last truss are called end girts.
- We must use end gable columns at spacing (5 – 8 ) m at the first &
last truss to carry end girts (The span of end girts cannot be "B" )

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Layout 1

horizontal
bracing

purlin

side
girt

end gable column


column
end girt

vertical bracing

ROOF SLOPE

5 7m End gable
END GABLE part of plan

Note that: The direction of the end gable column is in the direction of
wind.

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Layout 1

Example:
A factory building is to be constructed over a rectangular area (21 m * 42
m), the main system is made up of steel trusses. Steel columns are
provided along perimeters ( ) only. Clear height = 7 m. The covering
material used is galvanized steel sheets.
It is required to:
1- Draw a complete general layout.
2- Explain how wind loads in both directions are transmitted to
foundations. (Important)
Solution:
1-Choice of system: ( ):
• H = 21/(12-16) = 1.3 – 1.75m à take H = 1.75m
• Use slope 1:10 down to get h à 0.7m < 1.25m
• Take h = 1.25m and use slope 1:20 up to get H à H = 1.775m
• Number of panels = 21m / (1.5-2) = 10.5-14 àwe can take n
=12 or14 panels [take n=14] à a = 21 / 14 = 1.5m --- O.K.)
1.25 1.775
• Check angle: tan-1 = 39.80, tan-1 = 49.8 0 (35-55) ok
1.5 1.5
• 16 < B < 24 à use 2 longitudinal bracings
• Number of spacing in long direction = 42m / (4 – 8) = 5.25 –
10.5 take number of spacing = 7 à S = 42 / 7 = 6m (optimum)

How wind load is transferred:


1-In longitudinal Direction:
a) Wind loads are transferred from end gable corrugated sheets to end
girts.
b) End girts transfer their reactions to end gable columns.
c) The load is transferred to horizontal bracing.
f) Force in horizontal bracing is transferred to vertical bracing.

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g) Force in vertical bracing is transferred to ground.

vl bracing R
vl bracing R

S
1

2- In transverse Direction (direction of Trusses):


a) Wind loads are transferred from side corrugated sheets to side girts
b) Side girts transfer their reactions to truss columns.
c) The truss resists this load in its plane and transfers it to the ground.

H H

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MA
IN
SY
ST
I NG EM
R AC
LB
I NA
T UD
N GI
LO
Layout 1

NG
ACI
R
ALB
IC
ERT
V
EN
D
GA
BL
E

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ISOMETRIC DRAWING OF THE LAYOUT
H VAR.

LONGITUDINAL BRACING @ AXES (B), (C) & (D)

h
clear
height

VERTICAL BRACING @ AXES (A) & (E)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Layout 1

A
H
B

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E
S S S
S=5.0 7.0m PLAN
Layout 1

ROOF SLOPE

height
clear
5 7m
END GABLE
@ AXES (1) & (13)

H
h

a=1.5 2.0m

B
MAIN SYSTEM
{TYPICAL TRUSS}
@ AXES FROM (2) TO (12)

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