You are on page 1of 76


Culture of Policing




ENG rt
ES Oppo

Building a Quality Culture
Public Trust
Event Deconfliction
The culture of policing is multifaceted and ever evolving. It can include the policies, behaviors,
and beliefs of officers and agency leaders, but it is also affected by external influences,
including budgetary decisions, policy makers, community members, and legislation. There are
some elements that are important across the board (such as officer safety, community-police
relations, and ethical policing), yet each law enforcement organization’s culture is also shaped
by the agency’s specific responsibilities and the community it serves.

Culture of Policing



February 2017


Building a Quality Culture
Public Trust
Event Deconfliction

22 Community Caretakers: A Case Study 6 President’s Message: Understanding and
Gene Voegtlin/Editor in Changing the Culture of a Campus Shaping Our Culture
Danielle Gudakunst/Managing Editor Police Department By Donald W. De Lucca
Sarah Guy and Rebecca Stickley/Guest Editors By Paul L. Ominsky and Lewis Z. Schlosser
10 Legislative Alert: 115th U.S. Congress
Margaret M. White/Proofreader 28 Building a Quality Culture at the Now Under Way
Joycelyn Newell/Circulation Assistant Mexican Forensic System By Sarah Guy
The Townsend Group/Advertising By Leticia Collado
12 Officer Safety Corner: Working to
Christian D. Faulkner and
Mara Johnston/Member Services 32 The New Volume Demand: Keeping Eliminate Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Pace with Vulnerability through Culture By W. Thomas Smith Jr.
TGD Communications, Alexandria,Virginia/
Graphic Design and Production Change
By Gavin Thomas 14 Research in Brief: Body-Worn
James Baker, Amanda Burstein, John Collins, Cameras: Not Seeing the Forest for the
Michael Fergus, John Firman, Sarah Guy, 36 What Happened to Public Trust? Technology?
Domingo Herraiz, Sarah R. Horn, Karen Maline,
An Examination of Outcome-Based By Valarie Findlay
Cecilia Rosser, Paul Santiago, Betsy Self, David Spotts,
Rebecca Stickley, Erin Vermilye/Editorial Advisors Strategies to Enhance Ethical Policing
By Kris Allshouse 16 Chief’s Counsel: Stop-and-Frisk and the
Howe & Hutton, Ltd./Legal Counsel Fourth Amendment: Lessons from the 40 The Strategic Guidance Framework: NYPD
© Copyright 2017, by the International Association of A Global Strategic Impact for Law By Pam McDonald
Chiefs of Police, Inc. Reproduction of any part of this magazine Enforcement
without express­written permission is strictly prohibited.
By David Beer 46 Product Feature: More Comfortable,
The Police Chief (ISSN 0032-2571) is published monthly by the More Approachable: Advanced Body
International Association of Chiefs of Police, 44 Canal Center Plaza,
Suite 200, Alexandria, VA 22314-2357, USA; 703-836-6767; Armor and Gear Brings Multifaceted
fax: 703-836-4543. Periodicals postage paid at Alexandria, Virginia, Benefits
and additional mailing offices. Subscription rate of $30 to IACP Ideas and Insights By Scott Harris
members is included in annual membership dues; subscription rate to
­nonmembers is $30 per year, domestic and foreign. Single copy, current
issue, $2.50; back issues, $3, except APRIL Buyers’ Guide issue, $12.50.
50 Police Culture in the 21st Century 66 Technology Talk: Exploring Cyber Risks
By Gary Cordner
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to the Police Chief, to Police Fleets
44 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 200, Alexandria, VA 22314, USA.
52 The Role of Police Executives in By Jerry L. Davis and Barry M. Horowitz
Canada Post: Publications Mail Agreement #40612608
Canada returns to be sent to Bleuchip International, P.O. Box 25542, Police Culture: A Response to 70 Traffic Safety Initiatives: Proper Trailer
London, ON N6C 6B2
Police Culture in the 21st Century Loading Important to Prevent Trailer
NOTE: New subscriptions and changes of address require six
By John King
to eight weeks to process. Subscriptions begin with next available Sway–Related Crashes
issue; for backdated subscriptions, place separate order for
back issues desired. IACP will not be responsible for replacement By James Fait, Steve Taub, and Marco Garcia
of an issue if not notified of nondelivery by the 15th of the third month
following the month of issue. Please check address
54 Event Deconfliction Avoids Operational 72 IACP Working for You: Safeguarding
label and promptly mail any necessary changes.
Conflicts, Saves Lives, and Solves Cases Children of Arrested Parents
Articles are contributed by practitioners in law enforcement
or related fields. Manuscripts must be original work, previously unpub- By Tom Carr, Kent Shaw, and Jack Killorin By Sabrina Rhodes and Karen Maline
lished and not simultaneously submitted to another
publisher. No word rate is paid or other remuneration given.­
Contributors’ opinions and statements are not purported to define
official IACP policy or imply IACP endorsement. DEPARTMENTS
Printed in the USA.
8 The Dispatch
BPA business publication membership granted September 1991 60 New Members VISIT POLICE CHIEF ONLINE
64 Product Update to read online-only bonus articles! A new
68 Line of Duty Deaths
article is posted each week.

74 Index to Advertisers



President Donald W. De Lucca, Chief of Police,

Doral Police Department, 6100 NW 99 Avenue, Doral, FL 33178
First Vice President Louis M. Dekmar, Chief of Police, LaGrange
Police Department, 100 W Haralson St, LaGrange, GA 30241
Second Vice President Paul Cell, Chief of Police, Montclair State
University Police, College Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07043
Third Vice President Steven Casstevens, Chief of Police, Buffalo

Grove Police Department, 46 Raupp Blvd, Buffalo Grove, IL 60089

Fourth Vice President Cynthia Renaud, Chief of Police,
Folsom Police Department, 46 Natoma St, Folsom, CA 95630
Vice President at Large Richard E. Smith, Chief of Police,
Wakefield Police Department, 1 Union Street,
Wakefield, MA 01880
Vice President at Large Wade Carpenter, Chief of Police,

Park City Police Department, 2060 Park Avenue,

Park City, Utah 84060

International Vice President Patrick Stevens, Chief

Superintendent, Belgian Federal Police, Embassy of Belgium,
3330 Garfield St NW, Washington, DC 20008
Vice President–Treasurer Dwight Henninger, Chief of Police,
Vail Police Department, 75 S Frontage Road, Vail, CO 81657
Division of State Associations of Chiefs of Police General Chair
Timothy Lowery, Chief of Police, Florissant Police Department,
1700 N Hwy 67, Florissant, MO 63033
Division of State and Provincial Police General Chair

POLICE CHIEF AD FOR 2012 - 4 3/4” x 2 1/4”

Tracy Trott, Colonel, Tennessee Highway Patrol,
1150 Foster Avenue, Nashville, TN 37243
Division of Midsize Agencies General Chair
Paul Williams, Chief of Police, Springfield Police Department,
321 E. Chestnut Expressway, Springfield, MO 65802

Contact: Ron Bondlow

Parliamentarian Ronal Serpas, Professor of Practice,
Loyola University New Orleans, 6363 St. Charles Avenue,

New Orleans, LA 70118
Executive Director and Chief Executive Officer Vincent Talucci,
International Association of Chiefs of Police,
44 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 200, Alexandria, VA 22314
Deputy Executive Director Terrence M. Cunningham,
International Association of Chiefs of Police,
44 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 200, Alexandria, VA 22314

IACP Fellows
Darryl De Sousa, Baltimore, Maryland, Police Department
Jacqueline Erhlich, U.S. Customs and Border Protection
Chris Izquierdo, United States Army
Bryant McCray, U.S. Customs and Border Protection
Tarrick McGuire, Arlington, Texas, Police Department
Michael Prado, U.S Immigrations and Customs Enforcement
namebadges and service attachments
Annual IACP Conferences Adjusto-Lok ® secures on
2017 (124th) • Oct. 21–24 • Philadelphia, PA shirts, jackets, winter-wear.
2018 (125th) • Oct. 6–9 • Orlando, FL
2019 (126th) • Oct. 26–29 • Chicago, IL

Most shipping is next

Visit or following day!
View fine illustrations and descriptions of each of our nine namebadge
models and our unique slide-on attachments for rank, service, title and more!
Call 1-800-452-1161 for the friendly support of our Laurie, Sam or Sandra
with your questions or with your order entry be it on phone or online. THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 5


Understanding and Shaping Our Culture

I t has been said that “culture eats strategy,”

and in this time of intense focus on the law
enforcement profession, we often hear calls for
Every time leaders speak, make a decision, tell a joke,
culture change and reform alongside the calls send emails, or interact with others, they are shaping
for new policies and strategies. Increasingly,
police chiefs are appointed with a mandate to the culture around them.
“change the culture.” But how well do we under-
stand law enforcement culture and the key role
we play as leaders in shaping that culture?
Several years ago, Stephen R. Covey was • Language matters. For example, using the • There must be a visible and ever-present
leading a strategy session with law enforcement terms “amplify” or “enhance,” rather than philosophy and organizational principles
executives when a senior executive began to “change” matters because it affects how our that are uncompromising.
complain about his organization’s culture. Dr. officers feel about our focus and initiatives. • Listen—listen—listen! If you listen and pay
Covey asked him how long he had been in “Change” implies something is wrong that attention, the culture will quickly reveal
his senior leadership position, and the execu- must be fixed; “amplify” or “enhance” say itself.
tive proudly responded, “Twelve years.” Covey much is right, but more can be done. During my tenure as IACP president, I will be
replied, “If you have been in your position for • We cannot shift the culture unless we first laser-focused on the big three influences on our
even one day and have not done anything to have empathy for the existing culture. people: leadership, culture, and education. Of these
shift your culture, then you own it.” We must understand, rather than judge, three, we very likely understand and place the
Leadership is a powerful influence on officers’ the current state. The culture has become least emphasis on the issue of culture—however,
behaviors and development, but so, too, is agency what it is for a reason, and that history at IACP, we hope to remedy that oversight.
culture. Every time leaders speak, make a decision, must be understood and respected. In 2011, Warren Buffett, the sage and leader
tell a joke, send emails, or interact with others, • We must have very visible artifacts of Berkshire Hathaway, appointed his son to the
they are shaping the culture around them. and mantras that will shape our belief unpaid and sacred position of “guardian” of the
At the IACP, we are taking on the mission to systems; language; and, ultimately, culture, wherein he does not direct investments,
both understand and educate our profession’s behaviors. but, instead, serves as the “guardian of the
leaders so that we better understand what cul- company’s traditions and practices,” values, and
ture is; how it is shaped; and how we, as leaders, beliefs.2 The questions we face as we lead our
can be more mindful and intentional in our roles agencies are what is our culture and who is the
as architects of culture. guardian of it? v
In the December 2016 edition of Police Chief,
Simon Sinek wrote an article titled “Circle of Notes:
Safety: Leadership’s Role in the Law Enforce- 1
Simon Sinek, “Circle of Safety: Leadership’s Role
ment Environment,” wherein he describes our in the Law Enforcement Environment,” The Police Chief
challenge in shaping the environment or culture 83, no. 12 (December 2016): 62–65.
and asks the provocative question, “What kind 2
“Buffett Wants Son to Chair Berkshire,” 60 Min-
of environment are police working in today?”1 utes, December 9, 2011,
There are powerful influences on our organ- news/buffett-wants-son-to-chair-berkshire.
izational culture that we cannot overlook. What
are the artifacts visible in your agency that
reveal who you are and what is important to you
and your colleagues? What is on your bulletin
boards? How is role call conducted and what
is the climate and daily discussion? What is the
energy, creativity, engagement, and teamwork
on display in your agency? At the root of all
these lies culture.
During my career and through my experi-
ence in leading three law enforcement agencies,
I have learned some key lessons about organiza- Donald W. De Lucca, Chief of Police,
tional and professional culture: Doral, Florida, Police Department
Community Crisis
Practical, proven strategies for
police-community partnerships.

Two-day workshop PRACTICAL INSIGHTS.


• Implicit Bias
Register or
•Advance new strategies for developing crisis-
• Procedural Justice proof community partnerships. Host in Your Area:
• Police-Community •Apply the NUCPS Police-Community Partnership
April 19-20, 2017
Partnerships Checklist for evaluation and planning.
8 am to 5 pm
•Recognize implicit bias, minimize its effects, Registration deadline March 17.
and be able to update and establish policies that
nourish an environment of procedural justice. TROY, MICHIGAN
May 4-5, 2017
WHO SHOULD ATTEND 8 am to 5 pm
Led by law enforcement and research professionals, Troy Police Department
this course is designed to improve agencies through Registration deadline April 3.
the development of supervisors and leaders. Mul-
tiple representatives of a single organization are
encouraged to attend. REGISTRATION
Tuition is $290 per person.
ABOUT NUCPS Seats are limited.
NUCPS is the home of the prestigious School To register, call 800-323-4011, or
of Police Staff and Command and other nationally go to
recognized courses. NUCPS leads the
way in the professional development of public BRING THE COURSE TO YOUR AGENCY
safety personnel in the U.S. and abroad. Contact us at
Police Chief knows that many of the best ideas and insights come from IACP members who serve their communities every day.
The Dispatch is an opportunity for members and other readers to share their wisdom, thoughts, and input on policing and the magazine.


In December, Police Chief asked our our readers what element has the most significant influence on law
enforcement culture. Here’s what you told us.

Most Significant Influence on Law Enforcement Culture


Agency leadership

Rank and file

11% Policies/regulations
Agency demographics
3% Training
3% Local community-police relations


The heart and soul of a Training–specifically. the The rank and file play a
culture is with its workers. training provided by the FTO large factor in setting the
Leadership can help guide, and front-line supervisors as examples for other officers.
mold, and advise a working to what is expected from the They serve as role models
group, but buy-in comes from new officers…for example, for officers in field training as
people being good followers. the adherence to policies, the well as each other. In most
The next question is how to way the public is treated, and situations, officers do not have
influence to follow and what the ethical and moral values a supervisor present, which
first-line supervisor IS the first instilled. emphasizes the responsibility
follower? —Anthony Motley, Chief of Police of senior police officers in
—David Franklin, Captain Springtown Police Department, Delaware leading by example.
Texas Department of Public Safety
—Steven Minard, Captain
City of Poughkeepsie Police Department,
New York


An agency’s leadership has the most significant
influence on the culture of an organization as they
provide the guidance and the expectations for the When was the last time your agency’s policy on
department. The command staff is able to control use of force was updated or revised?
the actions of the rank and file through policy and
procedure and training. Requiring and training our Visit to tell
us what you think. Look for the results in the
officers to conduct themselves in a professional
April 2017 issue of Police Chief!
manner and to treat the public with respect helps
to build/strengthen the local community-police
relations. Every chief of police has the opportunity to
mold their department’s police culture into what they
Connect with IACP and The Police Chief on social media!
want it to be, but it starts and ends with them.
—Don Scheibler, Chief of Police
Hays Police Department, Kansas

@IACP #PoliceChiefMag


Continuing in 2017, American Military University (AMU) will be hosting 1-hour webinars without cost to help
law enforcement officers* stay current on topics covering:

• DarkNet Awareness • UAV/Drone Counter Measures

• DarkNet Investigations/Operations • Social Media Monitoring during civil disturbance
• Digital Currency Awareness • Islamic Radicalization
• Social Media/Apps Part 5 • Domestic and International Kidnapping Investigations
• UAV/Drone Operations for Law Enforcement • Drug Smuggling Tactics and Money Laundering (Digital currency)

Webinar attendees may receive a 5% tuition grant for degree and certificate courses at AMU.



AMU is part of the accredited American Public University System and certified to operate by SCHEV.
*The webinars include law enforcement-sensitive information; therefore all registrants will undergo a verification process to ensure they are current law enforcement officers, analysts, or law enforcement support personnel. THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 9


115th U.S. Congress Now Under Way We hope that you will use IACP’s Policy Pri-
orities for the 115th Congress as a starting point
for your discussions, but encourage you to also
personalize your discussion and make legisla-
By Sarah Guy, Manager, Legislative up meetings with them when they are back in tors aware of your local needs and concerns.
their home states and on district work periods.
and Media Affairs, IACP The IACP will continue to work hard to
U.S. Senate Leadership: advocate to Congress and the U.S. admin-
Majority Leader – Mitch McConnell (R-KY) istration on issues of importance to the law
T he 115th U.S. Congress is officially under
way. In early January 2017, all 435 recently
elected members of the U.S. House of Represen-
Minority Leader – Chuck Schumer (D-NY)
 enate Committee on Homeland Security
enforcement profession as they arrive. However,
the IACP’s success in these legislative efforts
depends on the action of the membership. In
tatives were sworn in for a two-year term and and Government Affairs: order for the IACP to be an effective advocate
the 34 U.S. senators elected in November 2016 Chairman – Ron Johnson (R-WI) for the law enforcement community, your
were sworn in for six-year terms. Ranking Member – Claire McCaskill elected officials also need to hear directly from
This Congress has had a busy start, with (D-MO) you, our members.
eight separate confirmation hearings for cabinet- To download a copy of IACP’s Policy Priori-
Senate Committee on the Judiciary:
level secretary positions in mid-January 2017, ties for the 115th Congress, visit www.theIACP
Chairman – Chuck Grassley (R-IA)
including those for U.S. Attorney General and .org/IACP-Legislative-Agenda.
Ranking Member – Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)
the Homeland Security, Transportation, State,
Education, Defense, Housing and Urban Devel- Senate Committee on Appropriations:
opment, and Commerce secretaries. Chairman – Thad Cochran (R-MS) National Consensus Policy on Use of
Additionally, the U.S. Senate passed the FY Vice Chairman – Senator Patrick Leahy Force Released
2017 budget resolution (S.Con.Res.3), by a vote (D-VT) In April 2016, the IACP, in conjunction with
of 51-48 on January 12, 2017, paving the way for the Fraternal Order of Police, assembled leading
U.S. House of Representatives Leadership: law enforcement leadership and labor organiza-
an up-or-down vote on repealing large parts of
Speaker of the House – Paul Ryan (R-WI) tions to examine the issue of use of force by law
the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The U.S. House
Majority Leader – Kevin McCarthy (R-CA) enforcement officers.
of Representatives also passed the FY 2017
Minority Leader – Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) The extensive work of the participating orga-
budget resolution, by a vote of 227-198.
With Congress back in full swing and with House Committee on Homeland Security: nizations has resulted in a National Consensus
many new members of Congress and new Chairman – Mike McCaul (R-TX) Policy on Use of Force. This consensus policy
leadership positions, it is important that you, Ranking Member – Bennie Thompson considers and reflects the broad views and
our members, take the time to meet with your (D-MS) experience of the field—ranging from line offi-
elected officials and convey your agencies’ cers to executives. The developed and adopted
priorities and the challenges facing the law House Committee on the Judiciary: consensus policy reflects the best thinking of the
enforcement profession. To aid you in your Chairman – Bob Goodlatte (R-VA) diverse participating organizations and is solely
efforts, a list of key U.S. House and Senate lead- Ranking Member – John Conyers (D-MI) intended to serve as a template for law enforce-
ership positions follows. We urge you to build House Committee on Appropriations: ment agencies to compare and enhance their
relationships with your elected representatives, Chairman – Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-NJ) existing policies.
call them regarding issues of importance, and set Ranking Member – Nita Lowey (D-NY) While the work of the 11 consensus orga-
nizations continues, the participating groups
felt the urgency to release this policy as soon
IACP President Donald De Lucca and Executive Director/ as possible, as many law enforcement agencies
Chief Executive Officer Vincent Talucci attend the January are currently reviewing or developing their own
10–11, 2017, confirmation hearing in support of U.S. use-of-force policies. The 11 groups will con-
Attorney General nominee, Senator Jeff Sessions (R-AL).
tinue to provide further guidance to the field by
releasing a consensus policy discussion paper in
the near future. The consensus policy discus-
sion paper will provide additional information
regarding the elements found in the consensus
policy, as well as the rationale for the policy
directives related to de-escalation and the use of
less-lethal and deadly force.
The IACP looks forward to continuing to
work with the participating organizations to
provide further support to the law enforcement
To view the National Consensus Policy on
Use of Force, visit the IACP website. v


Working to Eliminate Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

By W. Thomas Smith Jr., Special
Deputy, Richland County, South Addressing the stress thoroughly is what helps many
Carolina, Sheriff’s Department sufferers recover. Openly addressing PTSD helps to
change the culture surrounding the disorder in the
S peaking at the IACP 2016 Annual Confer-
ence and Exposition before an audience of
sheriffs, police chiefs, and agency commanders
from around the world, Sheriff Leon Lott of
the Richland County, South Carolina, Sheriff’s risk of PTSD to combat veterans. Despite the this debilitating disorder out into the open where
Department described one of the potentially recent appreciation, experts still have only a all can talk about it, begin to understand it,
most damaging threats besetting his depart- surface understanding. Perhaps even fewer have prepare for it, and help one another through it.
ment—posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). recognized its impact on law enforcement. Addressing the stress thoroughly is what helps
Lott explained that he had a captain serving many sufferers recover. Openly addressing PTSD
in the Richland County Sheriff’s Department Bringing the Problem to Light helps to change the culture surrounding the
who killed an attacker in a gunfight, a lieutenant Sheriff Lott recognized the problem in disorder in the department.
who was wounded in a gunfight and believed his officers and decided that he needed to do
he would die before being rescued, a sergeant something more. The department had a training Achieving Results
who lost his eye in a gunfight, and another program in place, as well as myriad resources for The Critical Incident and PTSD Awareness
sergeant who witnessed her law-enforcement his officers, but neither appeared to be the com- program has shown results. In less than a year,
partner’s suicide 90 days before she was forced plete solution. Sheriff Lott discovered that the more than 300 officers on the Richland County
to take the life of a suspect who attacked her issue was with the point in the training pipeline Sheriff’s Department force have received the
with a knife. Some officers were willing to talk where PTSD was being addressed. PTSD was PTSD training. Nearly half of those who have
about their traumatic experiences, yet many being addressed only post-incident instead of received the training have also experienced a
other officers were not. pre-incident. critical or traumatic incident.
Formerly labeled combat stress, shell shock, Lott organized a focus group in the months According to Lott, as a result of the program,
or battle fatigue, PTSD often has a stigma of leading up to the launch of the program, pulled many of his experienced deputies and other
weakness attached to it. PTSD is one of the most in several experts, including deputies, senior veteran officers are now freely talking about their
debilitating, albeit least understood, emotional officers, a staff psychologist, chaplains, and emotionally traumatic experiences, enabling
disorders suffered by those living in the wake law and criminal justice academics from local them to more effectively deal with their symp-
of experienced trauma. PTSD has nothing to universities, and developed a curriculum for a toms. The Critical Incident and PTSD Awareness
do with whether or not a man or woman is program that would battle the disorder before program has not only helped to train officers in
tough. These officers were (and are) experi- his men and women ever went on their first how to best handle stressful incidents and cope
enced law enforcement officers who, some patrol. with those incidents, but it has also helped to
might argue, should know what to expect from Launched in January 2016, Lott’s program, change the culture of the department. PTSD is
an emotionally traumatizing critical incident. Critical Incident and PTSD Awareness, covers no longer a hidden disorder for the Richland
PTSD does not respect the great qualities of an all-encompassing range of topics from stress County, South Carolina, Sheriff’s Department. v
people. It strikes whomever it will, at will, and reactions, including physical, cognitive, and
the symptoms might appear immediately or lie emotional, to myths, causes, coping strategies, Notes:
dormant for years. PTSD symptoms may start and departmental policies and procedures. The 1
“Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symp-
within three months of a traumatic event, but training also teaches the importance of getting toms,” Mayo Clinic, April 15, 2014, http://www.mayo
sometimes symptoms might not appear until help and support from family, friends, churches,
years after the event.1 and support groups in dealing with PTSD. The -disorder/basics/symptoms/con-20022540.
Bruce Solomon, PTSD expert and readjust- training program prepares the deputies for any 2
Bruce Solomon, “Vietnam Vet Shares His Own
ment counselor of the St. George Veterans and all physical and psychological trauma risks Experience with PTSD and Suicidal Thoughts,” You-
Center, describes PTSD sufferers as those who before those deputies ever hit the street. Tube video, 7:45, posted by “KCSG,”
“are like Formula One racecars in a world of fam- Best of all, the program has people talking, December 9, 2013,
ily vans. They have developed a fifth gear where sharing, explaining, and healing. It is the talking watch?v=0CpKU_q_HNU.
most folks have four-speed transmissions and among officers and the shared experiences 3
Leon Lott (sheriff, Richland County Sheriff’s
the difficulty arises because that fifth gear isn’t that have become the strength of the program. Department), telephone interview, November 7, 2016.
shifted into. It shifts you into it.”2 “There is still a learning curve for everyone—
The military services, military medical instructors and students alike,” says Lott.3
practitioners, and a number of military veterans’ But in terms of officer safety and wellness,
groups have only just begun to appreciate the the instruction and the discussion has brought

The IACP Research Advisory Committee is proud to offer the monthly Research in Brief column. This column features evidence-based research
summaries that highlight actionable recommendations for Police Chief magazine readers to consider within their own agencies.
The goal of the column is to feature research that is innovative, credible, and relevant to a diverse law enforcement audience.

Body-Worn Cameras: Not Seeing the Forest for

the Technology?
By Valarie Findlay, Research Fellow, Although, in Canada, funding rests at the Rialto study and authored by the same academic
Police Foundation organizational level, several of the nearly 500 who led Rialto’s study. Generally lauded as
law enforcement organizations in that country massive successes with substantial reductions
have proceeded with BWC pilots in recent in complaints and use of force, all four of these

B ody-worn technology might have seemed

to emerge overnight to many people, but, in
actuality, it has been tested and implemented
years, with Montreal and Toronto slated for full
program adoption.5 One small organization,
Amherstburg Police Services in Ontario, has had
studies have revealed shortcomings in the post-
analysis of their raw data.8
With Rialto Police Department’s year-long
over the past few years by North American law a fully implemented BWC program since their pilot and study in 2013, the effect of being
enforcement. Although body-worn cameras pilot project in 2013.6 However, recently, several observed during the experimental shifts may
(BWCs) have been receiving increased attention other cities—Edmonton, Calgary, Winnipeg, and have encouraged preemptive moderating and
recently, the research findings on the technology Vancouver, as well as the RCMP—have put their the ”spillover” effect in officers who downloaded
remain inconsistent and causally inconclusive. BWC implementation efforts on hold for various and viewed their own BWC footage and in offi-
Early BWC programs, as in the 2006 pilot reasons, including cost.7 cers who wore cameras only half the time, caus-
with Devon and Cornwall Police (UK), focused ing a psychological effect on future interactions.
on improving evidentiary elements and preserv- Despite the 59 percent reduction in use-
ing victim first-disclosure evidence, but current of-force in all treatment shifts and 87 percent
BWC pilots and programs aim to increase reduction in public complaints, closer examina-
transparency and reduce public complaints, tion of the raw data in the Rialto study showed
unprofessional or inappropriate behaviors by law that the use-of-force reduction was formulated
enforcement and the public, and use of force.1 It from a small number of incidents (25 incidents)
is hoped, too, that the use of BWCs can improve and that the reduction in complaints was seen
future evidence, training, and judicial processes. across both study groups—camera and non-
According to a 2015 survey by Major Cities camera.9 The importance of this is not so much
Chiefs and Major Counties Sheriffs, the majority the possibility of skewed results, but the risk of
of U.S. agencies surveyed were either commit- relying on outcomes that are more correlative
ted to body cameras or had completed their that causal.
implementation, with 77 percent of respondents’ Similarly, the Mesa Police Department pilot
programs not yet fully implemented and with 5 in 2012 revealed a reduction of 48 percent in
percent of respondents deciding not to imple- “citizen complaints against camera officers for
ment a BWC program.2 In addition, recent BWC misconduct” during the study period and a 75
adoption efforts have been encouraged as a percent reduction in use-of-force complaints,
result of increased community-police conflicts, noting that many complaints were resolved
and government funding of BWC programs in quickly due to the accessibility of video
the United States have further fueled efforts to evidence.10 But the Mesa project also revealed
employ the technology. concerns over discretionary activation policies,
In 2012, President Obama committed to the pros and cons of volunteer and mandated
funding BWC programs for law enforcement officers, supervisory implications, and a lack of
Photo courtesy of
and, in 2014, the Body-Worn Camera Partner- design controls to address avoidance factors.11
Point Blank Body Armor
ship Program was announced, which aims to Overall, BWCs did appear to be effective
invest $75 million in BWC technology for agen- when worn in situations where there were ver-
cies as part of a broader three-year, $263 million The case for adopting BWC technology in bal warnings of BWC use; however, unintended
initiative to strengthen community policing.3 In law enforcement almost always points to three bias and its management was suggested as an
2016, the Department of Justice, as part of this landmark BWC studies—Rialto, California; impact to some of the favorable results in Mesa.
program, awarded over $20 million to 106 U.S. Mesa, Arizona; and Phoenix, Arizona—and, Again, as with the Rialto study, the concluding
state, local, and tribal agencies to support body- now, a recent study out of Cambridge in the recommendation was that more controlled,
worn camera programs.4 United Kingdom that was modelled on the replicable research is required.12


More recently in 2016, the same author In the end, converging the operational needs 8
William Farrar, “Operation Candid Camera: The
of the Rialto study, Barak Ariel, conducted and goals of law enforcement with the capabilities Rialto Police Department’s Body-Worn Camera Experi-
the largest BWC study to date on seven law of BWC technology and current and emerging ment,” The Police Chief 81, no. 1 (January 2014), 20–25;
enforcement organizations. Preliminary findings technologies may reveal a much more robust and Justin T. Ready and Jacob T.N. Young, “The Impact of
suggested that the overall effect on police use effective tool than originally anticipated. v On-Officer Video Cameras on Police-Citizen Contacts:
of force was “a wash”—in some instances, BWCs Findings From a Controlled Experiment in Mesa, AZ,”
reduced use of force, but, in other instances, Journal of Experimental Criminology 11, no. 3 (September
they didn’t and may have exacerbated behaviors 2015), 445–458; Charles M. Katz et al., Evaluating the
and increased use of force.13 Overall, the results Valarie Findlay is a research fellow Impact of Officer Worn Body Cameras in the Phoenix Police
were inconsistent and perplexing; however, in for the Police Foundation and has two Department (Phoenix, AZ: Center for Violence Preven-
the final report, complaints by the public were decades of senior expertise in cyber- tion & Community Safety, Arizona State University,
reduced substantially, in one case to zero.14 security and policing initiatives. She holds 2014).
Most BWC research, including the studies a master’s in terrorism studies from the 9
Farrar, “Operation Candid Camera.”
discussed, shows a correlation—as opposed University of St. Andrew’s and her disser- 10
“On-Officer Body Camera System: End of Pro-
to causality—between use and outcomes, and tation, The Impact of Terrorism on the Trans- gram Evaluation and Recommendations,” AXON Flex
many studies differ in methodology and control formation of Law Enforcement, examined Evaluation, Mesa, AZ,, December 3, 2013,
criteria, as well as organization characteristics, the transformation of law enforcement in
community size, and community relations. The western nations. Currently, Ms. Findlay is _evaluation_12-3-13-.
variety in results indicates that the effectiveness preparing her doctoral thesis on terrorism 11
Ready and Young, “The Impact of On-Officer
of BWCs depends entirely on the rigor of stated as a social phenomenon examined within Video Cameras on Police-Citizen Contacts.”
uses, the goals, and the execution of the pilot or the Civilizing Process Theory (Elias). 12
the adoption of the program. 13
Barak Ariel, “Do Police Body Cameras Really
None of the BWC studies so far have Work?” IEEE Spectrum, May 4, 2016: http://spectrum
broached the issues of sociological and behav-
ioral features and behavior sources, such as Notes: -police-body-cameras-really-work.
whether it is the behavior of the officer or of the 1
Leila Jameel and Sarah Bunn, “Body-Worn Video in 14
Barak Ariel et al., “Contagious Accountability: A
member of the public (or if they are synchro- UK Policing,” POSTbrief 14 (September 2015), 8, http:// Global Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial on the
nous or symbiotic) that improves. Effect of Police Body-Worn Cameras on Citizens’ Com-
The value of BWC technology as a tool for POST-PB-0014/POST-PB-0014.pdf; “Britain Straps Video plaints Against the Police,” Criminal Justice and Behavior
law enforcement organizations, as a whole or Cameras to Police Helmets,” BBC, July 13, 2007, http:// (September 2016 online),
individually, must be derived from cost benefit doi/pdf/10.1177/0093854816668218.
and return on investment. Recently, the Vancou- -europe/t/britain-straps-video-cameras-police-helmets/# 15
Janus, “Toronto Police Want to Deploy Body-
ver Police Department shelved their 600-unit .WG_mABsrLct. Worn Cameras Service-Wide”; Woodward, “$26,000
BWC program due to the $17 million required 2
Major Cities Chiefs and Major County Sheriffs, Per Camera?”
for the equipment, storage, and video recovery. Technology Needs—Body Worn Cameras, December 16
Julia Edwards and Anjali Athavaley, “High Costs
The Toronto Police Services estimated the cost 2015, Hinder Outfitting of U.S. Cops with Body Cameras,”
of their BWC program will be $85 million over iqjWHBFdfxIU/rvnT.EAJQwK4/v0. Reuters, April 23, 2015; Baltimore County Govern-
10 years with the majority of the expense going 3
David Hudson, “President Obama’s Plan to ment, “Body-Worn Camera Program,” December 9,
to store data.15 In contrast, San Diego police out- Strengthen Community Policing,” The White House 2016,
fitted their organization for $1.5 million (U.S.) Blog, December 1, 2013, police/bodycameras.
per year, Los Angeles’ cost was $3.5 million blog/2014/12/01/building-trust-between-communities 17
Liam Casey, “Canadian Police Forces Moving
(U.S.) per year, and Baltimore’s cost was $1.5 -and-local-police. Towards Costly Body Cameras,” The Canadian Press,
million (U.S.) per year.16 In Calgary, a stop-gap 4
Department of Justice, “Department of Justice April 4, 2016,
to the storage cost issue used an older technol- Awards Over $20 Million to Law Enforcement Body- canadian-police-forces-moving-towards-costly-body
ogy, storage tapes, reducing data storage costs to Worn Camera Programs,” news release, September 26, -cameras.
about $1 million.17 2016,
Likewise, the pace of video recording and -justice-awards-over-20-million-law-enforcement-body
uploading technology used by the general -worn-camera-programs. This report is an unsanctioned and independent
public has been faster and the costs cheaper 5
Andrea Janus, “Toronto Police Want to Deploy review and analysis of existing literature on body-
in meeting the needs of civil rights groups and Body-Worn Cameras Service-Wide,” CBC News, Sep- worn camera technology.
the public for police oversight. Many apps are tember 15, 2016,
available online and allow for recording and toronto/body-worn-cameras-toronto-police-1.3764092.
immediate uploading of videos to YouTube or a 6
Mary Caton, “Amherstburg Police First in Ontario
The opinions expressed in this article are
Dropbox account. to Standardize Use of Body Cameras,” Windsor Star, those of the author(s) and do not necessarily
It may be that waiting for the technology February 3, 2016, represent the views of the IACP. The presence
to “mature” might not be the answer. Law local-news/amherstburg-police-first-in-ontario-to of this content in Police Chief does not indicate
enforcement organizations could possibly -standardize-use-of-body-cameras. endorsement by the IACP.
take a collaborative stance, glean from lessons 7
Riley Martin, “Winnipeg Police Board Proposes
learned from organizations who have piloted or Scrapping Body-Camera Pilot Program to Avoid
implemented BWCs, and lead innovation with Layoffs,” Global News, March 21, 2016; Michael Platt,
vendors. The need for BWC vendors and users “Calgary Police Say Body Cameras Unreliable in Field;
to address interoperability and scalability with Possible Legal Battle Ahead,” Calgary Sun, October
emerging technologies, such as biometrics, voice 18, 2016; Jon Woodward, “$26,000 Per Camera? VPD
recognition, telemetry, and internal databases Budget Raises Eyebrows,” CTV News, November
(emergency calls, investigations, intelligence, 14, 2016; Alison Crawford, “RCMP Decides Not to
etc.) is inevitable and will be costly later if left Outfit Officers with Body-Worn Cameras,” CBC News,
out of scope now. December 7, 2016. THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 15


Stop-and-Frisk and the Fourth Amendment: Lessons from

the NYPD

By Pam McDonald, JD, LLM, Police NYPD’s policy, targeting the ‘right people’ ruling remains as the law of this case. However,
Legal Advisor, Greenville, South means stopping people in part because of their other courts are free to agree or disagree with
race.”5 The opinion also noted that high-ranking this constitutional analysis in cases that might
Carolina NYPD officials testified “that ‘the right people’ come before them. Importantly, the trial court
are young black and Hispanic youths 14 to 20 condemned the NYPD policies as racially dis-
for whom there is reasonable suspicion” and criminatory and unconstitutional. The stop-and-

S top-and-frisk procedures when performed

in a constitutional manner are fundamental
to modern policing—officers continually apply
“that the NYPD focuses stop and frisks on young
blacks and Hispanics in order to instill in them
a fear of being stopped.”6 The judge’s opinion
frisk technique itself was lawful, but NYPD’s use
of the technique to target black and Hispanic
youths was unlawful.
stop-and-frisk principles during traffic stops, also recited condemning statistics concerning
other short detentions of citizens, and limited literally millions of Terry stops reported by the Recommendations to Avoid a Similar
searches. The legal concept of stop-and-frisk was NYPD and found a sharp increase in the number Problem
established in the landmark case Terry v. Ohio, of stops conducted, as well as data indicating 83 The federal monitor in the Floyd case agreed
which authorized law enforcement to detain percent of the stops were of a person identified to implement specific reforms in NYPD patrol
a person and conduct a limited search of the as black or Hispanic. As a result of these findings, policies regarding Terry stops and racial profiling;
outer clothing for weapons where the officer the court ordered changes to the NYPD’s policies most of the following suggestions are drawn
has reasonable suspicion that “criminal activity from the monitor’s final recommendations. Law
may be afoot and that the persons… may be enforcement agencies must ensure their policies
armed and presently dangerous” (known as a clearly explain the appropriate and legal use of
Terry stop).1 The U.S. Supreme Court has further stop-and-frisk tactics, and they need to specifi-
explained that courts will consider the “total- cally reject consideration of race as a factor in
ity of the circumstances” when assessing the the reasonable suspicion analysis, excluding
validity of a Terry stop.2 The authority for police circumstances involving a specific and reliable
to stop-and-frisk citizens based on reasonable suspect description. Law enforcement agencies
suspicion of criminal activity is a well-grounded should confirm that their officers are receiv-
and indisputable principle of constitutional law, ing specialized training that effectively teaches
and it is reasonable to assume that informed law officers the limits of their authority under their
enforcement agencies have department policies department’s specific stop-and-frisk policy and
that explain how officers are to appropriately under constitutional law. Officers should receive
use stop-and-frisk tactics and define the limits of training on how to articulate facts and observa-
officer authority during these encounters. tions and the totality of the circumstances that
they consider to reach a standard of reasonable
The NYPD Case suspicion. Officers need to genuinely understand
The New York Police Department (NYPD) what they are and are not permitted to do under
stop-and-frisk policies came under intense scru- both their policy and the law, and they need to
tiny due to a series of civil cases alleging that be competent in their ability to articulate the
(1) the agency’s policies violated the U.S. and the appointment of a federal monitor to facts and circumstances that amount to reason-
Constitution’s Fourth Amendment, which gives oversee the reform process for three years. able suspicion to stop and reasonable suspicion
citizens the right to be free from unreasonable Although New York City originally to frisk.
searches and seizures, and (2) the policies were appealed the controversial decision, then- In addition to providing sound guidance and
racially discriminatory, violating the Fourteenth New York Mayor Bill de Blasio withdrew the advice to officers making these decisions, it is
Amendment’s equal protection clause.3 A class City’s appeal before it could be heard by the imperative that supervisors scrutinize the consti-
action suit was filed against the City of New York appeal court, agreed to comply with the judge’s tutionality of officer-citizen interactions and not
(Floyd v. City of New York) and, in a lengthy (nearly recommended reforms, and settled the cases. simply collect the data that tally the encounters.
two hundred–page) opinion, a federal trial judge Therefore, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals Collecting the data on traffic stops and other
ruled that the stop-and-frisk tactics as imple- never heard an appeal on the merits of the con- officer-citizen encounters is important, but
mented by NYPD violated the constitutional stitutional analysis of the NYPD stop-and-frisk supervisors and agencies often fall short in
rights of minorities, specifically young Hispanic procedures and never reversed the decision of assessing and responding to the information
and black men.4 The judge stated, “Under the the trial court, which means that the trial judge’s that the data provide. Administrators must


evaluate the information collected on stops,
warnings, and arrests and safeguard against
discriminatory practices—both intentional and

The common police practice of stopping
a person and frisking for weapons based on
reasonable suspicion remains constitutional;
it is a lawful Terry stop. The misperception that
all stop-and-frisk practices are unconstitutional
arises from the Floyd case, in which the NYPD
stop-and-frisk policies were ruled unconstitu-
tional as deployed by NYPD officers at that time.7
It is important for law enforcement officers and
leaders to distinguish between the constitution-
ality of a valid Terry stop based on reasonable
suspicion of criminal activity and the unconsti-
tutional tactic of using Terry stops as a means for
illegally targeting racial minorities. v

Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 30 (1968).
Illinois v. Sokolow, 490 U.S. 1, 8 (1989), citing United
States v. Cortez, 449 U.S. 411 (1981).
See Floyd v. City of New York, 959 F. Supp. 2d 540
(S.D.N.Y. 2013); Ligon v. City of New York, 736 F.3d 166
(2d Cir. 2013); Davis v. City of New York, 902 F. Supp. 2d
405 (S.D.N.Y. 2012); and Daniels v. City of New York, 99
Civ. 1695 (SAS) (S.D.N.Y. 1999).
Floyd, 959 F. Supp. 2d, at 663.
Id. at 662.
Id. at fn767; Id. at 662.
Gershman Jacob, “Trump and Clinton on Stop-
and-Frisk, Who was Right?” Wall Street Journal, Law
Blog, September 27, 2016.


Wrap a virtual fence around your community to
The IACP Institute for proactively prevent crime and improve safety. Add
investigative power and enhance safety with fixed
Community-Police Relations
license plate recognition cameras without increasing
(ICPR) manpower. Strategically positioned cameras at
is designed to provide entries and exits create the virtual fence.
guidance and assistance to law • Receive alerts when vehicles of interest enter
enforcement agencies looking your community
• Identify rolling stolens
to enhance community trust, by
• Get more information for criminal investigations
focusing on culture, policies,
and practices.

Visit the ICPR online at

License Plate Recognition. Analytics. Facial Recognition. THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 17

Accident Support Services International Ltd.

Roanoke Accident Support Services Ltd.

Issue 01
LT D .

First U.S. Collision Reporting Center Opens!

n September 15, five drivers involved
in minor collisions in the City of
Roanoke and Roanoke County area of
Virginia were the very first American citizens
to report their incidents using Accident
Support Services’ professional Collision
Reporting Center program.

Left to right, Joyce Waugh, President, Roanoke Regional Chamber of Commerce, Chief Howard Hall, Roanoke County Police, Chief Timothy Jones,
City of Roanoke Police, Steve Sanderson, President ASSI, Ken Eagleson, VP, ASSI U.S. Insurance Programs, Bob Gutwein, VP ASSI, Ed Weidmann,
Chair, Insurance Industry Advisory Board, Sgt. Tim Wyatt, Roanoke County Police, Derrick Wilson, Roanoke CRC Manager.

enforcement officer in the field working, not Center. Incidents involving personal injury,
tied up doing paperwork.” hazardous goods, damage to public property
Local police, government, business and others as determined by police will be
The inaugural U.S. Collision Reporting representatives and the media were in investigated by the officer at the scene. By
Center (CRC) opened at 631 Abney Road in attendance for the ceremonial ribbon-cutting clearing the roadway of many collisions with
Roanoke VA as a pilot project with the City of at the new Roanoke Collision Reporting more minor damage, officers and drivers
Roanoke Police Department and the County Center. Roanoke County Police Chief are safeguarded from possible secondary
of Roanoke Police Department. Local news Howard Hall was quoted, “The idea here is to collisions, and traffic flow is cleared more
outlets reported that drivers at the CRC gave create a convenience for people…We want efficiently, benefiting all drivers.
the Center positive reviews, “It went well… to get cars and people out of the roadway Citizens reporting to the CRC are greeted
it’s a good service” and “The advantage and handle reporting faster in a separate, by professionally trained and empathetic
of this program, I think, is it keeps the law safer place.” counselors who assist in the completion of
Roanoke Valley drivers the State Collision Report, assist in making
involved in a collision contact with family and/or insurance broker
call 911 and an officer is or company, provide information from the
dispatched to the scene. involved insurance carrier and photograph
The officer investigates the vehicle damage for the file. Reports
and determines if the are completed in a safe, comfortable
collision meets the environment, at a more convenient time for
criteria for reporting the driver (within 48 hours of the incident)
to the CRC. If so, the and away from the side of a busy, possibly
drivers are directed to dangerous roadway.
visit the Abney Road This new service in the U.S. is provided at no
location. At this time, cost to police or citizens. Supporting insurers
property damage only writing automobile polices in the State fund
collisions will be directed the program, which will make both reporting
Derrick Wilson, Roanoke Manager takes a report to the Collision Reporting Continued on Page 2

This Issue:
ASSI History, Meet our Team, CRCs, the Road Safety Solution

Accident Support Services International Ltd.

A Timeline on the Path to Road Safety
merica’s very first Collision Reporting CROMS captures and stores scanned docu- collection of incident information, and includes
Center (CRC) opened in Roanoke, Vir- ments and photos, allowing for a search of all touch screen technology, card swipe technol-
ginia on September 15. The CRC locat- data fields on the government collision report ogy, a VIN decoder, convenient drop down
ed at 631 Abney Road is operated by Accident forms and has the ability to generate statistical boxes, on-line storage for documents, audio,
Support Services International Ltd. for the City reports for Police, insurers, road engineers and photos and video, a mapping program and
of Roanoke and Roanoke County Police De- Departments of Transportation. collision diagram program. Minimal training is
partments. The following is a brief history of 2008 – The CROMS Analytics Portal was intro- required to effectively use CROMS Mobile. Re-
the company responsible for collision reporting duced, allowing police and insurers to access duced manual data entry and re-entry increase
solutions for police and the insurance industry. accurate, current and relevant data for in-depth Police Service efficiencies.
analysis without having to manually re-enter 2012 - ASSI embarked on an ambitious proj-
data into their own systems. This application ect with the Ministry of Transportation Ontar-
works across multiple jurisdictions and was io (MTO) to complete a two way secure data
developed with user input. The CROMS An- exchange between the CROMS program and
alytics Portal allows Police to analyze and de- the MTO. ASSI successfully validates and
termine all factors of recorded collisions and submits data from CROMS to the MTO for
produce intelligence led policing initiatives to many Ontario Police jurisdictions, removing
create proactive road safety programs. Using this administrative workload from the agen-
the CROMS Police portal to analyze their col- cies and creating efficiencies for the MTO.
lision data, Police agencies and governments CROMS is also uploading collision reports to
are recognizing a measurable decline in asso- the Records Management Systems (RMS)
ciated collisions, resulting in safer roadways. of our participating Police partners eliminat-
1994 – Accident Support Services Interna- Insurers are able to better manage risk, en- ing duplicate data entry for the agencies.
tional Ltd. (ASSI) opened the first Collision hance claims service and identify fraud, trends CROMS has won two distinguished awards
Reporting Center in Toronto, Canada. ASSI and changes. Using the CROMS Analytics from Microsoft, the Integrated E-Business
founder Steve Sanderson partnered with the Insurance portal, participating insurers are also Solutions Award of the Year (2005) and the Mi-
Toronto Police Service to initiate a collision able to compare their statistics with those of crosoft Canada Impact Award for Excellence
reporting program to realize efficiencies in not the industry. as the “Solution of the Year” (2005), as well as
investigating fender-bender collisions at the the 2013 ICTA Insurance-Canada Technology
scene, while ensuring that insurance compa- Award for IT support of the Year. Over 54 Po-
nies could verify that collisions had taken place lice agencies now utilize CROMS for their colli-
once Police were no longer completing those sion reporting data requirements.
on-scene reports. The program has devel-
oped into a solid partnership between Police, The original Toronto Collision Reporting Cen-
Insurers and private enterprise; providing col- ter has been joined by 31 other centers across
lision reporting and traffic safety solutions for Ontario and Alberta and now in Roanoke VA.
Police, increased customer service and fraud Discussions for additional centers and CROMS
detection capabilities to insurers and a One- programs with Police agencies across the Unit-
Stop Service location for citizens to report ed States and Canada are ongoing and pos-
collisions and receive information from their itive.
insurance companies. 2010 – CROMS Mobile was officially released;
Accident Support Services International Ltd.
a user friendly, fast and efficient mobile report-
2003 – ASSI’s Collision Reporting and Occur- continues to lead as the professionals in Col-
ing tool to serve the needs of Police in a wire-
rence Management System (CROMS) com- lision Reporting with our Collision Reporting
less connected or disconnected environment,
pletely revolutionized the collision reporting Center and CROMS data collection programs
for “anytime, anywhere” collision reporting.
process, improving data consistency and ac- and services provided at no cost to Police and
This roadside application enables quick, easy
curacy through its totally electronic system. the public.

Roanoke Accident Support Services Ltd. First U.S. Collision Reporting Center Opens! Continued From Page 1
and the post-collision experience more Management System (CROMS), The Roanoke Collision Reporting
efficient for drivers, police and insurance allowing the police to develop pro-active Center is just the first of many CRCs
companies. enforcement programs based on their own on the planning board for the United
The City of Roanoke and County of data. Supporting insurance carriers will be States. ASSI is in active discussions
Roanoke Police Departments will also able to access their policy holder’s collision with a number of Police agencies
benefit from near real-time collision data file, if so directed by the driver, to provide across the U.S. It is a very busy and
entered by ASSI staff into the company’s immediate customer care post-collision exciting time for everyone involved in
Collision Reporting and Occurrence and detect possible insurance fraud. the area of road safety.
Meet our Team!
Steve Sanderson, President Ed Weidmann
Accident Support Services International Ltd. Chair, U.S. Insurance Industry Advisory Board
Steve Sanderson is President and Founder of Acci- We are pleased to announce the appointment of Ed Weid-
dent Support Services International Ltd., which oper- mann as Chairman of its U.S. Industry Advisory Board.
ates Collision Reporting Centers (CRCs) in partnership Mr. Weidmann is well known and highly respected within
with Police and the Insurance industry. Starting the auto insurance claims and supply chain industries,
with a single Reporting Center in 1994, Steve has having recently retired from an impressive 39 year ca-
successfully developed the organization to cover 54 reer with State Farm insurance in which he developed
Police Jurisdictions, including 32 Collision Reporting and managed programs relating to auto glass claims
Centers in Ontario, Alberta and Virginia. The Acci- processing, Emergency Road Service and tow services,
dent Support Services model for Collision Reporting rental cars, mobile audio replacement and paintless dent
Centers is the benchmark for CRCs throughout North repair administration.
Ed will assist in the implementation of ASSI’s Collision
Steve is also the visionary behind CROMS, the Microsoft and Insurance-canada Award Win- Reporting Center (CRC) program in the U.S. by promoting and encouraging the level of
ning “Collision Reporting & Occurrence Management System.” He makes customer service carrier participation upon which the program is dependent. In his capacity as Chairman
and satisfaction a priority, ensuring efficient and effective management utilizing the age-old of the Industry Advisory Board, Ed will assist in recruiting additional Board members and
principles of honesty, integrity, attention to detail and hard work. provide leadership and direction to ensure that the company is providing maximum value
to the insurance industry through its innovative First Notice of Loss and accident reporting
Ken Eagleson, Vice President service by accelerating the claim and triage process and fully and accurately documenting
U.S. Insurance Programs accident details while controlling costs and enhancing the customer experience as colli-
Ken Eagleson is Vice President, U.S. Insurance sions are reported to police at the Collision Reporting Center.
Programs at Accident Support Services Interna-
tional Ltd. Ken joined ASSI in August, 2016 to Julian Fantino, Advisor
coincide with the company’s U.S. market entry. Julian Fantino has a distinguished police career spanning
40 years; 15 years of which as the Police Chief and Com-
With over 25 years of experience in the insurance, missioner of 4 major Canadian Police departments; City
auto and information management solutions, Ken is of London, York Region, City of Toronto and the Ontar-
recognized as a Property & Casualty Claims Informa- io Provincial Police. Mr. Fantino has also served as the
tion Technology subject matter expert, with insight Commissioner of Emergency Management for the Prov-
into the related industry supply chain and data ini- ince of Ontario and 5 years in federal politics as Minister
tiatives. In his roles, Mr. Eagleson directed all cus- of International Cooperation, Seniors, Veterans Affairs and
tomer facing activity for new and existing clients. His National Defense. Mr. Fantino has been a long standing
management acumen and industry knowledge has led to continued year over year success. and active member of the Major Cities Chiefs, the Inter-
Throughout his career, Ken has delivered significant and measurable bottom-line benefits in- national Association of Chiefs of Police, a graduate of the
cluding improved insurer cycle times, reduction in operational costs and improved customer FBI National Executive Institute and currently serves on a
service measurements. number of not-for-profit Boards. Since leaving politics,
Mr. Fantino has embarked on a private enterprise initiative; J. Fantino & Associates Con-
Ron McBride
sulting Group Inc.
U.S. Representative
Ron McBride served in municipal police agencies for 35 Ashley Kendall
years in Kentucky, Michigan and Ohio, the last 20 years Business Service Representative
with the city of Ashland, Kentucky as Chief of Police. He Ashley Kendall joined Accident Support Services Interna-
was a third generation police officer and his son continues tional Ltd. in 2011, starting as a Counselor at the North
their family tradition today. Following Ron’s retirement York Collision Reporting Centre. From her work on our
from active law enforcement, he served for more than 10 front lines, assisting drivers to complete their motor ve-
years as manager of the IACP/Dupont Kevlar Survivors’ hicle accident reports, Ashley has expert knowledge of
Club, focusing on the increased use of body armor to de- our Collision Reporting Centers and Collision Reporting
crease needless police disabilities and death. Ron cur- and Occurrence Management System (CROMS) pro-
rently chairs the IACP Police Professional Standards, Ethics grams, and a keen understanding of the policy holder
and Image Committee. He is very active in police profes- experience in the hours immediately following their col-
sional associations and an avid community volunteer. lision.
ASSI is fortunate to have an associate with Ron’s knowledge and experience in US law en- Ashley has transitioned to our Head Office team. In her
forcement as we chart new territory in collision reporting south of the border. role as Business Service Representative, Ashley is now working towards building stronger
relationships with our insurance partners. Using her ASSI experience and understanding
Stephen E. Applebaum
of the insurance industry, she is responsible for communication and education on the
U.S. Insurance Industry Relations opportunities provided through our CRC and CROMS programs. Training seminars are the
Stephen Applebaum is Managing Partner, Insurance Solu-
most effective way to relay this information and Ashley customizes the training sessions to
tions Group and is responsible for U.S. Insurance Industry
fit the specific needs of the user group.
Relations for Accident Support Services International Ltd.
Stephen is a subject matter expert and thought leader Fernando Vitorino
providing consulting, advisory, research and strategic M&A Director of Information Technology
services to participants across the entire North American As the Director of IT, Fernando Vitorino oversees all as-
property & casualty insurance ecosystem focused on in- pects of information technology activities at Accident
surance information technology, claims, innovation, dis- Support Services International Ltd. Fernando and his
ruption, supply chain, vendor and performance manage- team are responsible for the development of propriety
ment. Mr. Applebaum is also Senior Advisor to StoneRidge online applications, business intelligence analytics and
Advisors, an investment banking firm focused exclusively information security critical for the success of Accident
on the insurance industry. Support Services International Ltd.
Stephen is a frequent chairman, speaker, moderator and panelist at insurance industry con- Fernando has 18 years of experience in information
ferences and a frequent contributor of thought leadership articles and papers to insurance technology developing and managing business solutions.
industry publications and has a strong passion for coaching, mentoring, business process in- Prior to joining ASSI, Fernando has held senior positions
novation, studying and applying disruptive technology, and managing organizational change where he was responsible for application development,
in the property and casualty insurance industry and trading partner communities. information systems management and systems architecture.
Collision Reporting Centers,
The Road Safety Solution
imes have been very good! The minor injury car crashes. The realities
economy has seen improvement, of having to do so much more with the
employment is up, and fuel prices same resources may lead to consid-
have been falling. The Federal Highway eration of entering into private/public
Administration reported that Americans partnerships to assist with services
are buying more new cars; vehicle such as collision reporting.
registration is up by 4.6% over 2007. Immediate benefits to citizens and
Roadways are busier than ever, with re- police are significant. Reporting is
ported miles driven higher by 5% over moved to a comfortable and safe lo-
each of the past three years. cation, away from the side of the road
The swelling number of vehicles and where participants may be subject to
many miles travelled each year has secondary accidents and potential
translated into greater accident fre- injury. Police officers out on the road
quency and resulted in an increase in are available for higher priority calls
average property loss and bodily injury, for service. Collision data collected at
both at a 12 year high. The insurance the CRC in ASSI’s Collision Reporting
industry is working to deal with rising and Occurrence Management System
claims costs (after all, those new ve- (CROMS) is made available to police to
hicles cost more to repair) and provide assist with collision investigation and
consistent customer service while independently substantiating claims for prop- targeted pro-active road safety campaigns for a safer community.
erty damage and bodily injury and determine fault or negligence. Citizens also benefit through immediate contact with their insurance company
Then factor in the many higher priority demands on police departments to protect directly from the Collision Reporting Center to initiate their claim, and be assisted
their communities against civil unrest, violence, domestic and foreign terrorism on next steps for car rental and vehicle repair.
which may necessitate a shift in how police investigate simple property damage/ The insurance industry benefits with First Notice of Loss (FNOL), often within
hours of the crash, allowing adjusters to more efficiently triage and
investigate files and make coverage decisions, decreasing their
cycle time. “Being there” with policyholders at their time of need
increases customer service and retention. Insurer specific handouts
provided to drivers at the CRC help to control costs in car rental
and repair. The CRC photographs all vehicle damage and places a
“Damage Reported to Police” Sticker to help reduce ‘creative dam-
age’ and insurance fraud.
All of ASSI’s services are provided at no Charge to Police and the
public. Services are funded by the insurance industry writing auto-
mobile policies in the State where the CRC is located.
Times are good! Americans will continue to drive their new cars,
travelling throughout the nation and beyond. Unfortunately, they will
continue to be involved in more car crashes resulting in more prop-
erty damage and personal injury claims, and police may not always
be available to investigate at the scene of the crash.
With Collision Reporting Center partnerships between U.S. Police
Departments, the insurance industry and Accident Support Services
International Ltd., property damage collisions will continue to be re-
ported by drivers with the information available for police to plan
Accident Support Services International Ltd. attends FBI NEIA (National Executive Institute road safety initiatives and for insurers to assist their policyholders re-
Association) Reception in San Diego, CA. l-r, Commissioner (Ret) Julian Fantino, FBI
cover, getting everyone back on the road once again for safe travels.
Director James B. Comey, ASSI President Steve Sanderson.

631 Abney Road, Roanoke Virginia 24012-1257

Toll Free: 1-877-895-9111
For more information, go to
SUPPORT SERVICES Recommendations, Suggestions, Comments, contact:
Editor: Jane Ross

A Case Study in
of a Campus Police Department
By Paul L. Ominsky, Princeton
University Department of Public
Safety, New Jersey, and Lewis
Z. Schlosser, PhD, ABPP, Institute
for Forensic Psychology


O ne of the greatest challenges facing law
enforcement in the 21st century in the
United States is earning and maintaining
foot patrol to motorized patrol, officers lost
regular face-to-face contact with commu-
nity members. Motorized patrol was seen
leadership do anything to compromise offi-
cer safety. That said, leadership needs to
recognize that a police response needs to be
the trust of the communities it serves. At as more efficient, since it allowed officers to proportional to the event and that commu-
present, the narrative on community-police respond more quickly to emergencies and nity perceptions of police “over-responding”
relations is often played out in the media. patrol larger areas, which reduced costs to may strain community-police relations.
Unfortunately, the media tends to address municipalities and was seen as a welcome Another issue facing some departments
community-police relations only after a high- change, especially during more challenging is that their personnel do not reflect the
profile, negative incident, such as an officer- economic times. However, this change had diversity of the communities they serve.
involved shooting, and the relative lack of the unintended consequence of shifting There are a number of reasons for this,
media coverage of positive community- policing to a much more reactive (i.e., react including disillusionment with policing as
police interactions serves only to fan the and respond) than proactive approach. a profession, a lack of recruitment efforts
flames of any problems in community- As communities experienced growing targeting diverse candidates, and a lack of
police relationships. unrest and more questions were raised about viable diverse candidates. While diversifi-
Despite all of the negative media atten- the quality of policing, departments turned cation of a police department can be diffi-
tion, a recent Gallup poll shows that U.S. to community policing. Community polic- cult to achieve, it should remain a goal, and
residents’ respect for police officers is at ing gained prominence in the 1970s and departments should strive to be representa-
its highest level since 1967.1 Serving in law 1980s when many police departments began tive of their communities.
enforcement is one of most challenging jobs adopting this strategy.3 Community policing, Even as law enforcement agencies
in the United States, and it is possible that as defined by the Department of Justice, achieve greater diversity, however, this
the recent murders of officers in places like is a philosophy that promotes organiza- does not automatically mean that commu-
New York City, New York; Dallas, Texas; tional strategies that support the systematic nity-police relationships will improve. It is
Baton Rouge, Louisiana; and Palm Springs, use of partnerships and problem-solving important that officers do not view their
California, have reminded the public of the techniques to proactively address the work as “us” (police) versus “them” (the
real and daily dangers of working in law immediate conditions that give rise to public community). It is also critical to understand
enforcement. That said, the Gallup findings safety issues such as crime, social disorder, that policing is challenging, and that even
did vary somewhat by respondents’ race, and fear of crime.4 departments with a diverse officer corps
with Caucasians holding a higher level of The community policing model is can make mistakes. This is not an excuse—
respect for police (80 percent) than people intended to return law enforcement to a it is just the reality of giving any human the
of color (67 percent). Data from the Pew proactive approach—one in which the law authority to use lethal force, make arrests
Research Center also revealed similar racial enforcement agencies and their officers for law violations, and maintain societal
differences in opinions regarding officer- enjoyed solid relationships with the people values. Officers, like all human beings, will
involved shootings, especially involving and communities they served. inevitably make errors, particularly when
people of color; use-of-force incidents; Parallel to the widespread adoption of complex decisions must be made in a mat-
and accountability for officer misconduct.2 community policing was the perceived ter of seconds, often under serious stress.
In sum, the research reveals some areas of militarization of police departments. Many Community members and the media that
promise with regard to community-police departments benefited from a federal pro- report on law enforcement matters must
relations, along with some issues that con- gram established in 1996 that delivered remember the humanity of officers; like-
tinue to need attention. surplus military equipment to departments wise, this humanity is a primary reason that
The relationships between public for little or no cost. In some communities, having a proactive policing philosophy is
safety agencies and the communities they as their local law enforcement obtained important. If the public perception of law
serve can always be improved. In some more equipment, the perception was that enforcement officers is to be changed, then
places, great partnerships already exist the police were now equipping themselves the community needs to know and experi-
between departments and communities, to fight wars in their communities. Some ence those officers as human beings.
with only minor enhancements needed in people asked who the enemy was that their
neighborhoods that are already enjoying police were fighting that required providing Weaknesses of Traditional
prosperity, peace, and goodwill. In other officers with equipment used in war (e.g., Community Policing
communities, however, the mistrust of local armored personnel carriers). At the same As stated previously, law enforce-
law enforcement is marked and seemingly time, police officers questioned if their com- ment leaders looking for proactive ways
beyond repair. These communities tend to munities were markedly dangerous given to improve community-police relations
be plagued by chronic violence and pov- the need for military-grade equipment. The increasingly adopted community polic-
erty; these challenges, along with limited net effect was feelings of mistrust from both ing strategies. This shift in strategic focus
resources and a perceived lack of safety for the police and the community that contrib- from the traditional reactive policing to a
officers patrolling the communities they uted to a growing divide between them. more proactive approach has been gener-
serve, can erode the morale of even the It is important to note that the authors are ally implemented in response to concerns
finest police and public safety personnel. not saying that law enforcement agencies about the lack of connectedness between
The result is a general mistrust that exists should not acquire equipment needed to departments and their communities. As dis-
between community members and the law support their mission; rather, it is a reminder satisfaction with law enforcement continues
enforcement agencies that serve and pro- to consider the impact of the equipment’s to be an issue in major cities, and, as civil
tect them. use on the community members and to use unrest occasionally manifests as a result,
the equipment in ways that are understand- it appears that community policing as a
Sources of Mistrust able to the community. For example, using strategy has not achieved all of its goals. As
Technological developments in society an armored carrier to approach a terrorism noted in a recent IACP National Policy Sum-
have contributed, at least in part, to some suspect is more understandable to commu- mit on Community-Police Relations, “police
of the disconnect between law enforce- nity members than using this same equip- departments have been challenged to fully
ment agencies and their communities. For ment at a peaceful protest. The authors are reach the promise of community policing as
example, as police agencies shifted from also not suggesting that law enforcement it was intended for a number of reasons.”5 THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 23

One major obstacle to effective community policing is that the
strategy is often deployed as a program implemented by a small
percentage of a department’s officer corps, as opposed to having
a department-wide mission or philosophy on how officers should
interact with the members of the community. Basically, proactive
policing is often relegated to a small portion of officers—the com-
munity policing officers—rather than every officer focusing on
community policing. Within the rank and file, those officers with
community policing assignments are sometimes viewed as lesser
officers compared to patrol officers, whose productivity and con-
tributions are seen as greater.
From the department’s perspective, having a few “officer friend-
lies” is good for public relations, particularly in their community’s
elementary and secondary schools. Positive interactions between
officers and children in schools are often seen as the community
policing path to better community-police relationships in neighbor-
hoods at large. Nevertheless, most community policing programs
remain based on reactive enforcement philosophies. The end result
of this partial implementation is some positive, light media cover-
age (e.g., photo opportunities), but little real change in terms of
community-police relations.
a safety net to every community member. Another step the director
Community Caretaking implemented as part of the community caretaking philosophy was
The authors suggest an alternative to the community policing to attain accreditation by the Commission on Accreditation for Law
model known as “community caretaking.” Community caretaking Enforcement Agencies (CALEA) in 2015.
is a philosophy that promotes organization-wide strategies empha- Community caretaking requires buy-in from the entire depart-
sizing service, education, partnerships, and crime prevention and ment. As the department shifts its focus and makes the community
reduction with the goal of gaining greater community involvement aware of the change, community members will come to have differ-
to reduce crime through improved understanding of law enforce- ent expectations of their interactions with members of the depart-
ment practices. Service is the primary orientation of police engaged ment. As noted above, the community caretaking approach differs
in community caretaking; however, officers will always have to from community policing in that it reflects a department-wide strat-
provide enforcement of laws as part of their duties, no matter the egy and mission, rather than one program in a department with
philosophy of policing championed. On college campuses, for a small proportion of officers providing community policing. As
example, police and public safety departments need to provide a a result, several major department-wide changes are necessary to
range of services, including security, safety, and enforcement. The move from a community policing paradigm to one of community
focus, though, is on providing service to the community and taking caretaking. These changes need to be communicated from the top
care of its constituents—thus, “community caretaking.” down on a consistent and frequent basis.
Citizens pay taxes to fund law enforcement and other municipal The new mission and service philosophy must be communi-
services to ensure that help will be there in case of an emergency and cated on a consistent basis both internally (within the department)
that the help will not only respond but, hopefully, resolve the prob- and externally (to the community). Ideally, it will be highlighted as
lem. While many departments have mission statements that say “pro- the department brand (e.g., “We Are Your Community Caretakers”;
tect and serve,” the reality for some departments is that they tend to “Community Caring Is Our Mission”).
enforce and react. Departments seeking to be community caretakers Policies and procedures need to meet or exceed national stan-
need to engage the community regularly (e.g., meeting with leaders dards. For example, department accreditation is a statement to the
from the neighborhood who represent different stakeholders; host- community that the department leadership is committed to the
ing town hall meetings). It is also helpful to equip officers with the best practices in law enforcement and to providing high-quality
appropriate training, both in the academy and beyond, for success in services. This is an important step in developing community trust
these interactions. The community caretaking philosophy can lead in the department.
community members to experience less fear of and greater trust in Changing the department culture requires giving officers per-
the police; they will also become more active participants in their own mission to use their patrol time in different ways. At Princeton
security. For community caretaking departments to serve as models of University, for example, a greater emphasis was placed on activities
excellence, they should pursue and obtain accreditation to ensure that requiring officers to get out of their cars and do more foot patrols
their policies, procedures, and practices meet or exceed best practices. where they were encouraged to engage with the community. There
was an emphasis placed on activities that would create opportuni-
Case Study: Princeton University Department of ties for officers to engage with people in their patrol areas (e.g., the
Public Safety dorms, academic buildings, and sports centers).
There are police departments that have already made the change To develop a program successfully, there must be assigned and
to community caretaking. In 2010, Princeton University hired a new dedicated oversight to facilitate the creation of new and different
director of the Department of Public Safety (DPS) who was asked to community connections. Princeton University DPS was fortunate
change the focus of the department by enhancing an already strong since it had a community partnership initiative (CPI) already in
campus law enforcement agency. The DPS consists of 150 full-time, place. To take the program to the next level, a sergeant was assigned
part-time, and per diem professionally trained sworn and non-sworn part-time to develop and promote the existing CPI. Examples of
personnel who ensure the safety of approximately 5,200 undergradu- community groups targeted for partnership included undergraduate
ate students, 2,500 graduate students, and more than 6,000 faculty and dormitories, health services, athletic teams, graduate student dorms
staff. After an assessment of DPS, the director established a new depart- and dorm leaders, student organizations, and religious organiza-
ment mission of community caretaking, emphasizing service and tions. The goal was to get officers involved with the community by
assistance over enforcement. The philosophy also means providing providing services and programming on a regular basis. THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 25

To help ensure the success of the department, hiring practices rather, the approach was to let positive peer pressure work
should focus on developing local talent and increasing the diver- over time.
sity of the department. At Princeton University, for example, the • Law enforcement administration and leaders should develop
DPS has a history of hiring a diverse body of staff and student work- (or be very involved with the development of) programs
ers. Hiring students in a university community is analogous to hir- related to the department’s mission, and then initially push
ing local community members for a municipal police department. these programs from the top down in the organization.
Bringing members of the community into the department The administration’s consistent tone and visible support
allows people to experience officers first-hand as good people who for the programs will help with changing the culture of the
are indeed focused on service. Relatedly, it is important to educate department.
the community about law enforcement, whether it is on a college • Law enforcement administration and leaders should
campus or in a township or municipality. A citizen police academy support the members of the department taking ownership
is one good example of a strategy to educate the community about for developing programs based on their own interests and
the field of law enforcement. expertise. For example, once the majority of the Princeton
Leaders can encourage department members to develop their University’s DPS staff saw the benefit of the community
own community programs and then support the development and caretaking approach, several officers started creating their
implementation of those programs. Once officers have ownership own programs. Leaders can also reward officers for program
and autonomy regarding programming and experience the posi- development, which further reinforces the department’s
tive impact of their efforts, the mission of the department begins to mission and philosophy. In essence, almost everything that
become self-reinforcing. At Princeton DPS, for example, while some the administration does can be an opportunity to support
officers were excited about working with the community, it has taken (or not support) the efforts of its members to embody the
six years to move to a fully officer-initiated program. Examples of mission of the department.
recent successful programs include a three-on-three basketball tour- • Law enforcement administration and leaders should
nament, cookie bake-off competitions, and coffee and conversation recognize and understand that the mission can never be
with cops. fully realized. While a majority of the department is involved
in community programming at the Princeton DPS, more
Lessons Learned work remains to be done. For example, the department will
The experience at Princeton DPS has yielded some valuable need to make programs more strategic in terms of reaching
lessons about organizational change that may be helpful to police out to different groups that may be outside of the officers’
leadership, as well as ancillary roles like police support staff (e.g., comfort zone.
administrative professionals) and police professional staff (e.g., police • Law enforcement administration and leaders should
psychologists). Making meaningful and long-lasting institutional communicate the mission of the department to all ancillary
changes is a challenging process that requires buy-in from every administrative and professional staff so that their work can
stakeholder. It also requires the support of the different constituent be in sync with the culture of the department. For example,
groups that interact with the organization and its members. the department’s police psychologist needs to understand the
Most important, community caretaking is an “all-in philosophy” department’s mission so that candidates vetted for potential
with every member of the department engaged in the mission of hire are screened to assess their fit with the department’s
the department every day. Other important lessons learned include philosophy.
the following: • Law enforcement administration and leaders can implement
• Law enforcement administration and leaders need to be community caretaking without any special equipment,
mindful about consistently communicating about and funding, or consultants. It might take time, but any officer
promoting the community caretaking mission at every and any department can do it.
possible opportunity (e.g., department meetings, email
correspondence, meetings with community groups). Limitations
• Law enforcement administration and leaders need to In this article, the authors discussed the DPS at Princeton Uni-
understand that it may take a long time for line officers and versity—a private university with generous resources and generally
their sergeants to embrace this concept. At the Princeton low crime. The authors acknowledge that some, perhaps many,
DPS, for example, community caretaking was seen as would argue that the community caretaking approach would not
just “words from the chief” until officers started to see work outside a campus environment or in a high crime area. In
results. This included more support for the DPS in terms areas where crime is rampant, for example, it may be highly unlikely
of equipment and funding in line with the department that the entire department would be able to actively engage in com-
mission. Moreover, active engagement with the community munity caretaking, especially in places where specialized teams are
caretaking philosophy contributed to greater officer job needed (e.g., SWAT, vice, bomb squad). A community caretaking
satisfaction—officers who got involved with and made approach may also be more difficult to implement in larger agen-
friends with people in the community through caretaking cies, and it stands to reason that the challenges associated with
programs started to experience work more positively. staying on mission grow with the size of an agency.
• Law enforcement administration and leaders should The media present another limitation of note. The mainstream
consider that some officers will not like to see the media often highlight negative events involving police, and this
department make a change in philosophy. For example, one-sided approach only contributes to community-police mis-
some officers saw the community caretaking approach trust. Many proactive departments now have their own media
as doing less policing and more social work; others were officers whose job is to ensure that positive community-police
passively resistant. Changing the culture takes a consistent interactions receive equal press as the more challenging situations
message and time; at Princeton University, it took about that get extensive coverage, which at times can be incomplete or
five years to have the majority of the DPS accept the inaccurate.
new mission and incorporate it into their day-to-day It is important to also acknowledge that poverty and limited
patrol activities. It was important to not create a split in resources can be a barrier to the success of employing a commu-
the department between those who were interested in nity caretaking approach, and it is inappropriate and unfair to ask
community caretaking and those who were not interested; officers to solve every societal problem. Another challenge might


be a highly resistant community—if a com-
munity does not want a relationship with Paul L. Ominsky was appointed executive director of the Department of Public
the department, then employing the com- Safety (DPS) at Princeton University in 2010, and DPS became CALEA-accredited in
munity caretaking approach is going to take 2015. Prior to his role at Princeton, Mr. Ominsky served as director of public safety at
a long time to develop until some amount Mount Holyoke College (1992–2010), Smith College (2003–2010), and Hampshire
of trust can be created between the depart- College (2008–2010) as part of a regionalized campus policing initiative. Mr. Ominsky
ment and the community it serves. When holds a bachelor of science degree in psychology and master of education from the
a department is facing a highly strained University of Massachusetts in counseling. He is director-at-large of the International
relationship with its community, then, per- Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators (IACLEA).
haps, the community caretaking approach Dr. Lewis Schlosser is a police and public safety psychologist. Dr. Schlosser is a
can be targeted to specific neighborhoods diplomate of the American Board of Professional Psychology (board certified in coun-
within the community at the outset with seling psychology). He is a former tenured associate professor at Seton Hall University
the hope that the approach could expand (2003–2012) and former in-house director of psychological services for the New York
after some initial success. City Department of Correction (2006–2015). Dr. Schlosser is a member of the Interna-
The authors acknowledge that it might tional Association of Chiefs of Police, Police Psychological Services Section. He is also
not be feasible for every department to fully an affiliate member of the New Jersey State Association of Chiefs of Police and Bergen
realize a community caretaking mission, County Police Chiefs Association.
but even starting on this new path for law
enforcement will benefit community-police
relationships. The guiding principle of com- (Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, 5
IACP National Policy Summit on Community-
munity caretaking is to emphasize service 2016), Police Relations: Advancing a Culture of Cohesion
over enforcement; thus, the ultimate goal is 09/29/the-racial-confidence-gap-in-police and Community Trust (Alexandria, VA:
to bring more balance to law enforcement’s -performance. International Association of Chiefs of Police,
efforts within its communities. It is in this 3
Gayle Fisher-Stewart, Community Policing 2015),
new, balanced approach that communities Explained: A Guide for Local Governments, U.S. 0/documents/pdfs/CommunityPolice
should start to see officers as more human, Department of Justice, Community Oriented RelationsSummitReport_web.pdf.
reasonable, and approachable, which, in Policing Services, 2007,
turn, will lead to more community-police pdf/vets-to-cops/cp_explained.pdf.
partnerships. 4
Community Policing Defined, Office of
Community Oriented Policing Services, 2012,
How does law enforcement shift its ori- -pub.pdf.
entation to the new expectations of their
communities? It starts with becoming com-
munity caretakers; it’s a modest change
that puts law enforcement on a new path
to restore trust that may have been lost,
as well as challenging officers and their
departments in new and more substantial
ways. Departments that espouse a commu-
nity caretaking approach can describe their
mission to their communities. Public safety
agencies serve as the ultimate safety net
for every community, and it is police offi-
cers who are expected to assess situations
and determine rapidly if a threat exists. In
21st century law enforcement, officers are
asked to be a community resource for a
greater number of non-enforcement situa-
tions. While officers should not be asked to
solve every societal problem, modern-day
officers can and should become stronger
links between the community and other
resources. In this way, community caretak-
ing departments are part of the solution
for community-police relations. Commu-
nity caretaking is a foundational change;
although, the work is hard and takes a long
time, the results can truly be rewarding. v

Jeff Jones and Lydia Saad, “Gallup Poll
Social Series: Crime,” Gallup News Service,
Rich Morin and Renee Stepler, The
Racial Confidence Gap in Police Performance THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 27

FORENSIC SYSTEM All photos courtesy of USDOJ/ICITAP.

By Leticia Collado, Forensic DNA Supervisor, change from a federal system and 32 individual state justice systems,
International Criminal Investigative Training which were semi-inquisitorial in nature, to a national adversarial,
oral system. This was viewed as a comprehensive and profound
Assistance Program, Mexico reform, creating a national law enforcement and justice system to be
fully implemented country-wide by June 2016. In the law enforce-
ment arena, the most important reforms concern the National Public

C rime rates and violence in Mexico are topics that demand the
attention of both domestic and international communities on
both sides of the Mexico-U.S. border. The U.S.-funded Merida Ini-
Safety System. In addition to human rights, the reform regulates the
recruitment, selection, training, and retention of law enforcement per-
sonnel by setting minimum training and quality requirement stan-
tiative, beginning in fiscal year 2008, created a mutually beneficial, dards. Competencies are now being established, which require
bilateral partnership between Mexico and the United States. The the professionalization of prosecutors, police officers, and forensic
objective of the initiative includes countering drug trafficking and examiners.
organized crime, the institutionalization of human rights and rule of This mandated reform underlines the relevance of reliable
law reforms in Mexico, as well as strengthening a modern interna- forensic lab results in support of investigations, reconstructions,
tional border between both nations.1 The initiative is key to address- and reporting of facts within a legal process, as well as evidence
ing the issues resulting from the transnational nature of modern collection, submission, examination, and admission at trial. In this
crime and is perceived as essential to the security of both nations. context, forensic labs must prove their individual reliability and
On June 18, 2008, Mexico’s National Gazette published the con- technical competence, and forensic experts must provide credible,
stitutional amendment decree, mandating a transition to a new factual expert testimony based on unbiased scientific analyses,
national criminal justice system.2 This amendment signaled the reproducible in any other laboratory around the world.


Prior to June 2016, field investigators and technicians who col- of the adversarial system. Attitudes and practices on multiple lev-
lected and processed evidence at the crime scene and forensic els must be changed to make financial and human resources avail-
laboratory experts responsible for processing and analyzing such able in order to update equipment, infrastructure, and methods and
evidence at forensic specialty laboratories were not subject to practices, as well as preparation for the oral presentation of scientific
direct or cross-examination in a court of law. Currently, the new analyses during testimony, with the long-term goal of decreasing
legal reforms bring investigators and forensic experts into the impunity, even as national and international crimes have increased.
court, where they are confronted with the evidence that has been This change process requires a special buy-in by Mexican agencies,
collected, processed, and analyzed. Not only are they required to since it implies a radical change in the way problems are perceived,
testify in an ethical manner, but their suitability as witnesses, the defined, and solved. The current Mexican system is based on the
scientific validity of their methods, the level of standards that gov- delivery of results, whereas the new culture of quality is concerned
ern laboratory practices, and the reproducibility of their results are not only with the results themselves, but also with the quality, valid-
all brought into question. In this manner, it is expected that the ity, and credibility of the processes that were followed to achieve
judge will consider all evidence presented and objectively render the results.
the appropriate verdict. This process is expected to create and fos- To this end, technical assistance and specialized training is
ter confidence in the new system not only with the public, but also being provided through the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of
with the judges, attorneys, experts, investigators, and police who International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) and the
administer it. U.S. Department of Justice’s International Criminal Investigative
The leaders and scientists within the various forensic laborato- Training Assistance Program (ICITAP). This partnership between
ries of Mexico now face the challenge of creating a strong culture of Mexico and the United States aims to develop and augment the
quality in response to the pressure generated by the new paradigm capabilities of Mexican forensic technicians and laboratories and THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 29

centers for forensic pathology throughout audits, but also through inspections by a rec- in building a culture of quality in accordance
Mexico. In addition, the partnership seeks ognized accrediting body. The accreditation with existing accreditation requirements.
to guide federal and state laboratories in status communicates the assurance that the Each advisor is a facilitator, providing the
utilization of modern forensic equipment laboratory complies with the standards for on-site technical training, assistance, and
through validated procedures aligned with competence, impartiality, and skill. There mentoring, as well as providing guidance for
internationally recognized best practices, are a number of accreditation bodies around the development of procedures, protocols,
technical training, and the mentoring nec- the world; in Mexico, the ICITAP forensic and manuals. The advisors, together with the
essary for the attainment of accreditation in assistance program works jointly with fed- laboratory staff, work through a checklist of
line with the recommendations for forensic eral and state laboratories for accreditation requirements needed for the adoption of ISO
science from the American National Acad- by the ANSI-ASQ National Accreditation standards in preparation for the accredita-
emy of Science. Board (ANAB), which is a widely recognized, tion visits by ANAB assessors. Training and
Globally, the International Organiza- nongovernmental organization providing mentoring is aimed at supplementing the
tion for Standardization (ISO) is respon- accreditation services to public and private knowledge and experience of laboratory
sible for setting standards that provide sector organizations. personnel and the standardization of proce-
specifications for products, services, and The ICITAP forensic assistance program, dures, ensuring the integrity of all evidentiary
systems to ensure the quality, safety, and funded by INL, started operating in 2010 materials in an investigation and producing
efficiency of offered products. Two specific with two federal agencies whereby the Fed- reliable results.
international standards have been applied eral Police forensic DNA lab obtained its ICITAP and INL, assisting the govern-
in forensics: ISO/IEC 17025:2005—General accreditation in 2012 through the Mexican ment of Mexico, share a common goal
Requirements for the Competence of Test- Accreditation Entity (EMA). Between 2015 of providing assistance to Mexican labo-
ing and Calibration Laboratories and ISO/ and 2016, international accreditations for the ratories in reaching full accreditation in
IEC 17020:2012—Conformity Assessment: DNA, Chemistry, Questioned Documents, the identified disciplines over the coming
Requirements for the Operation of Various and Firearms Laboratories from the Office of years. Working through memoranda of per-
Types of Bodies Performing Inspection.3 the Attorney General (PGR) were obtained formance and transference (MPT) with
The International Laboratory Accreditation through the ANAB. State-level collaboration each state, INL and ICITAP, together with
Cooperation (ILAC) supplements the ISO began in 2013, and, to date, ANAB’s interna- the government of Mexico, have prioritized
standards with forensic-specific guidelines tional accreditation was accomplished by the laboratories according to facilities, equip-
in ILAC G19:2014–Modules in a Forensic Crime Scene Processing units in the states of ment, infrastructure, and training needs,
Science Process.4 Querétaro in 2015 and Puebla in 2016. as well as other factors. Each MPT estab-
The purpose of adopting these standards During 2015, extensive visits were con- lishes not only the assistance each state is
is the implementation of a quality manage- ducted at all 290 federal and state forensic to receive, but the conditions and a timeline
ment system that is necessary to monitor services laboratories. Through a mutual deci- for the transference of budgetary responsi-
adherence to policies and to provide sys- sion between the government of Mexico, bilities to local government for continued
tematic feedback in a continuous improve- ICITAP, and INL, the forensic assistance support of the forensic laboratories within
ment model. Continuous improvement program has focused on advancing accredi- the state.
is achieved through the plan-do-check- tation efforts for seven forensic specialties: To date, ongoing training and mentoring
act (PDCA) cycle where procedures and genetics, chemistry, questioned documents, efforts exist within the following 16 states
policies are developed and implemented, firearms, fingerprints, forensic medicine, and Mexico City:
adherence is monitored, and management and crime scene processing. U.S. and Mexi- • Aguascalientes
reviews are conducted to identify ways to can forensic advisors and specialists in the • Baja California
improve performance. aforementioned seven forensic disciplines • Baja California Sur
Conformance to the standards and poli- are jointly working with prioritized labora- • Campeche
cies is evaluated not only through internal tories through the forensic program to assist • Chiapas
• Chihuahua
• State of Mexico
• Guanajuato
• Jalisco
• Morelos
• Nuevo León
• Puebla
• Querétaro
• Sinaloa
• Tabasco
• Yucatán
Thus far, the transition process has
required joint efforts by all parties involved.
The government of Mexico has spent
considerable effort in developing spe-
cific documentation guidelines in order to
appropriately describe and document activ-
ities performed by forensic scientists and
technicians within their assigned duties
and analyses. Through ICITAP, Mexican
and U.S. advisors continue to advise and
mentor federal and state laboratories in the
development and implementation of their
own quality management systems.


The strategy that has been adopted for the forensic assistance
program in creating and implementing an ISO quality manage-
ment system begins by conducting an initial assessment in order
to develop an individualized action plan according to the current
status of laboratories in individual Mexican states.
Each action plan includes elements of the following 10 activities:
1. Definition of the scope of the accreditation
2. Development of a quality manual and outlining procedures
(administrative and technical) to meet the scope (by
incorporating ISO 17025, ISO 17020, and ILAC G19
3. Validation of the desired analytical or examination methods
4. Implementation of the designed management system (a
three-month time frame is needed for the implemented
system to generate documentary evidence)
5. Application of an external competency test through the
validated analytical methods in at least one subcategory for
each category in the accreditation scope (proficiency testing
by ISO/IEC 17043 vendors) trial. The process, although advancing well, faces certain challenges
6. Application of a thorough internal audit by in-house to the continuation and growth of the culture of quality within the
auditors who have been trained in ANAB’s criteria Mexican criminal justice system. Smaller states with smaller bud-
7. Corrections and adjustments to international standards gets present special challenges. In addition, the complexities of
according to deficiencies identified in the internal audit international crimes continue to challenge law enforcement efforts
findings to identify all ramifications. Finally, deep-rooted past practices and
8. Application of a management review for the entire quality roles established under the previous criminal justice systems require
management system and preparation of a four-year generational persistence to ensure the full establishment of the new
proficiency testing plan criminal justice system. In the meantime, a new culture of quality
9. Submission of audit request to ANAB has been born in Mexico.v
10. Post-audit adjustments as per requirements made by the
ANAB auditors
Each laboratory works at a different pace, determined by the sci- Leticia Collado formerly served with the Federal Police
entific discipline (chemistry, genetics, etc.); training required; and in Mexico as a DNA scientist specializing in human identifi-
staffing, as well as the level of preparedness at the beginning of cation. She is a founding member of the Federal Police DNA
the process. Advisors and staff set the priorities for each consultation laboratory and was involved in the expansion of the labora-
visit beforehand and plan the activities in order to maximize each vis- tory accreditation process from the initial design stage. While
it according to the specific objectives identified in the action plan in the Federal Police, she was appointed as a specialist to inter-
previously developed, systematically moving through the list until pret complex samples in difficult cases, primarily relating to
each activity has been completed. Currently, four states (Aguascali- the processing of burned bone samples, as part of Mexico’s
entes, Baja California, Guanajuato, and Puebla) have finished the 10 Missing Persons Project. She is currently employed as a sub-
activities listed and have submitted requests to ANAB for accredita- ject matter expert and supervisor of a U.S. State Department–
tion of 16 laboratories in the seven forensic specialty areas. funded forensic assistance program. In this role, she mentors
The accomplishments achieved thus far toward the accredita- personnel within Mexican police genetics laboratories seeking
tion of forensic laboratories in Mexico are unprecedented. They ISO forensic accreditation.
represent a major change at the top levels of law enforcement and
state political leadership, demonstrating a willingness to dedicate
Mexican financial and human resources to the establishment of a Notes:
21st-century system of forensic laboratories dedicated to competent, 1
Clare Ribando Seelke and Kristin Finklea, U.S.-Mexican Security
scientific, and ethical services through accredited facilities and per- Cooperation: The Merida Initiative and Beyond (Washington, D.C.:
sonnel. As the level of preparedness rises, so do the confidence and Congressional Research Service, 2016),
credibility of each expert witness who is called upon to testify. With R41349.pdf.
the ability to effectively communicate scientific results within the 2
“Decreto por el que se Reforman y Adicionan Diversas
courtroom setting, criminal impunity must decrease. It is only a mat- Disposiciones de la Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos
ter of time until all Mexican laboratories and personnel, scientists, Mexicanos,” Diario Oficial de la Federación, June 18, 2008, http://www
and investigators have joined the quality revolution. The impact
and transcendence of modifying previous practice coupled with the 3
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), “General
birth of a culture of quality in forensic examination processes are Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration
merely the beginning of the task of improving social confidence in Laboratories,” ISO/IEC 17025:2005,
Mexican law enforcement agencies and criminal justice system. _detail?csnumber=39883; ISO, “Conformity Assessment: Requirements for
In summary, Mexico is currently committed to working through the Operation of Various Types of Bodies Performing Inspection,” ISO/IEC
the Merida Initiative toward the accreditation of each of the forensic 17020:2012,
laboratories and forensic pathology centers in the 31 Mexican states 4
International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC),
and Mexico City. The process is based on the quality guidelines set “Modules in a Forensic Science Process,” ILAC G19:08/2014, http://ilac
forth for forensic specialty laboratories, as described in ILAC’s G19 .org/?ddownload=805.
document; the forensic investigation process begins with crime
scene processing, continues with evidence examination at labo-
ratories for the different forensic specialties, and culminates in the
presentation of courtroom testimony by expert witnesses in an oral THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 31

L aw enforcement in the United Kingdom is experiencing many
changes and challenges, both in terms of the demands placed on
policing and law enforcement and in the complexity of providing
these services.
In recent years, crime has been at a historic low, but the official
record of crimes committed in England and Wales now includes,
for the first time, a fast-growing crime type: cybercrime or Internet-
enabled offenses.1
It has come as no surprise to police forces that the UK’s Office
for National Statistics (ONS) in 2016 recorded an additional 5.6
million fraud and computer misuse crimes, which means that the
number of online crimes are approaching the total number of all
offline crimes combined.2
The exponential rise in digital and technology-related crime
is one of the factors behind the growth of demand in the area of
vulnerability. This, in turn, is causing UK law enforcement to look
closely at this very emotive and complex area of police work.
There is no common definition of vulnerability in the United
Kingdom, although this is something the Police Superintendents’
Association of England and Wales (PSAEW) is calling for.3 How-
ever, for the superintending ranks who lead in this area of policing,
vulnerability can encompass any or all of the following:
• domestic abuse
• child abuse
• child sexual exploitation
• female genital mutilation
• missing and absent children
• missing adults
• prostitution and adult sexual exploitation
• child trafficking and slavery

The New Volume Demand:

• modern slavery and trafficking of adults
• violent and sexual offenders
• grooming or online abuse of children or vulnerable adults
• indecent images of children

Keeping Pace
• elder abuse
• forced marriage and “honor-based” violence
• disclosure schemes for child abuse and domestic violence
Within each of the 43 forces across England and Wales, there
is a Public Protection Unit (PPU) that deals with and oversees the

with Vulnerability
policing response to these areas of criminality. All of these units are
led by police officers of superintendent rank.
The PPU concept was originally developed to address inter-
familial abuse within a specific geographic (force) area. Its mission
has since evolved to the point where each unit is now responsible
for the police response to many (or all) of those areas of vulnerabil-

ity previously outlined.
However, with the advent of online crimes, the requirement for
public protection is no longer confined within a specific geographic
area. PPUs will now manage investigations in which the victim
may reside within their force area, but the perpetrator is located

Culture Change
somewhere else entirely—or vice versa. The perpetrator(s) may be
located in a different region, a different country, or a different con-
tinent entirely. Law enforcement might not know where they are.
This kind of global criminal reach has been wholly enabled by the
A key responsibility of law enforcement officers and many other
public servants is to protect children and the most vulnerable in
society. But the best efforts of policing and its partner agencies only
scratch the surface of this problem.
By Gavin Thomas, Chief Superintendent, Gloucestershire According to the ONS, an average of 7 percent of adults (11
percent of women and 3 percent of men) in the United Kingdom
Police, President, Police Superintendents’ Association stated that they were sexually assaulted during their childhood.4
These findings suggest that 567,000 women aged between 16 and
of England and Wales 59 and 102,000 men in the same age bracket suffered childhood
sexual abuse.
This is bigger than a law enforcement issue; it is a real societal


Based on the challenges facing law en-
forcement and what members of the PSAEW A key responsibility of law enforcement officers and many
who are trying to meet this demand are say-
ing, if law enforcement is to have any chance other public servants is to protect children and the most
of tackling this problem, it will require both
radically different thinking and a change in vulnerable in society.
culture within policing to enable officers to
play their part in this more effectively.
As a staff association, the PSAEW is par- further work at home and “on-call” functions sibility for mental health, youth engage-
ticularly keen to support its members who undertaken in addition to that. There was ment, safer schools partnership teams,
lead in this important and highly challeng- also a perception that those outside the PPU and troubled families programs. This is
ing area of policing, particularly in terms world regarded this type of work as “emo- in addition to the professional skills, experi-
of protecting their health and well-being. tional” or softer in nature and, therefore, of ence, and training of the officers requiring
To this end, the association sought to learn lower standing or import to other types of them to be part of the Senior Investigat-
more about the current approach to public investigative work in areas such as acquisi- ing Officer (SIO) cadre and other specialist
protection in forces, and the wider partner- tive crime. investigation commands dealing with other
ship context, to better understand where to aspects of criminality.
target its efforts to help members and, at the Data Collection Approach 2: PPU Bearing in mind the increase in demand
same time, improve policing for the public. Heads Survey being reported, respondents were asked
Following these focus groups, the PSAEW whether their force had realigned resources
Data Collection Approach 1: Focus surveyed heads of PPUs across England and to meet the threat, harm, and risk within
Groups Wales to enable an evidence-based analysis their particular command over the previous
Through a series of focus groups, which of the situation. This survey took place in 12 months. Two-thirds of forces had under-
were held with PPU leads across the United September 2015 and resulted in a 68 percent taken such an exercise, whereas one-third
Kingdom in February 2015, a number of response rate.8 had not.
common concerns were identified—most Respondents were asked whether, prior This discrepancy may reflect the dif-
notably, the levels of risk carried by PPU to being appointed to the PPU, they had pre- ferent competing priorities being faced by
leads and the differences in structure and vious experience of public protection work. forces as well as reduced levels of resources
responsibility between PPUs in different Just under half had not, although more than overall. Some £2.5 billion and 19,000 police
forces.5 This lack of consistency has also three-quarters did have a background in officers have been taken out of policing in
been highlighted as an issue for policing specialist crime investigation. Worryingly, the past five years. This is a reduction of
both by Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Con- given these responses, an overwhelming 82 around 14 percent in the number of officers
stabulary and the Parliamentary Home percent reported not having received any policing communities across England and
Affairs Select Committee.6 training or professional development prior Wales. On the other hand, the absence of
A developing crisis of not being able to to taking up their current appointment. any such review might simply indicate a
attract people with the required skills and In terms of welfare, health, and well- lack of recognition at senior ranks within
aptitudes was reported. Practitioners felt that, being, respondents were asked whether policing of the levels of risk carried within
while partnerships were functioning, a more any arrangements were in place for regu- PPUs.
streamlined, victim-centered approach with lar health checks or mandatory referrals to While some increases in staffing levels
effective data sharing was required and was Occupational Health Units, and 70 percent of were reported, a concerning theme was the
the way forward. responses reported no such provision being difficulty in recruiting police officers into
The focus groups also identified a gap made. some of these roles. There were also sig-
in strategic thinking among partners and When asked how long they had been nificant variations in how PPU commands
policy makers, with a concern that the direc- in a PPU command, 44 percent had served were configured and staffed as a result of
tion of policy was unclear and no vision was between one and three years, with 28 per- different operating models being adopted
properly articulated of what a long-term, cent having served for less than one year. across the United Kingdom.
sustainable solution looked like. This lack of The remaining 28 percent had three years The most common operating model
strategic vision is compounded by the most or more in the post. This raises a question for public protection is that of a Multi-
recent data released by the Ministry of Justice, over the continuity of leadership in PPUs, Agency Safeguarding Hub (MASH). This
which show that the number of Category 1 particularly in terms of creating effective brings together relevant public services and
Registered Sex Offenders (the most serious relationships with key partners. other agencies in a joint approach to tackle
offenders) being managed by authorities Turning to demand, the survey showed crimes against the vulnerable. The model
in the United Kingdom—more commonly a clear increase in both the demand placed acknowledges the different causation fac-
referred to as the “Sex Offenders Register”— upon PPUs and the complexity of pub- tors surrounding vulnerability and the vari-
has increased by 42 percent in five years.7 lic protection activity during the previous ous areas of responsibility resting with each
PSAEW members also reported the exis- 12 months. In some cases, the increase in of the agencies involved.
tence of both personal and cultural issues, demand was reported as being somewhere However, an overwhelming 82 percent
such as high levels of anxiety and tenden- between 50 percent and 100 percent. Many of respondents operating within a MASH
cies to assign blame, which were inhibiting of the responses referred not only to an model thought it could be improved upon;
officers’ effectiveness. Public protection was increase in the number of reports being the efficient exchange of data and other
described as “an impossible job” in which all made requiring investigation, but also in information between partners being cited
of the expectations placed upon individuals the scale of meetings and bureaucracy as key areas for improvement. Lack of
could not possibly be met and led to high required to work with partners to address investment and poor buy-in from some
numbers of staff being under investigation the increased investigations. partner agencies was also mentioned.
for “failures.” Working hours were regarded The breadth of responsibility has also Some 65 percent of respondents felt
as excessive, with members reporting work- increased. As well as those areas listed earlier the MASH model was unsustainable, due
ing 50–60 hours per week in the office, with in this article, some PPUs also have respon- to resourcing across public services and THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 33

rightly need to be addressed, and those genuine mistakes made by
Officers need to be permitted to allow people who are trying to serve the public to the best of their ability
and who just happened to get something wrong.
mistakes to happen and to learn from them— If such an approach is to be successful, and a true learning cul-
ture is to pervade throughout policing, it will require the account-
but to learn quickly. ability mechanisms to be more flexible. There will also need to
be real drive, commitment, and courage at all levels in policing to
make this happen—but it starts with the leaders, from the top. v
overly complex and bureaucratic partnership structures. Several
respondents stated there was a need for a new approach to think-
ing on risk, threat, and demand across this whole area; the inability
to accurately predict levels of demand making it difficult to plan Chief Superintendent Gavin Thomas, a Gloucestershire
effectively. Constabulary officer has served as a detective at every rank.
His roles have included head of Crime and Protective Services
Challenging the Culture of Public Protection and senior investigation officer, and he has worked in various
It is evident that there is a need for a strategic vision to be devel- arenas, including specialist crime, counterterrorism, and pro-
oped around future demand and the risks, threats, and opportuni- fessional standards. In 2006, he attended the FBI program at
ties to be found in this area of service. The culture of those public Quantico, Virginia. He was elected president of the PSAEW in
services in the United Kingdom engaged in dealing with vulner- January 2016..
ability also needs to be challenged. For example, separate budgets,
different priorities, varying accountability, and inconsistent inspec-
tion regimes all inhibit the ability of police forces and their partner Notes:
agencies to adapt and flex in finding new and innovative ways to 1
Dominic Casciani, “Crime in England and Wales Falls to New
tackle emerging crimes. Record Low,” BBC News, January 22, 2016,
Some innovative areas of good practice are emerging. For uk-30931732.
example, Greater Manchester Police, a large metropolitan force, 2
Office for National Statistics (ONS), “Crime in England and Wales:
is embedding partner organizations within police teams to meet Year Ending June 2016,” statistical bulletin,
and deal with mental health issues at the point of most acute need, peoplepopulationandcommunity/crimeandjustice/bulletins/crime
rather than waiting for a referral to be made and for it then to be inenglandandwales/yearendingjune2016.
resourced in a more traditional way. Other forces are starting to 3
Lorraine Homer, “President: Licence Needed to Work in Public
develop effective protocols for sharing data at the right time with Protection,” Police Superintendents’ Association of England and Wales
the right professional, thereby optimizing decision-making and (PSAEW), news release, September 5, 2016, http://www.policesupers
enabling the best outcome to be delivered. .com/2016/09/05/president-licence-needed-to-work-in-public-protection.
As a result of the PSAEW highlighting the risks in this area, 4
ONS, “Abuse During Childhood: Findings from the Crime
the College of Policing, the professional body for policing in the Survey for England and Wales, Year Ending March 2016,” August 4,
United Kingdom, is working on a common definition for vulnerabil- 2016,
ity, as well as devising a development program for superintendents, crimeandjustice/articles/abuseduringchildhood/findingsfromtheyear
as well as heads of PPUs, that will ensure they are properly trained endingmarch2016crimesurveyforenglandandwales.
and accredited in the specialist skills and knowledge required to 5
PSAEW, “Public Protection – What Our Members Are Saying,” 2015,
undertake such demanding roles.9
However, there is still more to be done to raise the bar and to -PPU-what-our-members-are-saying.pdf.
achieve a level of consistency in how children and vulnerable citi- 6
Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary (HMIC), “Vulnerable
zens in society are protected and how the services they receive from Victims and Witnesses Are Being Let Down by an Inconsistent
policing can be improved. It is not a sustainable position for there to Approach to the Management of Criminal Case Files,” news release,
be such variance in how a child or vulnerable citizen in one polic- November 12, 2015,
ing area is protected in comparison with one in a different area. news/news-feed/vulnerable-victims-and-witnesses-are-being-let
This requires a cross-partnership approach capable of address- -down; Home Affairs Committee, “‘Alarming’ Inconsistencies in
ing the whole continuum of vulnerability, rather than the specific Policing Across Forces Must Be Addressed,” Parliament, July 9, 2016,
area of responsibility pertaining to a particular organization. It
requires a change in the mind-set of leaders so that they can engage commons-select/home-affairs-committee/news-parliament-2015/
in early intervention, share resources, and work together more college-of-policing-report-published-16-17.
effectively, thereby reducing demand over the longer term. 7
Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements Annual Report 2015/16
Developing a culture of leadership by inquiry is also important. (UK: Ministry of Justice, 2016),
Merely because crime recording data do not show a problem is no uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/563117/MAPPA
reason for complacency. Data that are captured do not always show _Annual_Report_2015-16.pdf.
a true or complete picture, a lesson learned at great cost over recent 8
Lorraine Homer, “Supts Call for Public Protection to be a
years with the number of legacy investigations and inquiries being Specialism,” PSAEW, May 31, 2016,
carried out in relation to child sexual exploitation. 05/31/put-public-protection-on-a-par-with-other-policing-specialisms
Finally, and possibly the hardest change of all, policing requires -superintendents.
a change in culture that gives officers permission to fail. Leaders at 9
College of Policing, “Response to Call from President of Police
all levels in policing need to say that it is okay to make a mistake. Superintendents’ Association for Public Protection Officers to
Officers need to be permitted to allow mistakes to happen and to Have a Licence,” news release, September 5, 2016, http://www
learn from them—but to learn quickly. This is a culture alien to the
one that exists currently that has been described as being “zero tol- Superintendents%E2%80%99_President_public_protection_story
erance to anything going wrong—but it will go wrong.”10 .aspx.
There needs to be a greater distinction drawn between those 10
PSAEW, “Public Protection – What Our Members Are Saying.”
behaviors that amount to gross negligence or misconduct, which





Video and audio redactionINTRODUCING

software that uses advanced facial
dectection technology to dramatically minimize the time officers SM

spend manually searching and marking video for redaction.

can and
be audio
as a stand-alone
software that usessystem, allowing redaction
advanced facial
dectection technology to dramatically minimize the time officers
of video evidence exported
spend manually from
searching multiple
and marking videocamera manufacturers.
for redaction.
Redactive is compatable with any common video formats or

evidence management software.
By Kris Allshouse, Detective
Supervisor (Ret.), City of Long
Beach, California, and Executive
Director, Los Angeles County
Regional Training Center,

I n Santa Ana, California, police served a

search warrant on a marijuana dispensary
that was operating improperly. After the
business had been cleared of patrons and
workers, a video surveillance system cap-
tured a police officer saying, “I was about to
kick her in her (expletive) nub,” referring to
an amputee in a wheelchair who was caught
in the raid.1 No one is exempt from those
momentary lapses when idiotic, emotion-
ally driven internal thoughts are verbalized
during private contextual moments; how-
ever, after watching this video, members of
the public are left wondering how officers
can get to such a point in their career. This is
just one of many instances reported by the
media that contribute to the strain in the
important relationship between police and
the communities they serve. Commenta-
tors might offer that the more than 929,000
U.S. police officers serving the country are
overwhelmingly professional and caring
and that the force applications depicted in
the news are almost always lawful; none-
theless, the politics on these issues are con-
voluted and run the full spectrum of views.2
However, all can agree that meaningful
strategies are needed to restore public trust
in law enforcement.
The politically expedient response to
this challenge is to compel police managers
to provide stricter oversight. This would no

What Happened to
doubt have a positive impact, but using only
this tactic is dangerous and can have sig-
nificantly negative effects on any organiza-
tion, especially over the long term. A more
comprehensive approach, which includes a
cultural change, is needed to yield a lasting

partnership between communities and their
law enforcement professionals. To achieve a
cultural shift, leadership must first fully rec-
ognize the problem within their own cul-
ture and then implement a systemic training
program built upon meaningful content
and delivery methodologies that create the

An Examination of Outcome-
intended behavioral shifts derived from
the attitudes taught. Implementing such a
systemic and long-term approach means
that legislative and administrative bodies

Based Strategies to Enhance must focus beyond their own political lifes-
pans and see a bright future years down
the road—something voters aren’t always

Ethical Policing
patient enough to entertain.

A man who catered to clientele from a
global region where people stood very close


to one another felt uncomfortable by their proximity. He asked a Building a Professional and Caring Culture
friend and “close talker” why he did that.3 Somewhat unaware of Outcome-based leadership training is one meaningful strategy to
the issue, the friend simply stated, “I don’t know, it’s just how we do ensure that police organizations establish and maintain a professional
things.” Without intending it, the friend provided a perfect exam- culture. Leaders can be trained proactively to make the best decisions.
ple of how culture affects people. The phrase “it’s just how we do Affective values can be instilled using training to arm leaders with the
things” reveals all one needs to know about any organization and resolve and caring needed to confront deficiencies and convey clear
provides a backdrop upon which cultures can be examined. expectations to all employees.
Culture is defined as the sum total of learned behavior in a given Proactive training strategies provide a means for employees to
society.4 With this understanding, stop and consider all of the “given determine the correct and most ethical behavior in a safe environ-
societies” and then ponder the originating sources for their “learned ment so that the very best decision can be reached and remembered
behaviors.” It is suggested that some form of leadership established for later application in the real world. The media often portray law
and then maintained those learned behaviors. Police executives enforcement as having ethical dilemmas on sensational issues
are certainly aware of culture, but often the subtleties of subjectiv- which are not actually hard decisions for most (e.g., criminal cover
ity obscure the depth of existing cultural defects. Police executives up, planting evidence). The reality is that the true dilemmas are
emerge from the very same police culture, so how could one expect much more complex and more easily justifiable—and are what
complete objectivity? One current and significant cultural defect is many call “borderline.” Knowingly sending employees unprepared
the propensity of police officers to objectify people. Many police into these potentially life-changing decisions, in the pressure of the
employees have heard things similar to “today’s victim is tomorrow’s moment, is nonsensical. Quality, outcome-based training can help
suspect.” Phrases like this might go unnoticed in the moment by law enforcement personnel to decide ahead of time, to reach prede-
those in that culture (including the author), but when hearing them termined conclusions. Predetermined responses strengthen or cre-
(or reading them) separated from the culture and context, these ate neural pathways that can be accessed later when it really counts.
comments seem unconscionable. Based on the type of contacts offi- Why wouldn’t one want officers to decide today what they will do
cers endure daily, it seems predictable one would begin to objectify when they are faced with even the smallest ethical dilemma? In this
other humans, if for no other reason than to cope with human cru- way, cultural norms and leadership expectations can be engrained
elty. Human objectification is just one example that could be seen as in the employee, who will become the future leader.
inconsequential but, when examined empirically, is actually a symp- Learned leadership skills empower people to be prepared to
tom of a culture that has been flawed from its onset. improve the culture by correcting things done wrong with absolute
Sam W. Foss’s poem “The Calf-Path,” describes how a single moral clarity. Like a parent with a beloved child, confronting self-
stray calf created a crooked, zigzagging path that ultimately ended destructing or deficient behavior is an expression of earnest care.
up as a highway and an encompassing metropolis. The importance of strong leadership in this area and the effect that
And o’er his crooked journey went training can have on improving leaders are revealed in generational
The traffic of a continent. management training. By the time generation X assumed first-line
A hundred thousand men were led, management positions, the culture was in the midst of significant
By one calf near three centuries dead. change. The millennial generation, now supervised by generation
They followed still his crooked way, X and baby boomers, needed a tremendous amount of oversight
And lost one hundred years a day.5 coupled with painfully strong and clear expectations. Many mem-
What better example can be offered to illustrate the long-term bers of generation X lacked the inclination for the confrontational
power and influence of leadership, good or bad? “The Calf-Path” methods needed to oversee and correct employees. A leadership
illustrates that it is incumbent upon organizational leadership to crisis developed and managers realized that training was needed.
choose and set the “path” of learned behaviors. Since 2005, police leadership training in California has often
Managers function within a given culture; leaders, on the other included a generational element to resolve this issue.10 With the
hand, define the culture. This assertion clarifies the enormous proper training, generation X has learned to adapt their leadership
importance of quality leadership in law enforcement. Consider style to be effective with millennial employees.
how a single police chief impacts the public in an exponential way Well-trained leaders ensure positive cultures by conveying clear
through this concept of establishing culture. and consistent organizational expectations. Employees become
A report by First Light PMV, in collaboration with Human Syn- keenly aware of the quality of work expected of them and the defi-
ergistics International, studied the attitudes and behaviors of 61 top cient behaviors that will result in discipline. Effective leaders use
CEOs in Canada.6 The study examined the links between leader- the facilitative method to convey the conceptual reasoning for these
ship, culture, and organizational performance and found that the expectations, improving employee buy in.
most constructive work cultures were the ones most impacted by
constructive leadership. In other words, the top leadership defined Facilitated Leadership
how well or poorly the entire organization operated. As members Facilitated leadership is a more advanced application of the
of a given society (organization) share assumptions, beliefs, and participative leadership style. It requires a mastery of directing
values, cultural norms are established; it speaks to “how things are team discussions with an ethic that truly seeks the best result for
done here.”7 The key then is to establish and maintain the correct all stakeholders. It flourishes under objective leaders who radiate
assumptions, beliefs, and values. In an interview, former Newport positive energy and recognize that behavior and potential are two
Beach Police Chief Jay Johnson explains, different things. These leaders believe in the unseen potential of
Within a given police department, there exists a particular culture. all people, so they include them as stakeholders. This stimulates
Within the various units in that police department, there exist subcul- employee development and generates buy-in and ownership by
tures. Good leaders create or alter the culture and, in extreme cases, team members because the solutions and strategies created with
eliminate a culture. He or she does this through leadership and setting this process are vetted by the leader and everyone involved, mean-
the example. If he or she is a true leader, the troops will follow.8 ing they are the best solutions known. Learning and applying the
Leadership development coach Laurie Hillis has argued that facilitated leadership style, both internally and with the commu-
good leaders create the conditions for the transformation of the nity, are effective ways to establish and maintain the professional
culture. She says that leaders ensure the systems and processes that police culture needed to restore public trust.
support the desired behaviors and that modeling those behaviors To better understand the concept of facilitated leadership, one
must start at the top.9 must first examine more familiar ways in which the facilitative THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 37

When it comes to financial
stability, it helps to be led
by one of the world’s most
successful businessmen.

And arguably the

world’s most successful

Since you’re a member of the International

Association of Chiefs of Police, GEICO could help
you save on car insurance, too. In fact, when you
get a quote, be sure to mention you’re a member of
the International Association of Chiefs of Police
and you could get a special discount.

Simply go to, call

1-800-368-2734 or contact your local GEICO
agent for a fast, no-obligation insurance quote.

g c / i ac p | 1 -80 0-3 68 -27 34

Some discounts, coverages, payment plans and features are not available in all states or all GEICO companies. GEICO contracts with various membership entities and other organizations, but these entities do not underwrite the offered insurance products. Discount
amount varies in some states. One group discount applicable per policy. Coverage is individual. In New York a premium reduction may be available. GEICO may not be involved in a formal relationship with each organization; however, you still may qualify for a special
discount based on your membership, employment or affiliation with those organizations. GEICO is a registered service mark of Government Employees Insurance Company, Washington, D.C. 20076; a Berkshire Hathaway Inc. subsidiary. GEICO Gecko image ©
1999-2016. © 2016 GEICO
within their organizations and with their communities. Once key
While one might never convince employees methods are learned—such as facilitated leadership—leaders will
be better equipped to establish and maintain the professional cul-
that the new direction is a good thing for them, ture that the public demands of policing agencies.

it doesn’t mean that they can’t fully understand Conclusion

Theologian John Henry Newman said, “One secret act of self-
why that decision has been made. denial, one sacrifice of inclination to duty, is worth all the mere good
thoughts, warm feelings, passionate prayers, in which idle people
indulge themselves.”12 Law enforcement is in a real crisis that calls for
method is used. The most broadly used application of group facilita- action that is meaningful, selfless, and applicable to the long term. A
tion is seen in a classroom. Top-level classroom facilitators generate significant strategy to improve public trust would be the implemen-
a very high percentage of course content directly from the students tation of a comprehensive leadership training program to effectively
using the 85 Percent Rule of facilitation.11 The 85 Percent Rule sug- redefine existing law enforcement cultures. Leadership deficiencies,
gests that the facilitator extract the course material instead of pro- such as poor communication and a culture of complacency, are major
jecting it by asking questions and building learning activities that factors in how public trust was lost in the first place. Only by utilizing
draw on the collective existing knowledge of the students. For top- a proactive and comprehensive leadership training program can pro-
ics that extend beyond the experience of the students, the facilita- fessional cultures be instituted and public trust reestablished. Apply-
tor must apply the 85 Percent Rule by using questions and activities ing learned leadership skills like the facilitative method and proactive
that stimulate deep critical thinking and cognitive reasoning to help ethical dilemma resolution in training will change the way the public
students figure things out. This type of classroom facilitation fosters sees police officers. v
dynamic discussion and elevates students from passive learners to
active participants and concept-stakeholders who retain informa-
tion longer because they generated it. Kris Allshouse serves as executive director for the Los
The 85 Percent Rule fits well in the workplace anytime leader- Angeles County Regional Training Center. He is a retired detec-
ship is astute enough to see the collective worth of employee input. tive supervisor and California POST Master Instructor. Kris
Instead of the traditional leader-centered style, this approach is teaches facilitated leadership within the framework of the 85
employee-centered but is ultimately true to results that consider all Percent Rule and the RRAC positive coaching model.
stakeholders over individuals. One example of appropriate applica-
tion is when there is anticipated employee resistance to a new orga-
nizational direction. While one might never convince employees Notes:
that the new direction is a good thing for them, it doesn’t mean that 1
Scott Schwebke, “Santa Ana Police Officers Sue to Quash Video
they can’t fully understand why that decision has been made. They of Pot Shop Raid,” Orange County Register, August 3, 2015, http://www
can be led through an objective facilitated discussion to critically
examine all of the options and see why this option was the best 2
Brian A. Reaves, Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 (Washington,
course of action from the organizational perspective. The leader D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2012),
can outline the problem in detail and then use well-designed ques- pub/pdf/fleo08.pdf; Brian A. Reaves, Census of State and Local Law
tions to extract all of the possible solutions. Essentially, he or she Enforcement Agencies, 2008 (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice
would be brainstorming a list of benefits and drawbacks. He or Statistics, 2011),
she could clarify the priorities and constraints of the organizational 3
Seinfeld, “The Raincoats,” directed by Tom Cherones, written by
stakeholders by asking the employees questions like, “If you were Larry David et al. (Castle Rock Entertainment, National Broadcasting
our customer, how would you want us to handle this?” or “If you Company), April 28, 1994.
were on the city council, what would your constraints/priorities 4
H. Roebel, World Cultures (Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall, 1949).
be?” In the end, the employees don’t have to support or even agree 5
National Education Association of the United States, Fiftieth
with the forces acting upon their superiors, they just need to under- Anniversary Volume, 1857–1906 (University of Wisconsin – Madison,
stand those forces from a (somewhat) empathetic point of view. 1907), 151.
Obviously, the ideal use of facilitated leadership is to stimulate 6
Peter Bromley, “The Best of the Best”: The Role of Leadership and Culture
innovation and employee ownership. It is best applied for team prob- in Creating Canada’s Best Organizations (Toronto, ON: First Light PMV
lem-solving and follows the same procedure regardless of the issue. Inc., 2003).
For each problem, the team must look at it from the perspective of all 7
Robert A. Cooke and Janet L. Szumal, “Measuring Normative
stakeholders, actually pretending that they are in that role in order Beliefs and Shared Behavioral Expectations in Organizations: The
to achieve a deeper understanding. The leader should be constantly Reliability and Validity of the Organizational Culture Inventory,”
stimulating critical thinking throughout the meeting by offering Psychological Reports 72, no. 3c (June 1993): 1299–1330.
opposing questions and reasoning, often acting as devil’s advocate. 8
Jay Johnson (former chief, Newport Beach Police Department),
For today’s law enforcement agencies, the real inclusive power interview with author, November 2003.
of the facilitative method comes in applying it to the community. 9
Laurie Hillis, Culture Follows the Leader (Banff Centre, 2015), http://
This is a natural progression as leaders establish and maintain a
culture of cooperative facilitated problem-solving within their Culture-Follows-The-Leader.pdf.
organizations, so the same principle spills out to the communities. 10
California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training,
Imagine a chief speaking at community meetings where the resi- Course Catalog, 2015.
dents see him or her as a partner and someone who values their 11
Kris Allshouse, “The 85 Percent Rule: Effective Outcome-Based
input and intellectual worth—someone objective enough to stand Instruction,” The Police Chief 82, no. 4 (April 2015): web-only, http://
back and facilitate a discussion on the real problems and meaning-
ful resolution strategies that truly value all stakeholders’ needs. 12
John Henry Newman, Brilliants Selected from the Works of John Henry
A comprehensive leadership training strategy will enable law Newman (Boston, MA: Samuel E. Cassino, 1892), 15.
enforcement leaders to create a sense of inclusiveness and purpose THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 39

The Strategic Guidance Framework:
A Global Strategic Impact
for Law Enforcement
By David Beer, Chief Superintendent (Ret.),
Royal Canadian Mounted Police

I n a world touched by violence, crime, and conflict, the role of civil-

ian police as a function of the international community’s peace-
keeping strategies has evolved. Once deployed as mainly observers
The SGF is introduced as a giant leap forward for the effectiveness
of police peacekeeping, but there is a real opportunity for a larger and
more global impact. It will introduce and raise awareness of “good”
and monitors, United Nations (UN) Police are now an essential ele- policing practices among UN-contributing countries and the recipient
ment of virtually every UN mission. Indeed, insofar as the civilian states they serve, and the exposure across the global civilian universe
police represent legitimate authority, the front line of security, and will be significant. The SGF has real potential to positively influence
the primary level of constitutionally supported systems of justice, fundamental police practices in issues such as human rights, use of
the role and mandate of international police missions has evolved. force, gender equality, sexual violence, and the protection of vulner-
Today civilian police missions are often complex and dangerous able persons, among other issues, and influence them to such an
and sometimes include executive authority in support of local gov- extent that the SGF may one day be understood on the same level as
ernments to establish and sustain security; to provide mentoring, Sir Robert Peel tying civilian police accountability to the communities
advising, and training; and to build capacity toward sustainable they protect and serve.1
local development.
As the civilian police role is acknowledged to have changed in History
a dynamic environment of conflict, the UN has struggled to find, The history of civilian police in UN peacekeeping dates back to
prepare, and deploy skilled and experienced police peacekeepers. the 1960s.2 In those early years, the role of civilian police was largely
The range of organizational expertise, skills, and experience among limited to monitoring, observing, and reporting in post-conflict
police-contributing countries (PCC) is varied—so varied, in fact, environments and serving as support to the large military observer
that there has been criticism of the UN that some police charged forces that tended to dominate “peacekeeping.” When intrastate
with operationally supporting and training internationally were rather than interstate conflict became more common, those early
no more capable than those of the recipient country they aimed foundational versions of peacekeeping were seen as ineffective.3
to help. Indeed, systemic problems have paralyzed UN responses New forms of conflict meant a need for new models of interna-
where there is a need for the right people, in the right job, at the tional intervention, and the role of police changed markedly.4
right time. By the 1990s, in response to changing conflicts, traditional peace-
In a painstaking process of development, driven internally by keeping grew to include alternative and inclusive strategies. The
the UN Police Division, buoyed by the international policing com- importance of establishing fundamental justice as a foundation of
munity, and supported by PCCs, the UN has made concrete steps to sustainable security and general development was recognized. Civil-
identify roles, responsibilities, skills, and competencies and has cre- ian policing—already the front line of any functioning justice system—
ated a strategic guidance framework (SGF) for police contributions became an important consideration in mission structure and strategy.
to peacekeeping missions. The process is well under way, and those The “police mission” became unrecognizable from those early
“in the know” are anxious to see predicted outcomes and impacts. observation-focused deployments. The number of deployed police
However, evidence of progress will likely be slow to emerge. The increased, but mandates changed dramatically, too. Gone were the
UN is a large and complex organization, and its processes never days when the police component was expected to simply support by
seem to be fast or seamless. Nonetheless, if the UN Police Division observing and reporting human rights violations and crime associ-
is allowed to continue the course it has set, the light at the end of ated with ceasefire or peace agreements. The new international police
the tunnel—that is, improved international police peacekeeping— mission included active operational roles, training, development, and
may be brighter than ever imagined. capacity building.5


The realities of the modern conflict Civilian policing in any country is very Strategic Guidance Framework
environments—internal insurrection, civil much a reflection of the government being Since 2009, the UN Police Division has
unrest, human rights abuse, refugees, sys- served. The extent to which police organi- worked to develop policies, guidelines,
temic corruption, and organized crime—and zations operate openly and transparently and detailed manuals that would provide
the absence of accountable and transparent mirrors the country’s political and legal sys- a cohesive and coherent framework for
systems of justice characterized the complex- tems. The role and function of police in the UN Police to meet the challenges of the
ity of the new mission. In response, compo- wider justice system is influenced by cul- complex mandates of modern post-conflict
nent parts of the UN mission needed to work ture, history, and even religion. The extent police deployments. These elements are
more cohesively; sometimes together, some- to which the police interact and serve collectively referred to as the Strategic Guid-
times in sequence, but always in an integrated with, for, and in the spirit of community is ance Framework for International Police
model of mission management character- a function of social-governmental coop- Peacekeeping.
ized first by civilian leadership. Intervention eration. The extent of training and the use Over a period of years, the Police Division
strategies evolved from merely keeping the of modern technologies, techniques, and consulted member states and recognized
peace, to establishing security, protecting the equipment are largely a matter of econom- experts, not in search of “best” practices (a
vulnerable, and creating the circumstances ics. While the fundamental role of civilian term influenced by culture, politics, econom-
for sustainable security, including steps to police—internal security through enforce- ics, history, and more), but rather “good” prac-
building local capacity that supported future ment of law and prevention of crime—is tices for which universality of recognition
development. Civilian police had a new and a universal idea, to “serve and protect” is and acceptance was possible. “Good” prac-
much more dynamic role to play in establish- interpreted quite differently around the tice seemed to be a standard of product and
ing and sustaining security. world. performance the UN PCCs could embrace.
When one considers the role of the This is to say police resources among The SGF now represents the policy on
security components of international mis- UN member states represent widely diverse UN Police in Peacekeeping Operations and
sions, the military and police are seen as policing experiences, expertise, techniques, Special Political Missions. It consists of a
complementary and, often, interactive, but training, and skills. They operate in differ- set of guidelines for service delivery, capac-
the roles are not widely interchangeable. ent judicial systems; they reflect different ity building and development, police com-
Where the “rule of law,” as a fundamental cultures, societies, religions, and languages. mand and control, and police operations
step supporting future development dif- The current top PCCs to UN Police missions and administration and includes detailed
fers from “rules of engagement,” the civilian are Senegal, Rwanda, India, Jordan, and manuals and training documents in each
police are better suited for a host of roles. Egypt.6 It’s not a stretch to suggest that even area. In the next steps of development, the
In time, training, mentoring, advising, and selected randomly from among all PCCs, Police Division will create specialized job
capacity building became standard func- these five couldn’t be any more diverse in descriptions to facilitate recruiting among
tions for civilian police in peacekeeping terms of civilian policing and how they member states, as the UN is always in
missions where the UN sought to create the deliver service. search of the right personnel, with the right
circumstances for sustainable peace, secu- Considering that, in this new conflict skills to meet the needs of the police role in
rity, and fundamental justice. environment, where the international com- the modern, integrated mission. The SGF
Less frequent, but also important, the munity sees a greater need and wider role will enhance pre-deployment training and
UN Police supporting the local authorities for the civilian police, it is not uncommon readiness and the introduction of operation-
even began to assume operational roles for police missions to comprise officers ally relevant in-mission updates. It will also
ranging from major case investigation to from 40 or more countries. These countries provide PCCs with a clearer picture of the
major tactical responses like public order could represent a dozen languages and dia- expected performance of their officers in
intervention. Equally important, a police lects and a half dozen fundamentally dif- the field and the skill sets needed for them
peacekeeping mission might now include ferent justice systems. This may give one a to succeed. This idea of expected perfor-
executive authority and associated sup- sense of the real difficulties faced by the UN mance includes not only what needs to be
port operations, in parallel with elements to Department of Peacekeeping Operations done, but also why it needs to be done. If
support training and capacity building, all (DPKO) and Police Division as they man- the SGF is viewed as a guide of what to do,
as contributions to sustainable peace and age missions in the new conflict environ- how to do it, and why to do it, all in the con-
security. Not lost in the analysis that judged ment, where the police component is far text of “good” practice ratified by the body of
that the new conflict environment required more complex in mandate and far larger in PCCs, with global application through UN
more comprehensive police peacekeeping— terms of the numbers to be deployed. New Police, then it is feasible to imagine a wide
and more broadly a rule-of-law response— conflicts, new missions, and new mandates and positive impact on the delivery of civil-
was the need for the United Nations and its for UN Police have meant entirely new and ian policing services.
Police Division to get the right people, in the raised expectations of professional service. Beyond an improved collective per-
right jobs, at the right time. Add to those realities persistent logistical formance of the police mission, the SGF
challenges, dynamic and even dangerous will provide guidance to deployed leaders
International Police Capacity conflict environments, rotating contingent in terms of mission “integration” and the
The UN, as an organization, exists, func- deployments, and national caveats where civilian-led collective approaches to conflict
tions, and succeeds or fails on the basis of the member states stipulate and even restrict management and sustainable peacebuild-
support it receives from its member states. what the police of their countries can and ing. Indeed, even as this is being written, the
Most member states of the UN do not have cannot do as part of their deployment development role for UN Police is expected
police officers or underutilized police units assignments to the mission, and now one to increase where the Global Focal Point for
in their domestic situations standing ready might begin to understand this environ- Police, Justice and Corrections, an arrange-
to deploy to long-term foreign assignments. ment of the multilateral police mission, ment between the DPKO and the UNDP
However, where PCCs and peace opera- the challenges facing the Police Division (United Nations Development Programme),
tions are concerned, the gap between the of DPKO, and the reality that grew the idea guides interrelated development across the
changing needs of mission and the available of an SGF, and the need and desire to cre- rule-of-law component (police, judiciary, and
deployable resources has been far greater ate an improved model and service of UN corrections) for missions of post-conflict and
than the mere numbers of personnel. police peacekeeping. crisis interventions.7 THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 41

time, to influence global policing in a very
Today, the UN Police is better placed to make a more effective important way.
The SGF represents a global model of
contribution and, where necessary, to take a leadership role “good” policing practice. It is not influenced
by national interests, narrow history, or local
in the integrated missions of modern conflict interventions. politics. PCCs, as different and diverse as
they are, have ratified the model. Globally
recognized experts participated over a num-
So, after many years of struggling to pro- UN’s multifaceted goal (establishing security, ber of years to refine plans and documents.
vide a more effective civilian policing compo- protecting civilians, and building capacity), The “model” that is the UN’s SGF has been
nent, with the development of the SGF, the and the ability of member states to provide ratified or at least acknowledged by other
UN Police has made strides in overcoming suitably trained and experienced resources. multilateral organizations.9
challenging impediments, not the least of At the same time, the new framework is Policing systems and policing practices
which are the UN organizational structure intended to provide strategic guidance to are heavily influenced by culture, history,
and the diverse capacity and contributions of meet the operational needs of complex mis- politics, religion, economics, and more. Like
PCCs. Today, the UN Police is better placed sions. In addition, the SGF assists member the societies in which they exist, policing
to make a more effective contribution and, countries and the diverse police universe systems are dynamic, and they evolve. Even
where necessary, to take a leadership role in they represent to understand the UN’s vision systems founded on transparency, account-
the integrated missions of modern conflict for international policing service. ability, and respect for human rights can
interventions. Gaps in the police mission per- In fact, the SGF begins to articulate a become fractured. Bias, racism, excessive
formance and capacity can now be bridged, model for international policing that the UN force, and corruption are all-too-common
allowing the police to operationally respond can deliver widely in conflict and post-con- maladies that can creep into established and
to complex security environments, build flict environments. It has been established well-founded systems and well-intended
capacity in concert with the GFP arrange- after widespread consultations, and it seems practices. The SGF might be the most impor-
ments, and contribute to command and con- member countries agree that the standards tant policing model not influenced by those
trol of integrated mission management. and guidance, as far as they represent factors. Consider the potential impact for the
From the perspective of the General “good” practices, represent policing systems SGF as a benchmark of fundamental “good
Assembly of the United Nations, the SGF and practices of contributing countries. practice” against which any policing system
provides clarity and confidence in how the Moreover, other multilateral organization’s or policing practice could be measured.
police mandate is planned and service is consultation and collaboration along the At the level of the individual police
to be delivered. Where tasks and roles are way also seem to support the UN work. At officer, the international policing mission
well defined, contributing member coun- a minimum, insofar as police-contributing experience continues to be considered
tries will be better situated to select person- countries sanctioned the SGF as an end an exciting and professionally rewarding
nel and train and equip them according to product, there may be a reduction in inci- opportunity. Few police officers who have
the mission requirements and the role they dents of “national caveats” that have occa- worked internationally will deny that a for-
will play. The extended reality, of course, sionally limited or restricted how particular eign mission had a positive impact on them
is a greater contribution by the member contingents could be deployed and tasked as individuals and as professional police
country itself—providing better trained, while in mission.8 officers. Apart from monetary compensa-
equipped, and “ready” personnel as a mis- But the SGF is not policy and practice tion, the exposure to different cultures,
sion mandate demands. developed in a vacuum—it was created in an societies, systems of justice, and models of
The international community and mem- environment of transparency and account- policing contribute positively to the indi-
ber countries of the UN can anticipate that, ability, attentive to fundamental human vidual’s professional experience in ways that
over time, the UN Police will continue to rights and gender equality, conscious of the cannot be replicated in other learning expe-
“raise its game.” Better prepared and task- need to protect the vulnerable, committed to riences. The police officer who experiences
oriented professionals will be going to the combating violence and exploitation, with an international deployment benefits both
mission. The police will be better prepared to service delivery overarched by the concept of professionally and personally.10
operate effectively in the integrated model, community. It represents not only what busi- Where PCCs continue to follow a strategy
leading or supporting as circumstances dic- ness will be done, but how it should be done. of rotating national contingents, giving more
tate. At the macro level then, over time, an Of course, the SGF will be exercised and more police officers the experience of
improved contribution by the UN Police according to UN principles of consent, international deployment, more and more
is anticipated. But will the SGF contribute impartiality, and the use of force only in self- police from around the world will be exposed
beyond the efficiencies of mission pre- defense or defense of the mandate. Also, it to the SGF and the good practices it repre-
paredness and the effectiveness of mission will be implemented under an umbrella of sents. Such exposure will include training
operations and management? If the light on human rights and dignity of the individual. and operational application of the SGF, not
the SGF is shifted, perhaps it can be seen At the same time the UN Police, under the just the hows, but also the whys of good polic-
differently. guidance of the SGF, will participate in and ing practices. Where the SGF is anchored by
provide leadership in integrated missions, the principles and practices of the United
A Wider Impact for the SGF where operating components represent the Nations and its charter, missions, and man-
The SGF was developed in response to entire range of mission capabilities, such dates, the SGF cannot but serve to positively
the need to improve product and perfor- as humanitarian aid development, gender, influence policing on a global scale. No police
mance of the police mission. There were refugees, civil affairs, law, elections, and officer who has been deployed to a war-torn
gaps between the need for qualified police so forth. All of this points to an interesting country, experienced human suffering and
and the quality of the personnel available strategic reality for the police component misery, and seen human rights denied fails
for mission deployment. At the heart of the and delivery of policing service. Above and to understand the importance and potential
issue is an ever-more complex mission envi- beyond the important guidance and struc- for accountable and transparent policing in
ronment, an increasing reliance on police as ture of UN Police missions and supporting civil society. The SGF will send that message
contributors to the “integrated mission,” the the PCCs, the SGF has the potential, over again and again.


Consider, too, that thousands of inter- the model of the SGF and its universally rec- 5
United Nations, Department of Peace-
national police will deploy to missions ognized good practices, if only as a measure keeping Operations, Depart-ment of Field
around the world every year, and they will against “current” practices. From any perspec- Operations, United Nations Police in Peacekeeping
be trained, conduct operations, and work tive, there is a real likelihood that the SGF Operations and Special Political Missions, policy,
together to build capacity according to the can, in time, positively influence police prac- February 1, 2014, §C-6, 3,
SGF model. Next, consider that where other tice in all corners of the world and among all en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/
multilateral organizations like the Orga- police-contributing countries. Policy.pdf. The Brahimi Report (1999) proposed
nization for Security and Co-operation in The UN Police Strategic Guidance Frame- a wider context for police deployment and the
Europe (OSCE) acknowledge the SGF, posi- work was created to breach the gaps in inter- integration of the rule of law in police missions.
tive exposures will occur even more widely national policing performance. It will do just This message was reinforced in UN reports to
and more frequently. that, but it could do much more as the good the Secretary General, on rule of law (2004)
With that, at an organizational level, every practices of the SGF are learned and under- and on human rights in security sector reform
country and every policing organization that stood around the world. In time, the SGF (2008 and 2013), on human rights in integrated
participates in UN policing missions will be could become the most important single missions (2005), in the Guidance Note on United
exposed to and influenced by the SGF. Police development in civilian policing since Sir Nations Approach to Rule of Law Assistance (2008),
from around the world will move in and Robert Peel introduced public accountability and DPKO’s New Horizon paper (2009).
out of the UN system of missions and other and community engagement as the founda- 6
United Nations Peacekeeping, Resources,
multilateral systems that also recognize the tion and purpose of civilian policing. v “Troop and Police Contributors,”
SGF good practices. Over time, junior police en/peacekeeping/resources/statistics/
officers will become supervisors, supervi- Notes: contributors/shtml. It is also a reality that where
sors will become managers, and managers 1
British Broadcasting Corporation, “Sir “less developed” countries seem to contribute
will become senior decision makers, who, in Robert Peel,” History, disproportionately to international missions,
turn, will become policy guiding executives. history/historic_figures/peel_sir_robert.shtml. by deploying military or police missions in
Where there are positive experiences and Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850), twice British great numbers, which is done in the context
lessons of the international experience, there prime minister, had an extensive political of economic advantage. The UN often equips
is the real potential for transference of the les- career that was characterized by significant the “troops” and pays the troops’ allowances
sons and messages of the SGF, with a positive change in British society. While serving (through dues paid by wealthier member states).
impact in many directions. as Home Secretary (a key cabinet position 7
United Nations Development Programme,
The sum of all this is that PCCs, and, of responsible for the nation’s internal security) “Global Focal Point for Police, Justice and
course post-conflict states where there are there were important changes in policing Corrections,”
interventions, will be exposed to the UN practice, criminal law, corrections, and the undp/en/home/ourwork/democratic
Police Division’s Strategic Guidance Frame- establishment of London’s Metropolitan Police -governance-and-peacebuilding/rule-of-law
work Model. Its good practices will become Force. The terms “Bobbies” or “Peelers” to refer --justice-and-security/global-focal-point-for
better known as the SGF and used ever more to British police are references to Robert Peel. -police--justice--and-corrections.html. In 2012,
commonly as a framework for police opera- 2
The first UN Police component was an arrangement known as the Global Focal
tions and capacity building in support of deployed as observers with the peacekeeping Point (GFP) for Police, Justice and Corrections
international mandates. Deployed resources force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). UN police Areas in the Rule of Law in Post-Conflict and
from around the world will be exposed to continue to serve in this mission. other Crisis Situations addressed a unified
it repeatedly. They will learn it, use it, and 3
Joseph Nye Jr., “International Conflicts approach to UN assistance across the justice
teach it, and, more importantly, police offi- After the Cold War,” in Managing Conflict in the sector, allowing UN components to “deliver
cers working with the SGF in international Post-Cold War: The Role of Intervention, report as one” to avoid program misalignment; to
theaters will carry the lessons to their home of the Aspen Institute conference, August 2-6, respond effectively to the complex mission
organizations. From north to south and east 1995 (Aspen Colorado: Aspen Institute, 1996), requirements; and to muster the wind range of
to west, police organizations can profit from 63-76. Interstate conflict is simply defined UN and partnership assets.
as war between two or more armed states. 8
National caveats are restrictions sometimes
Intrastate conflict, also described as “civil imposed by contributing countries, limiting
war,” involves conflict between government the roles, movement, or mission contributions
and non-state actors. Intrastate conflict of their deployed personnel. Caveats may be
Chief Superintendent David Beer’s emerged as a global reality in the post–Cold imposed for any number of reasons, though
professional career is marked by a War era, as global alignment with the Soviet politics or security is often at the root. National
unique depth and breadth of interna- Union and the West softened. Weak and less caveats are not often made public either by the
tional policing operations and capacity developed states tended to be destabilized mission or the country in question.
building. He has deployed to a variety of creating security gaps, which were sometimes 9
Other organizations, important in
conflict and post-conflict zones in sup- exploited through insurrection. post-conflict intervention and international
port of Canada, the United States, the 4
Boutros Boutros-Ghali, An Agenda for policing missions, include the Organization for
United Kingdom, and their allies. He Peace, supplement to an Agenda for Peace Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)
has served the UN as a police commis- report of the Secretary-General on the and the African Union. Interpol is a policing
sioner and in advisory roles and worked occasion of the 50th anniversary of the United organization that has ratified the SGF.
internationally with nongovernmental Nations, January 3, 1995, 10
The writer has deployed internationally
organizations and in the private sector. peacekeeping/un-agenda-peace-supplement/ in a wide variety of mission management and
Upon retirement from active duty, he p24231. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, An Agenda executive roles for more than 20 years. This
served as director general of interna- for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking discussion of the positive aspects of the mission
tional policing (RCMP), and he is a past and Peace-keeping, report of the Secretary of experience is one that not only persists over
vice president of the IACP International the United Nations to the Security Council, time, but occurs across police cultures and
Policing Division (IPD). He continues to January 31, 1992, organizations.
serve on the IPD Steering Committee. keeping/report-un-secretary-general
-agenda-peace/p23439. THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 43

IACP presents:

Women’s Leadership Institute

Henderson, Nevada Virginia Beach, Virginia
March 12 – 17, 2017 April 2 – 7, 2017

Little Rock, Arkansas Appleton, Wisconsin

May 7 – 12, 2017 June 11 – 16, 2017

The IACP proudly offers a leadership certification program, the Women’s Leadership Institute (WLI). The WLI program is a
five-day, 40-hour course, focused on the unique challenges facing women leaders in law enforcement. To develop current and
future leaders, the curriculum focuses on enhancing the business, leadership, and personal effectiveness skills of female leaders.
This interactive program uses senior women instructors and mentors from U. S. and Canadian law enforcement agencies and
operates in an intensive experiential learning environment. It is open to female and male sworn and non-sworn personnel
serving in supervisory positions and senior patrol officers aspiring to become supervisors.

Graduates of the WLI will also receive a free one-year membership to the IACP.

Classes begin on Sunday evening and conclude early

Institute Curriculum Focus Includes: afternoon on Friday. Total tuition, in most locations, is $1,200
and includes tuition fees and SELECT mandatory meals
➤ Individual Differences
incorporated into the Institute. Some high-cost regions may
➤ Motivating Success experience an increase in tuition rates.
➤ Leading Teams, Organizations, and Change The training site and lodging for each location are negotiated
➤ Crucial Conversations and Counseling by IACP. Lodging is negotiated based on per diem rates and
may vary by city.
➤ Strategic Planning for Your Career
➤ Fair, Impartial, and Ethical Policing Registration for this Institute can be accomplished at For more information or questions,
➤ Understanding Stakeholders please contact (800) THE-IACP, ext. 316 or WLITeam@
➤ Leadership and Wellness
➤ Financial Management
➤ Networking and Mentorship

For information, visit

Leadership in Police OrganizationsSM
Open Enrollment Courses

Florida Utah
Gainesville Police Department Cedar City Police Department
Leadership in Police OrganizationsSM (LPO) Leadership in Police OrganizationsSM (LPO)
February 27 – March 3, 2017 February 13 – 17, 2017
March 27 – 31, 2017 March 13 – 17, 2017
April 17 – 21, 2017 April 10 – 14, 2017

Saskatchewan South Dakota

Saskatchewan Police College, Regina South Dakota Highway Patrol
Leadership in Police OrganizationsSM (LPO) Leadership in Police OrganizationsSM (LPO)
February 6 – 10, 2017 February 27 – March 3, 2017
March 13 – 17, 2017 April 17 – 21, 2017
April 24 – 28, 2017 May 22 – 26, 2017

City of Dallas
Planning, Designing, and Constructing Police Facilities
May 10 – 12, 2017

For more information or to register online for these classes, visit
If you have any questions, please contact or (800) THE-IACP, ext. 214. THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 45
Product Feature:
More Comfortable, More Approachable:
Advanced Body Armor and Gear Brings
Multifaceted Benefits
By Scott Harris, Freelance Writer

M ore police officers are wearing more body armor more often.
Multiple factors contribute to this safety gear’s increased use.
Unequivocally, far more weapons are on the streets today than
Maximizing Comfort
In 2010, the U.S. Department of Justice, through its Bulletproof
Vest Partnership program, mandated that law enforcement agen-
there were a generation—or even a decade—ago. According to cies require officers to wear body armor while engaged in patrol
the nonpartisan Congressional Research Service, there are about or field operations if those departments wished to receive federal
twice as many guns per capita in the United States—more than 300 reimbursement (up to 50 percent of total costs) for body armor pur-
million total—than there were in 1968.1 The Bureau of Alcohol, chases.4 Ever since, “mandatory wear” policies have been springing
Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives estimates that about 9 million up across the United States, leading to greater demand for and uti-
guns were manufactured in the United States in 2014, compared lization of body armor.
with 5.5 million produced in 2010.2 According to FBI data, firearms According to experts, however, having these policies in place
were used in 41 percent of all U.S. robberies—far more than any doesn’t necessarily mean officers are following through. Heavier,
other weapon category.3 less-comfortable armor can drive down the rates of compliance.
At the same time, in some quarters, public sentiment increas- “A lot of departments have mandatory wear policies, but the
ingly favors a more community-oriented approach to policing, reality is that a lot of officers don’t do it,” said Scott Wyatt, vice
which can mean eschewing militaristic law enforcement tools—like president of sales and marketing for Armor Express, a body armor
heavy body armor—that had previously gained favor over the past manufacturer based in Central Lake, Michigan. “[Officers] find an
decade or more. Implemented improperly, this cultural shift could excuse to unzip those vests, and then they’re vulnerable.”5
potentially render officers more vulnerable to attack. Police departments, looking for ways to increase compliance with
Luckily, however, many U.S. manufacturers have recognized the policies, turned to manufacturers, who then ramped up efforts to
and are responding to these trends. Lighter but still powerful body make body armor more “wearable” without sacrificing safety.
armor can protect officers while increasing comfort and making “It’s just gotten to the point where it’s just too dangerous not to
officers more approachable to citizens to improve community- [wear body armor],” said Stephen Blauer, owner of Blauer Manu-
police relationships. facturing Company, based in Boston, Massachusetts. “To make it
comfortable, we’ve tried to explore ways to wear the armor away
Courtesy of Blauer Manufacturing from the body.”6
For Blauer, the answer was ArmorSkin, an outer vest cover billed
by the company as the only product of its kind that can accommo-
date all armor brands, makes, and models. The three-part armor
concealment package moves armor to the outer layer of a uniform
shirt. This increases range of motion, improves comfort, prevents
back stiffness and skin rashes, and helps officers maintain a profes-
sional appearance.
“It looks like a normal shirt, but it’s stretchy and athletic, with
quick-dry fabric,” Blauer explained. “You throw the vest over your
head and go out… It’s a huge shift in the way officers are dressing.”7
At Armor Express, which manufactures the armor itself, the
company’s Razor and Vortex models are billed by company leaders
as “the most comfortable armor in the world.”
“Our focus on comfort and wearability is what we’re most
proud of,” Wyatt said. “That enables [law enforcement officers] to
do their job that much better. We want to protect but not hinder
in any way.”8
According to Wyatt, Razor and Vortex armor models can lead to
a decrease of as much as 25 percent in the weight of body armor,
and can cut fatigue levels in half. “If you have a 12-, 14-, or 16-hour
shift, they feel fresher and less fatigued,” Wyatt pointed out.9


Courtesy of Armor Express

Low-profile armor also helps enhance Fostering Trust “One of the things we put a lot of effort into
safety from a strategic standpoint. “The Officer safety is always a top priority, is quality control,” Aker said. “For example,
police officer maintains their tactical advan- but there are other factors at work in the every edge on our handcuff case is sanded
tage,” Blauer said. “It’s often difficult to tell gear selection process for agencies. After smooth and then burnished so it looks like
whether they have armor on or not, and in a high-profile incidents between police and one piece. People may not understand the
gun battle, we want perpetrators to aim for citizens, community policing tactics are in specifics of what we do, but they understand
the mass of the body where the armor tends the spotlight. the craftsmanship. It really translates.”13
to be, rather than the head. If it’s obvious As a part of this trend, community polic- In more ways than one, the new capabili-
you have a vest on, [shooting for the head] ing advocates have decried what they claim ties of body armor and related goods may be
is more likely to happen. This [low profile] is an excessively and unnecessarily milita- emblematic of a changing law enforcement
camouflages the vest.”10 ristic carriage or appearance among police, culture, one in which new scrutiny, new
According to company statistics, sales of even when it is not relevant to a given demands, and new technologies are con-
ArmorSkin have increased 30 percent each situation. verging to shape the profession. Body armor
year since its initial rollout. That’s a testa- “Given the current climate of law en- manufacturers appear to see all of these
ment to the value departments see in the forcement, there has been a pushback on forces as an advantage that can be leveraged
technology, as well as the benefits reaped. appearance if you’re engaging with the pub- for police and their indispensible work.
As a result, both Blauer and Armor lic,” said Ken Aker, chief operating officer “Now with more community policing,
Express are planning to roll out new options at Aker Leather Products. “Officers need to police officers need new solutions for when
in the coming months. look the same and act the same. Having the they’re out on foot for eight hours,” Wyatt
“We’re planning to introduce a product right gear and having that look is important. said. “Thinner, lighter thread plates that
that allows quick and easy up-armoring We’re here for them, not against them. The offer light rifle protections and don’t give
with plates,” Blauer said. “You add plates to leather conveys that better than nylon.”12 off the appearance of a militaristic look.
the ArmorSkin, unzip a pocket, drop a plate In its Chula Vista, California, factory, Weights and thinness have gotten better.
in it, and now you’re fortified.”11 Aker artisans produce a range of law [Armor] used to look like a phone book
New technologies are also rolling out to enforcement leather goods from holsters on your chest, now the public doesn’t even
protect the heads of officers. Ops-Core, a to handcuff cases. Aker clients include the know it’s being used.
brand created by Pennsylvania-based Gen- Los Angeles Police Department, California “We’re only expecting more of this in the
tex Corporation, is an industry leader in Border Patrol, and the U.S. Border Patrol, future.”14 v
state-of-the-art helmet systems. Tested and and Aker notes that one of the advantages
manufactured in-house, Ops-Core’s ballis- his customers point to—alongside comfort, Notes:
tic and non-ballistic helmet shells provide durability, and lower maintenance com- 1
William J. Krouse, Gun Control Legislation
optimal protection while allowing maxi- pared with synthetic items—is the way in (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research
mum customization based on individual which leather imparts a traditional commu- Service, 2012),
customer needs. nity policing appearance. RL32842.pdf. THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 47

U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF),
Product Feature:

Annual Firearms Manufacturing and Export Report, 2010, https://www
-export-reportpdf/download; ATF, Annual Firearms Manufacturing and
Export Report, 2014, BODY ARMOR AND GEAR
Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Robbery,” Crime in the United States,
violent-crime/robbery. For contact information, please visit www
U.S. Department of Justice, “Updated Frequently Asked Questions
(FAQs) for the BVP Program Mandatory Wear Requirement,” https://
Scott Wyatt (vice president of sales and marketing, Armor Express),
Aker International StormForce by Watershed
telephone interview, December 21, 2016. Armor Express Strong Leather Co.
Stephen Blauer (owner, Blauer Manufacturing Company), telephone
interview, December 21, 2016. Basic Ltd. StrongSuit Inc.
Wyatt, telephone interview, December 21, 2016. Blauer Manufacturing
Dan Burns Associates Inc.
Blauer, telephone interview, December 21, 2016.
Ibid. Dehner Co.
Ken Aker (chief operating officer, Aker Leather Products),
telephone interview, December 20, 2016. Gentex Corp.
Wyatt, telephone interview, December 21, 2016.
Gerber Outerwear
HAIX North America Inc.
Revision Military

The IACP 40 Under Forty Award
recognizes 40 law enforcement
professionals under the age
of 40 from around the world

UNDER who exemplify leadership and

commitment to their profession.
FORTY Candidates can be from any

AWARD country and can serve in sworn or

non-sworn positions.

MARCH 1, 2017


Nominate the
IACP in your organization! 


2017 Police Chief Calendar
Are you looking forward to reading about a certain issue in law enforcement or
thinking about submitting an article to Police Chief? Look below to see some of
the topics we are covering this year!

January Leadership

February Culture of Policing

March Community-Police Relations

April Use of Force

May Officer Safety and Wellness

June Innovations in Policing

July Crime Control Strategies

August Risk Management

September Global Security

October Policing 2037

November Education and Training

December Healthy Communities

Do you have innovative solutions or experiences that you want to share

with the policing community? Take a look at our manuscript guidelines on Articles can be submitted
online at
Ideas &

Police Culture
in the 21st Century
By Gary Cordner, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Criminal Results were similar for the item “the relationship between
police and people in this jurisdiction is very good.” Slightly over
Justice, Kutztown University, Pennsylvania half of line-level sworn personnel agreed or strongly agreed with
the statement, while two-thirds or more of civilian staff and higher

T he importance of police culture is widely recognized—the Presi-

dent’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing noted that “[o]rgani-
zational culture eats policy for lunch” and “[b]ehavior is more likely
ranking personnel agreed with it.
A third item in this category, not offered to non-sworn respon-
dents, stated “officers have reason to be distrustful of most citizens.”
to conform to culture than rules.”1 In the view of some within the Almost one-third of line-level sworn personnel agreed or strongly
law enforcement profession, “police culture in America has lost its agreed while only one-quarter of sergeants and one-eighth of
way.”2 Certainly, law enforcement executives are quite aware that higher ranking personnel agreed with the statement.
an important part of the role is to lead and influence the culture From these aggregated results, it can be concluded that officers
within their agencies. and deputies in the United States are almost evenly split in their views
Studies have debunked the idea that police culture is universal of the public. Half or more have relatively positive views, but one-
or monolithic.3 Those in law enforcement vary in their attitudes third to one-half have somewhat negative views. Also, it is obvious
and beliefs just like members of other occupations. Although reli- that civilian employees, sergeants, and higher ranking commanders
able data are hard to come by, it is risky to generalize such a large have more positive views of the public than line-level personnel do.
group of people (18,000 separate law enforcement organizations An alternative way to look at the same survey items is by sorting
are in the United States alone), especially since most studies have the response by agency. The percentages illustrate the amount of
looked at a single agency or, at most, a few agencies.4 variation between agencies on the three public perception items
The National Police Research Platform was implemented to help when considering only the responses of line-level sworn person-
provide a more complete picture of U.S. policing.5 One component nel. For instance, in one agency, only 23 percent of officers agree
of Phase 2 of the platform administered a round of online employee or strongly agree that most people respect them, but, in another
surveys in 89 U.S. municipal and county law enforcement organiza- agency, 92 percent of officers agree or strongly agree with the
tions between October 2014 and February 2015. Except for a few same statement. The spread between agencies is even wider in
legacy departments that had participated in Phase 1 of the platform, the perception of police-public relationships; in one agency, only
most of the agencies were selected for Phase 2 through stratified ran- 12 percent agree that the relationship between the police and the
dom sampling of police departments and sheriff offices with more community members is good, while, at another agency, 100 per-
than 100 sworn personnel.6 A total of 16,580 useable, completed cent of the respondents agree with the statement. Finally, 56 per-
surveys were obtained during this round of employee surveys. cent of officers in one agency agreed that most citizens cannot be
trusted, but only 6 percent in another agency are that cynical.
Perspectives on the Community These percentages demonstrate that law enforcement’s attitude
One element of police culture evaluated in the survey is how toward the public—an important aspect of police culture—varies
members view the public. The majority of line-level sworn per- significantly among law enforcement agencies. It is not a constant.
sonnel (53 percent) agreed or strongly agreed that “most people Naturally, some of the variation might be due to agency history and
respect the police.” However, that represents a small majority; the nature of the community, but a reasonable hypothesis is that
almost half did not agree. Overall, civilian personnel, supervisors, hiring practices, management, and leadership can also affect how
and commanders were more likely than line-level sworn officers to officers view the communities they serve.
agree that most people respect the police. (See Figure 1.)
Views of Community Policing
Survey respondents were also asked for their views of commu-
Figure 1: Law Enforcement’s View of Community-Police Relations nity policing and procedural justice. As indicated in Figure 2, about
one-third of line-level sworn personnel said they strongly support
Percent agree or strongly agree community policing compared to more than half of command per-
sonnel. The level of strong support for procedural justice are some-
Most people Police-public Most citizens what higher across the board.
respect relations cannot be The take-away from these responses is that about one-third to
police very good trusted one-half of line-level personnel profess strong support for these
Line-level sworn 53% 58% 32% public-oriented strategies—and that one-half to two-thirds have not
fully bought into the concept. Perhaps of equal significance, one-
Sergeants 64% 67% 24% half or more of sergeants who responded also do not avow strong
Lieutenants & support for the elements of community policing–based approaches
77% 76% 13% to law enforcement.
These numbers might suggest that getting officers to fully
Civilian personnel 63% 69% n/a support community policing is an impossible task; however, the


Figure 2: Law Enforcement’s Support of Community Policing and Procedural Justice Figure 4: Law Enforcement’s Attitude Toward Peer Misconduct
Percent strongly support Percent very serious
Community policing Procedural Justice No action on Fail to report
off-duty DUI use of force
Line-level sworn 34% 47%
Line-level sworn 23% 57%
Sergeants 39% 52%
Sergeants 27% 63%
Lieutenants & above 55% 64%
Civilian personnel 49% 60% Lieutenants & above 34% 72%

agency-specific figures for line-level sworn officers show that it off-duty drunk driving. As might be expected, commanders and
actually can be done. In one agency, 79 percent of officers indicated supervisors were more likely than line-level officers to regard both
that they strongly support community policing. Furthermore, this forms of misconduct as very serious, although the gaps between
agency was not a lone outlier—in 10 other agencies, more than one- the ranks were not as substantial as seen with earlier items.
half of line-level officers strongly support community policing. Most interesting, perhaps, are the differences between agencies
on these items. In one agency, not a single line-level respondent
Officers Sticking Together regarded the no-action DUI scenario as very serious, whereas, in
The “thin blue line” aspect of police culture tends to empha- another agency, 74 percent of the officers regarded it as very seri-
size the importance of officers supporting one another. One of the ous. Similarly, in one agency, only 19 percent thought it was very
findings noted earlier, the perception that most citizens cannot be serious to fail to report a use of force, while, in another agency, 93
trusted (a view held by one-third of the line-level sworn respon- percent of officers considered it a very serious transgression. The
dents), contributes to officer solidarity. Another contributing fac- level of tolerance for misconduct, even after conceding that survey
tor to officer solidarity is the view by a majority of officers (and items can provide only an imperfect measure, seems to vary widely
sergeants) that their agencies’ disciplinary processes are unfair, as from one agency to another.
shown in Figure 3. Thus, many officers do not believe they can trust
either the public or their bosses. Conclusion
Officer solidarity is reflected most directly in the survey item Police culture is a variable, not a constant. Within any law enforce-
“officers need to stick together because you can’t count on others ment agency, employees have differing views of their jobs and the
to protect you.” Over one-half of line-level officers agree or strongly community. Also, sentiments and beliefs vary widely between differ-
agree with this statement, twice the level of commanders who agree. ent police departments. Thus, while police culture is important and
Once again, despite the seeming intractability of these views, frequently problematic, it is best not to regard it as some kind of occu-
the range on these sentiments across agencies is very dramatic. pational inevitability, but rather in terms of the particular conditions
In one agency, only 4 percent of line-level sworn personnel agree found in each organization. It’s important, therefore, for law enforce-
that the disciplinary process is fair, while, in another agency, 87 ment executives to identify and monitor their officers’ views of the
percent think it is fair. And, in one agency, 77 percent of officers community, the role of law enforcement, and peer relationships and
agree it is necessary to stick together because others cannot be misconduct in order to better guide the culture of the organization in
relied upon—while, in another agency, only 28 percent hold the a positive direction. In addition, law enforcement leaders can build
same belief. Those percentages shine a light on stark differences internal trust and improve an organization’s culture through consis-
between agencies. tent discipline, when needed, and through recognition of positive
behavior, as well.7 Police culture is not monolithic or intractable; law
Seriousness of Misconduct enforcement executives can and should be optimistic about making
One additional feature of police culture is the employee atti- positive changes to their organizational culture. v
tude toward misconduct. Some officers might be tolerant of forms
of misbehavior by fellow officers, while others might be intoler- Notes:
ant. One scenario item asked how serious the respondent would 1
President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, Final Report of the
consider the following scenario: an on-duty officer discovered that President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing (Washington, D.C.: Office of
an off-duty officer was driving intoxicated and had gotten stuck in Community Oriented Policing Services, 2015), 11–12, https://cops.usdoj
a ditch, and the on-duty officer took the intoxicated officer home .gov/pdf/taskforce/taskforce_finalreport.pdf.
without reporting the incident or taking any other action. A similar 2
Richard Goerling, “Police Culture in America Has Lost Its Way,”
item asked how serious it would be for an officer to engage in a Mindful, August 24, 2015,
reportable use-of-force incident and fail to report it. -america-has-lost-its-way. Also, see David Couper, Arrested Development
Respondents definitively rated the failure to report use of force (Indianapolis, IN: Dog Ear Publishing, 2011).
as more serious than taking no official action in response to a peer’s 3
Eugene A. Paoline, “Taking Stock: Toward a Richer Understanding
of Police Culture,” Journal of Criminal Justice 31, no. 3 (2003): 199–214.
President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, Final Report, 29.
Figure 3: Law Enforcement’s View of Officer Discipline and Solidarity 5
The National Police Research Platform was funded by the National
Percent agree or strongly agree Institute of Justice (NIJ). Any opinions expressed in this article are the
author’s and do not represent the position of NIJ or the U.S. Department
Disciplinary Officers need to of Justice.
process is fair stick together 6
Details about the National Police Research Platform are available at
Line-level sworn 43% 56%
Sergeants 48% 44%
Darrel W. Stephens, “Police Discipline: A Case for Change,” New
Perspectives in Policing, National Institute of Justice, June 2011, https://
Lieutenants & above 67% 28% THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 51

Ideas & Insights

The Role of Police Executives

in Police Culture: A Response to
Police Culture in the 21st Century
By John King, Chief of Police, Provo, Utah, Police Department, Co-Chair,
IACP Research Advisory Committee

D r. Gary Cordner’s research article on fac-

tors that affect police culture in the 21st
century examines whether there is a uni-
20 calls for service daily is going to have a dif-
ferent experience than an officer patrolling
University Ave in Provo, where the popula-
Pillar Six in the President’s Task Force
report addresses Officer Wellness and Safety.
It is an important inclusion in the report. Not
versally identifiable police culture present tion is 80 percent white, and handling only only will this focus on wellness and safety
in U.S. law enforcement. While one could 7 calls for service during a tour. It is unreal- directly affect the quality of life for our staff,
possibly make general observations that istic to believe that those two very different but we all know—and research supports this
police culture involves attitudes like sup- environments do not significantly impact the belief—that happy and content employees
porting other officers and being suspicious cultures of those respective law enforcement will provide better service to their customers
of those outside the field, Dr. Cordner’s organizations. (community members).
research clearly shows that, once specific But, equally important, Dr. Cordner’s In conclusion, I very much agree with
situations are presented to law enforcement research also shows that the attitude of a Dr. Cordner’s recommendation that police
officers, their responses vary widely. police organization—the “police culture”— executives should recognize the important
The research appears to show that two can be influenced by the agency’s leader- role that we have in influencing the culture
factors significantly influence these differ- ship. Everything from the implementation of our agencies. While some factors may
ent police attitudes. The first factor is the of community policing to line officers’ per- be outside of our control, law enforcement
officer’s position within the organization. ception of the fairness of internal discipline leaders need to continue to actively engage
Unsurprisingly, line officers are more suspi- shapes the agency’s culture. That culture our staff and ensure that our internal prac-
cious of the general public and community then plays a tremendous influence on how tices, especially training, discipline, and
members’ motives than are members of the the officers view the public—and how the supervision, support our goal of creating a
command staff. The attitudes of these line public perceives the police department. positive organizational culture v
officers reflect the perception they have of Dr. Cordner’s discussion of how officers
their daily experiences, which often include view community policing clearly shows the
interactions with people who routinely lie to influence that police leadership can have
them or react negatively to their presence. on an organization. We need to examine
However, members of the command staff how chiefs and commanders show their
generally have more favorable interactions endorsement of a community policing phi-
with the people they interact with, thus rais- losophy. Is it something that they only say to 
ing their perception of the general public. the public or do they truly take time to teach
The second factor affecting the atti- the principles of it and reward problem-
tudes (and therefore the culture) held by solving actions by their officers? Many police In October 2014, the IACP held
the officers is the agency and community executives with whom I have spoken com- a National Policy Summit on
they work in. As I have seen in my career, ment on how we have lost a bit of the posi- Community-Police Relations. The
police officers in Baltimore, Maryland, tive momentum we had built in the 20 years resulting report, IACP National
have a much different belief in the level of since most agencies began moving toward
community support than police officers in community policing. Policy Summit on Community-Police
Provo, Utah. There are many reasons for The report by the President’s Task Force Relations: Advancing a Culture of
this including crime rates, levels of racial on 21st Century Policing highlights the need Cohesion and Community Trust,
tension, and work volume. for procedural justice to take place in both includes recommendations and action
For example, a white officer who is walk- how police enforce the laws in our communi-
ing a foot patrol at the intersection of Green- ties and how agencies enforce internal poli- items for law enforcement executives,
mount and North Avenues in the Eastern cies. We should review not only how we treat as well as other stakeholders.
District of Baltimore, where the population our citizens, but also how we treat our staff
is 95 percent African American, and handling and remember that they are customers too.



Your online source for

Please visit the online
OFFICIAL marketplace at:
IACP Products

For questions or help, please

contact: Andrea Brown
800-678-0014, x 103

Order Branded Merchandise at the

By Tom Carr, Director,
Washington/Baltimore High
Intensity Drug Trafficking Area
(HIDTA); Kent Shaw, Executive
Director, Western States
Information Network; and
Jack Killorin, Director, Atlanta/
Carolinas HIDTA

“Officer safety event

deconfliction is free O ne of the greatest responsibilities a
country has is to provide a safe work-
ing environment for its law enforcement
safety. Officer safety requires a concentrated,
unified, and proactive approach so tragedies
are avoided. It needs leadership, education
and available to all law professionals. Every day, officers risk their
lives keeping their communities safe from
and training, resources, information sharing,
trust, and collaboration. Officer safety pro-
enforcement. I hope you violence, gangs, drug trafficking, and a host
of other criminal activities. Ensuring that
grams, such as VALOR, and safety gear solu-
tions, such as the bulletproof vest program,
are taking advantage of these men and women come home each
night to their families is a priority.
are some of the components available to
help ensure that officers remain safe.2 Event
this resource because your According to the National Law Enforce-
ment Officers Memorial Fund (NLEOMF)
deconfliction is another element that should
be in every law enforcement officer’s safety
life and the lives of others website, more than 20,000 U.S. law enforce- toolbox.
ment officers have been killed in the line
depend on it.” of duty since the first line-of-duty death What Is Event Deconfliction?
recorded by the organization in 1791. As of Event deconfliction is the process of deter-
—Matt McDonald, RISS National 2015, a total of 1,501 U.S. law enforcement mining when law enforcement personnel
officers had died in the line of duty during the are conducting an event in close proximity to
Coordinator and Detective (Ret.), previous 10 years, which is an average of one one another at the same time. Events include
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Police death every 58 hours. NLEOMF also reported such law enforcement actions as undercover
Department that, during the same time period, on aver- operations, surveillance, or executing search
age, there were 58,930 assaults against law warrants. When certain elements (e.g., time,
enforcement each year in the United States, date, or location) are matched between two
resulting in 15,404 injuries.1 These statistics or more events, a hit (or conflict) results.
serve as a reminder that continued diligence Immediate notification is then made to the
in ensuring officer safety is critical. affected agencies or personnel regarding the
“Safety doesn’t happen by accident.” That identified conflict.
quote comes from an anonymous source, “Information is power,” Sheriff Newell
but it lends itself well to the concept of officer Normand (Jefferson Parish, Louisiana) said.


Whether you are a state police agency, a municipal agency, a sheriff,
or a federal agency, it is imperative that you use event deconfliction to
minimize any operational problems while you are on the street… If
you do not use event deconfliction, it not only can put officers at risk, it
can put the public at risk.5
While participating in event deconfliction is currently voluntary,
an argument could be made that participation should be manda-
tory, especially given the extraordinary level of officer and public
safety the program delivers. The deputy attorney general for the
U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) issued a mandate for federal agen-
cies to utilize deconfliction. Other similar efforts are under way.
Without event deconfliction, officers may unintentionally inter-
fere with another law enforcement operation or action, potentially
resulting in injury to or death of officers or a negative impact on
investigations. Sheriff Normand explained,
Not only does event deconfliction safeguard officers, it helps preserve
the assets and resources supporting an investigative operation. The
amount of time and resources lost can be avoided.6

The more information we can share with each other, the better we are Leaders Come Together
in dealing with issues. Event deconfliction—making sure your event is The Criminal Intelligence Coordinating Council (CICC) con-
not in conflict with someone else’s investigation or event—is incredibly sists of members representing law enforcement and homeland
important so multiple agencies aren’t stepping on one another as it security agencies from all levels of government and serves as an
relates to their investigation.3 advocate for state, local, and tribal law enforcement and their
One example of how event deconfliction could have helped efforts to develop and share criminal intelligence for the purposes
protect officers was shared by Chief James Hurley (Leicester, Mas- of promoting public safety and national security.
sachusetts, Police Department). Chief Hurley learned about event Because of its role within the U.S. intelligence landscape, the
deconfliction after averting a dangerous law enforcement opera- CICC is in the position to serve as the voice for all levels of law
tion. He was serving as the supervisor of a multiagency regional enforcement, which it does by making recommendations to the
drug task force. An officer assigned to the task force had an infor- Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) through the Global Justice
mant who was planning to facilitate the delivery of a large quantity Information Sharing Initiative (Global) Advisory Committee—the
of heroin to an undercover officer at a hotel. The task force con- Federal Advisory Committee to the U.S. Attorney General on stan-
ducted its preoperational briefing, and the task force officers were dards-based, justice-related information sharing.
deployed to their assigned positions with the latest and most accu- The CICC strives to ensure that every chief, sheriff, and law
rate information available. enforcement executive has a stake in its effort so that all law en-
Chief Hurley was assigned as a roving patrol to make sure that all forcement and homeland security agencies understand their role in
of the task force assets were in place. As he was patrolling through the development and sharing of information and intelligence. The
a parking lot, he observed a vehicle with an occupant watching the CICC also collaborates with federal partners, including DOJ, the U.S.
hotel. He thought it was counter surveillance by the drug dealer. He Department of Homeland Security, the Federal Bureau of Investiga-
quickly moved from that area to another location, and, as the time tion, the Office of the Program Manager for the Information Sharing
approached for the deal to occur, he observed another vehicle in Environment (PM-ISE), and the Office of the Director of National
the area. As he drove by the vehicle, it pulled out and they engaged Intelligence, to coordinate nationwide initiatives focused on intel-
in a game of cat and mouse. ligence sharing.
The dealer had arrived and headed to the room for the buy- Vernon Keenan (director of the Georgia Bureau of Investigation
bust operation. The officers were given the final “get set to go.” As and chair of the CICC) explained,
they prepared to move in, the vehicle that Chief Hurley had been One of the priorities of the CICC is to promote the use of event
engaged with earlier appeared. Just before Chief Hurley gave the deconfliction throughout the country. The CICC was instrumental in
final call to move in, the driver pulled up close and asked, “Are you supporting the three diverse systems in coming together into a nation-
a cop?” It was quickly determined that the task force was planning wide program. It is very important for all law enforcement agencies
to deliver the heroin to another task force. Chief Hurley stopped the to engage in event deconfliction. It promotes efficiency and, most
operation seconds before encountering a blue-on-blue operation important, enhances officer safety.7
that might have resulted in task force members pulling firearms The CICC formed the Deconfliction Task Team, and it developed
and possibly harming each other. Fortunately, this potentially disas- A Call to Action: Enhancing Officer Safety Through the Use of Event Decon-
trous situation was avoided. fliction Systems, which focused on two primary areas. It stressed that,
Following the incident, one of the task force officers advised the in order to ensure officer safety, it was vital for all law enforcement
group that they had deconflicted the operation. The other task force agencies and personnel to participate in event deconfliction. It also
officers asked, “What is deconfliction?”4 supported the interconnectivity of the three nationally recognized
Event deconfliction not only helps safeguard officers partak- event deconfliction systems. (Visit the National Criminal Intelli-
ing in high-risk operations, it also helps reduce risk and liability, gence Resource Center [NCIRC] website to read A Call to Action.8
improves the wellness of officers, connects investigations, and safe-
guards citizens. Using an event deconfliction system enables offi- Systems Unite
cers to identify operational conflicts and collaborate with other law Event deconfliction systems have been available since the
enforcement agencies and officers prior to engaging in operations. early 1990s, primarily in support of drug investigations through
Officers are then able to leverage each other’s information and suc- the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) program and
cessfully apprehend criminals. the Western States Information Network (a Regional Information
United States Marshal Johnny Hughes (Maryland) stressed the Sharing Systems [RISS] Center). Significant work and progress
importance of event deconfliction on overall safety: has been achieved in event deconfliction over the past 20 years. THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 55

from HIDTA, RISS, the U.S. Drug Enforce-
Coordinating and deconflicting investigative operations can ment Administration, the El Paso Intelli-
gence Center, BJA, and other partners met
now be easily achieved by any law enforcement agency at the Chicago HIDTA to discuss and iden-
tify the steps and strategies for promoting
for any such investigative activity occurring anywhere in the use of event deconfliction among the
law enforcement community and for con-
the United States without compromising the integrity of the necting the three deconfliction systems.
A plan on moving forward with the inte-
operation, while safeguarding officers from unintentional gration project resulted from those discus-
sions. An Event Deconfliction Policy Group
blue-on-blue tragedies. and a Technical Working Group, composed
of representatives from the three systems
and other partners, were established, and
work immediately began to identify a tech-
Only recently, however, has the concept different users and stakeholders. The sys- nical solution, develop policies and proce-
and term become a consistent part of the tems are not duplicative; rather, they work dures, and create educational materials.
dialogue within the larger U.S. law enforce- together to help ensure event deconfliction
ment community on the most effective coverage across the entire United States. One Unified Solution
means to coordinate investigative activity, Although thousands of U.S. agencies With direction from the Event Deconflic-
as well as to identify and prevent potential use event deconfliction, many still do not. tion Policy Group and the expertise and col-
blue-on-blue situations. In some cases, adjacent jurisdictions or laboration of the Technical Working Group,
There are currently three nationally those within close proximity to each other the Partner Deconfliction Interface (PDI)
recognized event deconfliction systems in have used different systems, thereby creat- was developed. The PDI serves as a pointer
the United States: Case Explorer and the ing the possibility for operational conflicts (system-to-system) solution. When a sub-
Secure Automated Fast Event Tracking Net- to be missed, placing officers in harm’s way. mission is made into one of the systems, the
work (SAFETNet), which are used by the However, because of the leadership of the PDI enables a query against the two other
HIDTAs, and the RISS Officer Safety Event system owners and law enforcement part- systems. If a conflict is identified, informa-
Deconfliction System (RISSafe), which was ners, as well as cutting-edge technology, tion regarding that conflict is returned, and
developed and is used by RISS, as well as these situations are being resolved. notifications are made to the affected offi-
some of the HIDTAs and other law enforce- In coordination with the CICC and with cers. The PDI was built using recognized
ment partners. Each of these systems has support for the PM-ISE, representatives national standards and proven technologies.


Keeping up with the changing times

requires that you stay informed. The
2017 IACP Technology Conference
helps you, your agency, and your
community be smarter and safer.

Top-notch educational sessions World-class exhibits

Peer-to-peer networking Cutting-edge technology and solutions

Mark your calendar and

MAY make plans to attend.
22-24 Registration is now open.

56 176304_Intl_Assn_of_Chiefs_HalfPageAd.indd
Coordinating and deconflicting investiga-
tive operations can now be easily achieved Thomas H. Carr is the executive director of the Washington/Baltimore High Inten-
by any law enforcement agency for any such sity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Program, a position he has held since 1994. In
investigative activity occurring anywhere in addition, he is an antiterrorism instructor for the U.S. Department of State’s Antiterror-
the United States without compromising the ism Assistance Program. During the past 22 years, Mr. Carr has designed and imple-
integrity of the operation, while safeguard- mented more than 150 law enforcement drug task forces, 18 drug treatment/criminal
ing officers from unintentional blue-on-blue justice task forces, and 5 drug prevention task forces. Prior to accepting his position
tragedies. (Note: Work continues to integrate with the Washington/Baltimore HIDTA, Mr. Carr was a lieutenant colonel with the
the New York SAFETNet system.) Maryland State Police, and he retired as chief of the Bureau of Drug Enforcement.
The success of the event deconfliction Kent A. Shaw is the executive director of the Western States Information Net-
program across the United States can be work, a Regional Information Sharing Systems (RISS) Center. Mr. Shaw has 29 years
seen in the conflicts identified and resolved of law enforcement experience, the majority of which was devoted to drug enforce-
since its deployment. Director Tom Carr ment as an investigator, a supervisor, a manager, and an administrator. Mr. Shaw’s
(Washington/Baltimore HIDTA) noted that, law enforcement roles included chief of California’s Bureau of Narcotic Enforcement,
since the systems were integrated, more chief of California’s Bureau of Investigation, and deputy director of the Division of Law
than 1,600 conflicts have been identified, Enforcement.
representing potential conflicts that might After serving more than 30 years in local and federal law enforcement and pri-
have gone unknown prior to the integration. vate security, on May 15, 2016, Jack Killorin became director of the Atlanta/Carolinas
When we first started the discussions, HIDTA. Mr. Killorin’s law enforcement career includes service as a police officer, vice
we thought that the number of conflicts and narcotics detective, and ATF special agent. During his tenure with the ATF, Mr.
between or among the systems would be Killorin served as a member of its executive staff, including positions such as chief of
low; however, now we have discovered that the Public Affairs branch and executive assistant to the director for Liaison and Public
more occur. Information. Mr. Killorin is a life member of the International Association of Chiefs
of Police. He served in the U.S. Navy, including combat service with the River Patrol
Getting Started Force during the Vietnam War.
Incorporating an event deconfliction
system into an agency’s operations is easy.
It is recommended that agency leadership
partner with other law enforcement organi-
zations in their jurisdiction, region, or state The event deconfliction partners are proud to announce that the video
to discuss which system best meets their Safeguarding Officers Through Event Deconfliction is now available.
needs. The state or major urban area fusion
center should be included in this identifi- To learn how to access the video, visit
cation process, since many fusion centers
serve as event deconfliction watch centers.
After identifying the appropriate event
deconfliction system, agency personnel asked questions regarding event deconflic- Notes:
can contact their regional RISS Center or tion are also available. 1
National Law Enforcement Officers
HIDTA to obtain information, access, and “There is no reason not to use event Memorial Fund,
training.9 Agencies should also incorporate deconfliction,” Don Kennedy (chair of the 2
the use of event deconfliction into agency RISS National Policy Group) said. “It is 3
Newell Normand (sheriff, Jefferson Parish,
policies and procedures. Although event free, easy to use, and available to all law LA), interview, 2016.
deconfliction is a secure and effective way enforcement.”11 4
James Hurley, “Event Deconfliction: If
to help avoid blue-on-blue incidents, it You Are Not Doing Deconfliction You Are
should not replace professional protocols Moving Forward Asking for Trouble,” Inside Information 11-15
when deconflicting events with agencies in In addition to event deconfliction, work (November 2015): 18–19, http://www.mass
other jurisdictions. is under way among the partners to build
on and expand the sharing of target (sub- 2015/859-november-2015-newsletter/file.
ject) information. Currently, multiple sys- 5
Johnny Hughes (U.S. Marshal, MD),
tems utilize the National Virtual Pointer interview, 2016.
System (NVPS) to share target (subject) 6
Normand, interview, 2016.
information. NVPS is a pointer system that 7
Vernon Keenan (director, Georgia Bureau
automates federated inquiries from one par- of Investigation; chair, CICC), interview,
ticipating system to another when data area February 2016.
entered into one of the participating systems 8
National Criminal Intelligence Resource
Event deconfliction is available to all U.S. and the appropriate criteria are met. Center, A Call to
law enforcement, and there is no cost to Director Carr stated, Action: Enhancing Officer Safety Through the
use an event deconfliction system. Visit the The partners are proud of the work accom- Use of Event Deconfliction Systems, July 2015,
Nationwide Officer Safety Event Deconflic- plished in the area of event deconfliction
tion website to learn more about the sys- and urge all law enforcement agencies and deconfliction_call_to_action.pdf.
tems and available resources.10 The website officers to utilize an event deconfliction sys- 9
RISS Center,; High Intensity
includes an interactive map providing con- tem. Equally important is the exchange of Drug Trafficking Areas,
tact information for the systems available critical investigative information. Expand- 10
Nationwide Officer Safety Event
in your area. It also includes a model event ing and enhancing target deconfliction will Deconfliction,
deconfliction policy that agencies can tailor further enable agencies to collaborate, share Deconfliction.
and integrate into their operations. Informa- information, safeguard communities, and 11
Don Kennedy (chair, RISS National Policy
tional materials and answers to frequently solve cases. v Group), interview, 2016. THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 57

Participate in the
Sponsor 2017for the
New Members
2016 President’s Membership Drive
President’s Drive runs February 1 – June 30, 2017

THE PRESIDENT’S DRIVE is a perfect time to

sponsor new members and be rewarded for
your efforts.
You know the value of IACP membership. Share the benefits of
IACP with others by sponsoring them as new members.

Membership in the IACP is open to EVERYONE involved in Donald W. De Lucca

law enforcement – both sworn and civilian. IACP President

Our people are a product

Members who sponsors at least one new member will receive an
of our leadership. One of
official IACP gift*.
our roles as law enforcement

Sponsor 4 new members and receive a free registration to the leaders is to support and
encourage the growth and upward
2017 IACP Annual Conference and Exposition, October 21-24,
movement of those in our agencies
2017, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. (a $350 value!)
so they will develop into the
leaders of tomorrow. Provide that
support today by sponsoring them
for IACP membership.”

2017 President’s Membership Drive Rules and Information:

1. The new members you sponsor must use the 2017 President’s Membership CONNECT
Drive application to qualify for prizes. Photocopies are acceptable.
2. Applications must be received at IACP Headquarters by the close of
business June 30, 2017. PARTICIPATE
3. Renewing members do not qualify for this drive.
4. Prizes are non-transferable. LEARN
5. Members will be sent/notified of all prizes and incentives following the
conclusion of the drive.
6. *The first 250 members to sponsor a new member in the drive will receive
the official IACP gift. The item sent will be at the discretion of the IACP.

Serving the Leaders of Today, Developing the Leaders

58 THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 of Tomorrow®
IACP President’s Membership DO NOT USE

Drive Application
International Association of Chiefs of Police
P.O. Box 62564
Baltimore, MD 21264-2564, USA
Phone: 1-800-THE IACP; 703-836-6767; Fax: 703-836-4543

(Please Print)
Name: ________________________ __________ ________________________________________
First Middle Initial Last
Title/Rank: _______________________________________________________________________
Information on membership
Agency/Business Name: ___________________________________________________________ categories, benefits, and eligibility
can be found on the IACP web site
Business Address:__________________________________________________________________

City, State, Zip, Country: ____________________________________________________________ Active Member $150

(sworn command level)

Residence Address: ________________________________________________________________ Associate Member:

General $150
City, State, Zip, Country: ____________________________________________________________
Academic $150
Business Phone:____________________________Fax: ___________________________________ Service Provider $250
Sworn Officer—Leader
Send mail to my Business Residence Address of Tomorrow $75
(sworn non-command level)
E-mail: ___________________________________________________________________________
Student—Leader of Tomorrow
Website: __________________________________________________________________________ University name: $30
Have you previously been a member of IACP? Yes No
Optional Section Memberships:
Date of Birth: (MM/DD/Year) _____/_____/_____ I am a sworn officer. Yes No
Capitol Police Section $30
Number of sworn officers in your agency (if applicable) a. 1–5 b. 6–15 c. 16–25 Defense Chiefs of
Police Section $15
d. 26–49 e. 50–99 f. 100–249 g. 250–499 h. 500–999 i. 1000+
Drug Recognition
Expert (DRE) $25
Approximate pop. served (if applicable) a. under 2,500 b. 2,500–9,999 c. 10,000–49,999
Indian Country
d. 50,000–99,999 e. 100,000–249,999 f. 250,000–499,999 g. 500,000 + Law Enforcement $25
Intl Managers Police Academy
Education (Highest Degree): __________________________________________________________ & College Training $25

Date elected or appointed to present position: _________________________________________ Law Enforcement Information

Management (LEIM) $25
Law enforcement experience (with approx. dates): _______________________________________ Legal Officers $35

_________________________________________________________________________________ Mid-Sized Agencies Section $50

Police Foundations Section $20
I have an Active Member Sponsor – Their name is: ___________________________________ Police Physicians $35
Police Psychological Services—
initial processing fee $50

Amount to be charged __________ (U.S. dollars only – Membership includes subscription to Police Chief Public Information Officers $15
magazine valued at $30.) Public Transit Police No Charge
Railroad Police No Charge
I have enclosed: Purchase order Personal check/money order Agency check
Retired Chiefs
Charge to: MasterCard VISA American Express Discover of Police No Charge
Cardholder’s Name: _______________________________________________________________ Smaller Department
Section $20
Card #:______________________________________________________ Exp. Date: _____/_____ S & P Police Alumni
Section No Charge
Cardholder’s Billing Address: _______________________________________________________
S & P Police Academy
Directors No Charge
S & P Police Planning
All memberships expire December 31 of each calendar year. Applications received after August 1 Officers No Charge
will expire the following year. Return completed application via mail, fax (703-836-4543) or email
University/College Police—
( Questions? Contact Membership at 800-THE-IACP. Initial Member $50
University/College Police—
PDA17 Additional members $15 THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 59


This posting of new member applications is published

pursuant to the provisions of the IACP Constitution & Rules.
If any active member in good standing objects to any applica-
tion, written notice of the objection must be submitted to the
executive director within 60 days of publication. The applica-
tion in question shall then be submitted to the Executive Com-
mittee and shall require the affirmative vote of two-thirds of
the members of that committee for admission of the applicant.
The full membership listing can be found in the
members-only area of the IACP website (
Contact information for all members can be found online
in the members-only IACP Membership Directory.

*Associate Members
All other listings are active members.

AUSTRALIA *Lake, Jonathan, Constable, Calgary Police Service, 5111 Gilbert

47th St NE, T3J 3R2, Email: Brice, Randy, Commander, Gilbert Police Dept, 75 E Civic
Queensland *McAuley, Tracey, Constable, Calgary Police Service, 5111 Center Dr, 85296, (480) 708-5916, Email: randy.brice@
Brisbane 47th St NE, T3J 3R2, Email:
*Raison, Gavin, Senior Sergeant, Queensland Police Ser- *McCann, Gord, Detective, Calgary Police Service, 5111
vice, 200 Roma St, 61 423411761, Email: raison.gavinc@ 47th St NE, T3J 3R2, Email:
Hall, Kevin, Assistant Chief of Police, Tucson Police Dept, *Moore, Brad, Staff Sergeant, Calgary Police Service, 5111
270 S Stone Ave, 85701, (520) 791-4441, Email: kevin.hall@
47th St NE, T3J 3R2, Email:
BRAZIL *Ram, Vimal, Constable, Calgary Police Service, 5111 47th St
Sao Paulo NE, T3J 3R2, Email: California
Saad, Cesar, Deputy Chief of Police, Sao Paulo Police Dept, *Severson, Katherine, Sergeant, Calgary Police Service,
5111 47th St NE, T3J 3R2, (403)874 0735, Email: pol3174@ Citrus Heights
Rua Professor Lucio Martins Rodrigues 61, Avenida Zaki *Fraser, Don, Director of Operations, Logic Tree IT Solutions,
Narchi 152, 05621-025, 55 11975990166, Email: cesar 6060 Sunrise Vista Dr Ste 3500, 95610, (916) 676-7335,
*Shahein, Ahmed, Constable, Calgary Police Service, 5111 Email:, Web:
47th St NE, T3J 3R2, Email:
BULGARIA *Walker, Jason, Staff Sergeant, Calgary Police Service, 5111 Irvine
47th St NE, T3J 3R2, Email: *Kirby, Jeremy, Grants Administrator, Susteen Inc, 18818
*Williams, Adam, Constable, Calgary Police Service, 5111 Teller Ste 102, 92612, (949) 789-8221, Email: jkirby@
Peychev, Asen Ivanov, Colonel, NATO Bulgarian Reserve
47th St NE, T3J 3R2, Email:
Officers, Vitosha Prof Milko Borissov St, 359 898888805,
*Wyatt, Paul, Staff Sergeant, Calgary Police Service, 5111
Email: San Francisco
47th St NE, T3J 3R2, Email:
*Zerk, Jason, A/Sergeant, Calgary Police Service, 5111 47th Zimmermann, Marc, Assistant Special Agent in Charge,
St NE, T3J 3R2, Email: US Dept of Homeland Security ICE HSI, 630 Sansome St
Alberta 12th Fl, 94111, (202) 903-9601, Email: marc.zimmermann@
British Columbia
*Anderson, Kevin, Constable, Calgary Police Service, 5111 Vancouver San Jose
47th St NE, T3J 3R2, Email: *Heer, Simi, Director Public Affairs Unit, Vancouver Police *Papenfuhs, Steve, Instructor, South Bay Reg Public Safety
*Bailly, Brook, Constable, Calgary Police Service, 5111 47th Dept, 2120 Cambie St, V5Z 4N6, (604) 717-2897, Email: Training Consortium, 3303 Palantino Way, 95135, Email:
St NE, T3J 3R2, Email:
Barber, Leah, Inspector, Calgary Police Service, 5111 47th St
NE, T3J 3R2, Email: Colorado
*Dhaliwal, Paban, Constable, Calgary Police Service, 5111 NIGERIA Milliken
47th St NE, T3J 3R2, Email: Obalende Garcia, Benito, Chief of Police, Milliken Police Dept, 1201
*Fleming, Andrew, Constable, Calgary Police Service, 5111 *Ugiagbe, Amenaghawon Naomi Esther, Inspector of Broad St, 80543, (970) 660-5012 ext. 5012, Email: bgarcia@
47th St NE, T3J 3R2, Email: Police, Nigeria Police Force, Force Headquarter Annex,
*Grillone, John, Sergeant, Calgary Police Service, 5111 47th Moloney St, 234 8023422959, Email: amenugiagbe916@
St NE, T3J 3R2, Email: Connecticut
*Grouchey, David, Constable, Calgary Police Service, 5111
47th St NE, T3J 3R2, Email:
*Gulaya, Oxana, Constable, Calgary Police Service, 5111 UNITED STATES Spyros, Edward J, Captain, Bristol Police Dept, 131 N Main
47th St NE, T3J 3R2, Email: St, 06010, (860) 584-3092, FAX: (860) 584-4868, Email:
*Hamel, Justine, Detective, Calgary Police Service, 5111
47th St NE, T3J 3R2, Email: Coolidge
District of Columbia
*Heck, Jason, Sergeant, Calgary Police Service, 5111 47th Grizzle, Harry, Commander of Field Services, Coolidge Police
St NE, T3J 3R2, Email: Dept, 911 S Arizona Blvd, 85128, (520) 723-6061, Email: Washington
*Kennedy, Dan, Constable, Calgary Police Service, 5111 47th *Gottshall, James, Special Agent in Charge, US Dept of
St NE, T3J 3R2, Email: Tercero, Mark, Commander, Coolidge Police Dept, 911 S State/Diplomatic Security Service, 3507 International
*Klassen, Amy, Constable, Calgary Police Service, 5111 47th Arizona Blvd, 85128, (520) 723-6044, Email: tercerom@ Pl NW, SA-33 Ste 316, 20522-3303, (202) 895-3644, Email:
St NE, T3J 3R2, Email:
Florida *Carlson, Ed, Sergeant, Council Bluffs Police Dept, 227 Minnesota
Ocoee S Sixth St, 51503, (712) 328-4761, Email: ercarlson@ St Cloud
Gourley, John L, Regional Commander, Florida Hwy Mushatt, Brett A, Commander, St Cloud Police Dept, 101
Patrol, PO Box 613069, 34761, (407) 264-3201, Email: *Knotek, Jill, Sergeant, Council Bluffs Police Dept, 227
11th Ave N, 56303, (320) 345-4477, FAX: (320) 345-4242,, Web: S Sixth St, 51503, (712) 328-4761, Email: jjknotek@
Email:, Web: www
*Schmitz, Dale, Officer, Council Bluffs Police Dept, 227
Bagnardi, John J, Captain, Florida Hwy Patrol, 2900 Oxton, Jeffrey J, Assistant Chief of Police, St Cloud Police
S Sixth St, 51503, (712) 328-4761, Email: dnschmitz@
Apalachee Pkwy MS46, 32399, (850) 617-2818, Email: Dept, 101 11th Ave N, 56303, (320) 345-4412, FAX: (320), Web: 345-4242, Email:, Web:
*Woodward, Cory, Sergeant, Council Bluffs Police Dept, 227
Mandell, Milton S, Commander/Major, Florida Hwy Patrol,
S Sixth St, 51503, (712) 328-4761, Email: cawoodward@
2900 Apalachee Pkwy MS42, 32399, (850) 617-2327, Email: Steve, James J, Commander, St Cloud Police Dept, 101, Web: 11th Ave N, 56303, (320) 345-4401, Email: james.steve@
Kansas, Web:
*Cherpock, Steven, Corporal, Hillsborough Co Sheriff’s Kansas City Mississippi
Office, 1409 N Falkenburg Rd, 33619, (813) 627-1003, Email: Horn, Henry, Chief of Police, Kansas Public Schools Police
Dept, 2220 N 59th St Ste 120, 66104, (913) 627-4111, Email: Byram Dowdy, John, Director, Mississippi Bureau of Narcotics, PO
Georgia Box 720519, 39272, (601) 371-3623, FAX: (601) 354-7396,
Overland Park Email:
Athens Miller, Ryan, Captain, Overland Park Police Dept, 12400
Cole, Jimps W, Chief Deputy, Clarke Co Sheriff’s Office, Foster St, 66213, (913) 895-6000 ext. 6893, Email: ryan Vicksburg
325 E Washington St Rm 100, 30601, (706) 613-3250, Armstrong, Walter L, Chief of Police, Vicksburg Police
Email:, Web: Dept, 820 Veto St, 39180, (601) 801-5304, FAX: (601) 801- Kentucky 3632, Email:, Web: www
Atlanta Louisville
*Bendinger, Jep, Assistant District Attorney, Fulton Co Dis- *Kaelin, Robert, Sergeant/Bomb Squad Commander, Louis- Missouri
trict Attorney’s Office, 136 Pryor St, 30303, (404) 612-7005, ville Metro Police Dept, 633 W Jefferson St, 40202, (502)
773-3738, Email: Fort Leonard Wood
Email: Royce, Lance, Captain/Deputy Provost Marshal & DES
Cave Spring Louisiana Operations Officer, US Army Fort Leonard Military Police,
Harbin, Warren B, Chief of Police, Cave Spring Police Dept, PO Box 955, 65473-0955, (719) 216-2602, Email: ler0133@
Baton Rouge
10 Georgia Ave, PO Box 365, 30124, (706) 777-3382, FAX:
*Cicardo, Eugene, General Counsel, Louisiana Dept of
(706) 777-3383, Email: Public Safety Legal Affairs, PO Box 66614, 70896, (225) Marceline
Savannah 925-6103, Email: Donelson, Robert, Chief of Police, Marceline Police
Owens, David, Lieutenant, Savannah Chatham Metropolitan Dept, 123 E Santa Fe, 64658, (660) 376-3556, Email: robert
Police Dept, 201 Habersham St, 31401, (912) 312-1027, Maryland
Email: Baltimore
*Lagree, Kimberly M, Youth Violence Prevention Plan Coor- Montana
Illinois dinator, Baltimore Office of Youth Violence Prevention, Columbia Falls
Carbondale 1001 E Fayette St, 21201, (410) 961-9486, Email: kimberly Peters, Clint, Chief of Police, Columbia Falls Police Dept, 130
Goddard, Mark, Lieutenant, Carbondale Police Dept, 501 S Sixth St W, 59912, (406) 892-3226, Email: cfchiefpeters@
Washington Ave, 62901, (608) 457-3200 ext. 429, Email: Bel Air Peschek, Richard, Deputy Chief of Police, Bel Air Police
Chicago Dept, 39 N Hickory Ave, 21014, Email: rpeschek@
*Ward, Bruce, Director, Health Care Service Corp, 300 E Bellevue
Randolph St, 60601, (312) 653-8597, Email: bruce_ward@ *Greiner, Nicholas, Officer, Bellevue Police Dept, 1510 Wall
Silver Spring St Ste 100, 68005, (402) 293-3100, Email: nicholas.greiner@
Coe, Jeffrey, Lieutenant, Maryland National Capital Park
Itasca Police, 12751 Layhill Rd, 20906, (301) 929-2722, Email:
*Ward, Cassandra, Officer, Bellevue Police Dept, 1510
Matuga, John, Deputy Chief of Police, Itasca Police Dept,
Wall St Ste 100, 68005, (402) 293-3100, Email: cassandra
540 W Irving Park Rd, 60143, Email: Tippery, Christopher, Lieutenant, Maryland National Capital
Melrose Park Park Police, 12751 Layhill Rd, 20906, (240) 876-2417, Email: La Vista
Rogowski, Steve, Deputy Chief of Police, Village of Melrose
*Czarnick, Mike, Officer, La Vista Police Dept, 7701 S 96th St,
Park Police Dept, 1 N Broadway, 60160, (708) 649-6109, Massachusetts 68128, (402) 359-7114, Email:
Barre *Jimenez, Pablo, Officer, La Vista Police Dept, 7701 S 96th St,
Indiana Carbone, John, Chief of Police, Barre Police Dept, 40 68128, (402) 505-2555, Email:
Frankfort West St Ste 902, 01005, (978) 355-5005 ext. 110, Email: Lincoln
Shoemaker, Scott, Deputy Chief of Police, Frankfort Police *Cooper, Tyler, Sergeant, Lincoln Police Dept, 575 S 10th St,
Dept, 201 W Washington St, 46041, (765) 654-4245 ext. 284, Haverhill 68508, (402) 314-8485, Email:
Email: Haugh, Anthony, Deputy Chief of Police, Haverhill Police *Hubka, Max, Officer, Lincoln Police Dept, 575 S 10th St,
Dept, 40 Bailey Blvd, 01830, (978) 722-1550, Email: 68508, (402) 499-3019, Email:
Muncie *Murphy, Mark, Dispatch, Lincoln Police Dept, 575 S 10th St,
Winkle, Joseph R, Chief of Police, Muncie Police Dept, 300
N High St, 47305, (765) 747-4822, FAX: (765) 741-1342, Hull 68508, (402) 499-0756, Email:
Email:, Web: www.muncie Dunn, John, Chief of Police, Hull Police Dept, 1 School St, *Powell, Grant, Officer, Lincoln Police Dept, 575 S 10th St, 02045, (781) 773-3851, Email: 68508, (402) 770-3172, Email:
*Weber, Chris, Officer, Lincoln Police Dept, 575 S 10th St,
Iowa Michigan 68508, (402) 617-2823, Email:
Council Bluffs Fraser Omaha
*Brinkman, Matt, Sergeant, Council Bluffs Police Dept, 227 Rouhib, George T, Director of Public Safety, Fraser Dept of Gillick, Melissa, Lieutenant, Omaha Police Dept, 505 S
S Sixth St, 51503, (713) 328-4761, Email: mjbrinkman@ Public Safety, 33000 Garfield Rd, 48026, (586) 293-2000 ext. 15th St, 68102, (402) 321-4855, Email: melissa.gillick@ 200, FAX: (586) 296-8480, Email: THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 61
*Kramer, Jon, Sergeant, Douglas Co Sheriff’s Office, 3601 Pennsylvania McKinney
N 156th St, 68116, (402) 444-3554, Email: jon.kramer@ *Pages, Ernest, Partner, Sciens Consulting, 5900 S Lake
Lancaster Forest Dr, Ste 300, 75070, (469) 854-2218, Email: epages@
Orlandi, Dante, Major, Pennsylvania State Police, 2099
Lally, Richard, Lieutenant, Douglas Co Sheriff’s Office, 3601
Lincoln Hwy E, 17602-3384, (717) 239-5081, FAX: (610) 378-
N 156th St, 68116, (402) 599-2641, Email: richard.lally@
4052, Email: Vermont
Matuza, Mark, Lieutenant, Omaha Police Dept, 505 S 15th Sunbury
Miller, Timothy, Chief of Police, Sunbury Police Dept, Winooski
St, 68102, (402) 616-5264, Email: mark.matuza@city
440 Market St, 17801, (570) 560-3125, Email: tmiller@ *Sheehan, Ron, Senior Sergeant, Winooski Police Dept,
Millikan, Shawn, Lieutenant, Douglas Co Sheriff’s Office, 27 W Allen St, 05404, (802) 655-0221, FAX: (802) 655-6427,
3601 N 156th St, 68116, (402) 630-4629, Email: shawn. Email:, Web: www
Puerto Rico
*Owens, Tim, Sergeant, Douglas Co Sheriff’s Office, 3601 N Barceloneta
156th St, 68116, (402) 250-6423, Email: timothy.owens@ Figueroa, Carlos, Captain, Police of Puerto Rico, PO Box Virginia 1028, Bo Magueyes, 00617, (787) 596-7321, Email: Alexandria *Dowd, Charles, Representative, Public Safety Alliance,
New Jersey
Tennessee 1426 Prince St, 22314, (917) 769-0750, Email: cfdowd@
Gordon, Stephen, Chief of Police, Ogdensburg Police Dept, Chapel Hill
14 Highland Ave, 07439, (973) 827-3160, Email: sgordon@ Kon, Andrew E, Chief of Police, Chapel Hill Police Dept, 119 Fairfax N Horton Pkwy, 37034, (931) 364-4136, FAX: (931) 364-5696, Marsh, Chris, Captain, Fairfax Co Police Dept, 12300 Lee
Email: Jackson Memorial Hwy, 22033, (703) 385-1187, Email:
New York
New York Luray
*Adler, Jon, Chief Firearms Instructor, US Attorney’s Office, Austin Cook, Carl S, Chief of Police, Luray Police Dept, 45 E Main
1 St Andrew’s Plaza Ste 602, 10007, (212) 637-2557, Email: *Carroll, Kathleen, Vice President Government Affairs, HID St, PO Box 629, 22835, (540) 743-5343, FAX: (540) 743-7334,
Global, 611 Center Ridge Dr, 78753, (610) 350-8051, Email: Email:
Peekskill Washington
*Dylewski, Leo, Sergeant, Peekskill Police Dept, 2 Nelson
*McLean, Va’Shawnda, Sergeant, Houston Police Dept, Bainbridge Island
Ave Ste 3, 10566, (845) 656-6809, Email:
611 Walker, 77002, (832) 341-2279, Email: vashawnda *Koon, Gary, Officer, Bainbridge Island Police Dept, 625
North Carolina Winslow Way E, 98110, (360) 473-8540, Email: gkkoon@
Parkton Hudson Oaks
May, Samuel A, Chief of Police, Parkton Police Dept, PO Box Baldwin, Michael, Chief of Police, Hudson Oaks Police Dept, Tulalip
55, 28371, (910) 858-2119, FAX: (910) 858-1119, Email: chief 150 N Oakridge Dr, 76087, (682) 229-2421, Email: michael. *Perry, Ronald, Senior Patrol Officer, Tulalip Police Dept,, Web: 6103 31st Ave NE, 98271, (425) 508-1567, Email: rperry@
*Melton, Taylor, Deputy, Douglas Co Sheriff’s Office, 110
Second St NE Ste 200, 98802, (509) 595-1274, Email:

The IACP notes the passing of

VISIT POLICE CHIEF the following association

members with deepest regret

and extends its sympathy to their
families and coworkers left to
carry on without them.
Frank D. Blackburn, General Counsel,
Louisiana State Police, Baton Rouge,
Readers can sort articles by topic, translate Louisiana

articles using Google Translate, answer the

monthly poll, submit manuscripts online,
and more!


IACP Member
IACP has partnered with nationally known providers to bring all
members exclusive discounts through the IACPreferred program.
Visit the members discount site today! THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 63

Product update
The Police Chief keeps you on the cutting edge of law enforcement technology with monthly product announcements. For free in-depth information,
visit us online at Items about new or improved products are based on news releases supplied by manufacturers
and distributors; IACP endorsement is in no way implied.

Aircraft autonomy program

Aurora Flight Sciences is break-
ing ground in the world of automated
flight through its work on the Aircrew
Labor In-Cockpit Automation System
(ALIAS) program. Key elements of
Aurora’s solution include the use of
in-cockpit machine vision, non-invasive
robotic components to actuate the flight
controls, an advanced tablet-based
user interface, speech recognition and
synthesis, and a “knowledge acquisition”
process that facilitates transition of the
automation system to another aircraft
within a 30-day period.
For more information, visit www

Medium/heavy-duty truck Disc printer and publisher Durable boots

Alkane Truck Company offers the Primera Technology, Inc., announces Ridge Foot-
four-wheel drive Dominator, a medium/ its new Bravo 4200-Series Disc Printers wear launches
heavy-duty truck that has a gross vehicle and Disc Publishers for the law enforce- the updated and
weight of 12,800 pounds. It is powered ment industry. Features of the new Bravo improved Dura-
by a high performance, American-made 4200-series include USB 3.0, which deliv- Max boot collec-
6.0 liter V8 engine with a manual or six- ers the fastest possible recording speeds tion. In addition,
speed automatic transmission. A unique on CD-R, DVD-R, and BD-R media; one a new model has
characteristic of the Dominator is that high-yield, tri-color ink cartridge, which been added to the
it will be available in four different fuel delivers low ink cost per disc; dpi print line, the non-zip
types: gasoline; liquid propane (LPG); quality; and compatibility with Windows 8” Dura-Max in
compressed natural gas (CNG); and, for 7/8/10+ and Mac OS X 10.7 (or higher). Coyote Brown,
the international markets, diesel. The The Bravo 4200-Series automates the pro- ideal for public
vehicle can be ordered with armor plat- cess of burning and printing quantities of safety profession-
ing for police use. It produces 345 horse- recordable CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray Discs. als. For added comfort and freedom of
power and makes 373 ft-lbs of torque at Using built-in robotics, discs are trans- movement, the collars and shafts of the
4,400 rpm. It has heavy-duty American- ported one at a time into either single or Dura-Max boots now have more built-in
brand axles that are rated 5,000 up front dual optical drives. After data are burned, flexibility. Air/water vents have been
and 8,500 in the rear. The wheelbase is the discs are transported to a high-speed, added to the uppers for breathability and
131.9 inches with an overall length of high-resolution full-color disc printer. quick drying. Additionally, the Dura-
208.7 inches. The Dominator’s suspen- Two of the most popular uses include Max outsoles have been upgraded and
sion employs coil springs in the front content for police in-car video evidence are completely stitched to the uppers for
and leaf springs at the rear. and court proceedings. improved durability.
For more information, visit http:// For more information, visit www For more information, visit https://


Body camera upgrade
WatchGuard Video announces the release of a new version of
programming for VISTA and VISTA Wi-Fi body-worn cameras. VISTA
firmware version 2.0 adds new features and system enhancements, in
addition to lowering the camera’s power consumption to increase bat-
tery life by over 20 percent. After the 2.0 update, the same camera now
records in HD for over 11 hours, at 480p resolution for nearly 13 hours,
and powered-on standby time has increased to 39 hours. The update
provides new features specifically designed to enhance the user experi-
ence and make VISTA even more customizable. A new “sleep mode” can
dramatically increase battery life by temporarily disabling pre-event buff-
ering when the internal accelerometers have detected that the officer has
been stationary (e.g., sitting at a desk). The moment the officer moves,
VISTA automatically wakes up and resumes pre-event buffering within
For more information, visit

Label maker Glass-breaking sound analytics Network exploration tool

K-Sun Corp introduces the Epson Sonitrol releases ground-breaking SAP announces the launch of SAP
LABELWORKS PX LW-PX700 industrial development in glass-break detection Connection Discovery for Public Ser-
label maker for creating durable, custom, technology. Sonitrol FlexIP is a product vices, a network exploration tool that
and compliant labels, wire markers, and that uses a reprogrammable software will equip civil servants to sense and
more, up to 1” wide. Exclusive features glass-break analytic algorithm to initiate predict emergencies as they unfold,
of the LW-PX700 save time, effort, and alarms. Sonitrol’s technology partner, using a plug-and-play software app
money by creating a lower total cost 3xLOGIC, developed the glass-break that uses geo-data and timelines for
of ownership. Automatic tape rewind algorithm. The engineering team broke public sector customers, enabling
reduces lead margins to 4 mm by retract- hundreds of panes of various types of users to understand complex events
ing material into the cartridge before the glass, allowing them to ascertain an quickly and react immediately with
first label prints, which translates to more extensive knowledge base in audio ana- appropriate protective measures.
cost savings per print and less waste. The lytics. It uses advanced audio analytic Features include seamless geo-data
mixed-length hot key lets users create mul- behavior algorithms to identify glass integration and data enrichment on
tiple uniform and variable-length labels sounds, as opposed to utilizing hardware top of a mapping layer. It uses network
on the same strip with a half-cut between components; distributed analytics that visualization patterns in data to detect
each label for easy removal and applica- reside both on the host panel and the behaviors, helping public officials iden-
tion, eliminating multiple lead margins to audio module; advanced discrimination tify and evaluate relationships between
significantly save tape. The pick-and-print of breaking glass during business hours people, objects, and places through
function conveniently prints, cuts, and as part of a 24-hr security level; built-in a highly visual UX. The software’s
holds a single label until it is removed. The diagnostics to efficiently test an audio user-friendly, intuitive visualizations
function resumes for the next label in the sensor’s ability to detect glass-break are meant to be used in several public
series, saving time by eliminating the need alarms during installation and service; service use cases, ranging from emer-
to continuously type and print labels. and self-calibration, minimizing techni- gency responses and investigations to
For more information, visit www cian installation and service time. disaster management. For more information, visit www For more information, visit http://
Automatic relay switch
Videogenix introduces the uSwitch
PoE. The uSwitch PoE (Power of Eth- Voice analytics threat detection
ernet) auto senses and auto negotiates Louroe Electronics offers the
voltages from 48 volts down while pro- Aggression Detector, ideal for
viding 15.4 watts of power per port. For detention facilities, police depart-
non-PoE devices, it provides a 12 VDC ments, court houses, and other
output. It also has an IP relay that auto- correctional or law enforcement
matically reboots or controls non-PoE environments. It is an audio analyt-
devices. It automatically builds a control ics software that recognizes aggres-
webpage, is password protected, and can sion in a person’s voice. Responders
operate stand-alone or be controlled via are pre-warned at an early stage
the Internet or a local intranet. Users can if someone is beginning to show
control any device over the web, includ- signs of aggression. The system
ing modems, lights, sirens, doors, gates, automatically and objectively
and cameras. In addition to computers, detects rising human aggression or
it is compatible with Android, iPhone, anger and warns staff immediately
iPads, Blackberry, and other smart (by an audible alert or by triggering
devices. an alarm) so that the aggression can be prevented. It integrates Louroe Electronics’
For more information, visit www microphones, select cameras, and leading video management software. For more information, visit THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 65

technology talk

Exploring Cyber Risks to Police Fleets

By Jerry L. Davis, Captain, Virginia
State Police, and Barry M. Horowitz,
PhD, Professor, Chair, Systems and
Information Engineering Department,
University of Virginia

I t is becoming increasingly difficult to open any

news site today without reading about cyber
invasions, data breaches, and privacy compro-
mises. No sector has gone unscathed. The size,
scope, and expense of dealing with cybersecu-
rity issues has been increasing in recent years
with notable intrusions occurring in the private
sector and most recently within the governmen-
tal sector, as was the case with the U.S. Office
of Personnel Management.1 The burden and
expense of these intrusions are borne by the
victims and defenders who rely on a risk-based
methodology for protecting vital assets.
Cyber intrusions are now becoming common-
place and personally identifiable information
is immediately converted by criminal actors for
profit.2 Victims are unsure of how to respond to
an attack, and law enforcement agencies struggle
with attribution and prosecution due to limited Police Chiefs, which offers a reference guide an attacker could manipulate individual safety-
technical expertise, crimes that extend beyond for understanding cyber issues complete with critical functions in the car.7
geographical borders, and the complexity of resource links to obtain additional information.4 This process would require the attacker to
attacks that traverse multiple servers and routers. The agency has also developed a cybersecurity have knowledge of the vehicle’s electrical system
A lax response by law enforcement could contrib- framework to be used as a tool for establishing and the data packets that signal and control indi-
ute to a permissive environment that fosters more protections in operations, facilities, and policies vidual systems to perform a specific function.
crime. related to cybersecurity.5 This can be achieved through experimentation
Identifying how and under what circum- While much planning and discussion has by “fuzzing,” where wireless signals are captured
stances cyber attacks are promulgated is now a gone into how law enforcement agencies should after observing data flows on a computer that is
major concern. Developing methods, tactics, and protect their information systems like computing in proximity to the target vehicle.8
procedures to deny attacks and mitigate dam- and dispatch centers, little has been advanced in The attacker would then need direct physical
age to systems is emerging as a priority. Those regard to the protection of vehicle fleets. Patrol access to the vehicle or have sufficient knowl-
systems are not just restricted to information vehicles are the cornerstones for agencies to edge to launch a remote attack via an external
systems, but also now include physical systems respond to calls for service from citizens. It is a attack surface like Bluetooth, cellular phone, or
like police vehicle fleets that are critical to the logical step for police managers to consider how infotainment systems in the car.9 Most major car
law enforcement mission. Identifying attackers vehicles might be vulnerable to cyber attacks. manufacturers now have telematics, like GM’s
that target systems and bringing them to justice These systems rely on architectures that have OnStar, as optional packages on their vehicles,
will require a multidisciplinary approach. Law varying degrees of security protocols embedded, which can provide an attack surface into the
enforcement officers must gain investigatory which could lead to internal and external vulner- vehicle.10
knowledge in computer information systems, abilities to cyber intrusions. Remote attacks are much more sophisticated,
physical systems, and multijurisdictional case Vehicles’ engine control units (ECUs) are but one was recently executed by two cyber
investigation procedures to effectively handle connected via electrical architecture in an researchers named Charlie Miller and Chris
these complex investigations. Cyber criminals internal network that routes data through a Valasek, thus proving remote attacks to be realis-
actively use the Internet and the intrusion of controller area network (CAN) bus.6 While this tic threats.11 In addition, a detailed discussion on
computer systems to facilitate crimes involving configuration reduces costs to manufacturers, remote attacks was presented at a 2011 security
fraud, identity theft, and financial schemes.3 it allows data to flow from individual system conference by researchers from the University
The International Association of Chiefs components through a central processing unit. of California–San Diego, and the University of
of Police (IACP) actively trains officers in This arrangement creates the possibility for Washington.12
cyber-related matters. In September 2015, the serious consequences in the event of a cyber Direct physical access to a vehicle’s internal
IACP released a Cyber Crime Checklist for attack. Once access is gained to the CAN bus, network system can be achieved in a number


of ways. Common methods include insertion of Cybersecurity Commission to develop initiatives
malware from a compact disk (CD) into the CD to help address the growing need for new cyber-
player or inserting an infected universal serial security solutions. One of the recommenda- RESOURCES
bus (USB) drive into a USB port. Connecting a tions of the commission relates to two very fast • IACP’s “Cyber Crime Checklist for
digital media device (iPod/iPhone) or similar moving technology trends related to computer Police Chiefs” (http://www.iacp
device with embedded malware would achieve control of physical systems.
the same result. The first trend is the rapid growth in capital 2015/09/Chiefs-Checklist-Final.pdf)
The easiest method is through the vehicle’s investment and sales related to advanced
onboard diagnostic (OBD) port, located near the automation of physical systems (e.g., UAS, auto- • SAE’s Cybersecurity Guidebook for
steering wheel beneath the dashboard. These mated control of automobiles, digital factories, Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems (http://
OBD ports are federally mandated in the United 3D printers, connected home systems).
States and are most often used by mechanics for The second trend has been the continuously • Bimonthly DHS Government Vehicles
diagnosing problems and programming of the growing number of cyber attacks and corre-
Cybersecurity Steering Committee
ECUs on vehicles.13 This port provides access to sponding added sophistication of attacks, which
teleconferences (contact Captain Jerry
the vehicles CAN buses from which access to for physical systems can both create physical
L. Davis, 276-223-4241)
the automotive systems can be achieved with harm as well as economic harm. Forbes, in
relative ease.14 December 2015, forecasted a need for solutions
While these threats are all currently possible, that will more than double the cybersecurity
it is also important to note that future autono- industry to $170 billion by 2020.20 A recommendation to initiate such an activ-
mous and connected vehicles will have similar In considering these trends related to physi- ity was brought to the Virginia Cybersecurity
electrical bus architecture as current vehicles cal systems, the Virginia Cybersecurity Com- Commission, which resulted in a May 2015
and will be subject to similar attacks by nefari- mission highlighted two future needs that will announcement by Governor McAuliffe initiating
ous actors unless additional security can be require attention. These emerging needs relate a public-private working group to explore the
provided.15 to cybersecurity for law enforcement and the technology needed to safeguard Virginia’s citi-
Evidence suggests that vehicles could corresponding role of police forces. zens and public safety agencies from cybersecu-
become targets for hackers, but the National First, securing highly automated, network- rity attacks targeting automobiles. Dr. Horowitz
Highway Traffic Safety Administration connected physical systems will likely require led the overall activity and Colonel Flaherty
(NHTSA), an agency responsible for motor the need to address cyber attack risks that can designated Captain Davis to lead the Virginia
vehicle safety in the United States, recently potentially result in injuries or death. Second, State Police activities associated with the work-
acknowledged a dearth of qualified engineers the difference in the nature and severity of these ing group.21
to research cyber-related issues.16 NHTSA’s Elec- consequences versus information system cyber The results of this effort highlighted the fact
tronics Systems Safety Research Division has a attack consequences brings with it new policy that a variety of cyber attacks could disable a
total of seven employees in two locations who considerations related to law enforcement. police vehicle. A live demonstration of such
are responsible for testing and evaluating cyber Dr. Barry Horowitz, serving in his role as a attacks was made available at a Commonwealth
vulnerabilities among other assigned duties.17 Virginia Cyber Commissioner, engaged with of Virginia–sponsored technology conference.
NHTSA also aided in the creation of a his co-author, Virginia State Police Captain Jerry A second element of the effort involved a con-
Cyber Information Sharing Analysis Center L. Davis, to consider the implications of these trolled exercise where, during a training session
for vehicles. Automakers agreed to the idea in trends, and together they initiated discussions involving newly appointed police officers, the
July 2014 to allow for the exchange of informa- with the superintendent of the Virginia State drivers of police cars who were responding to
tion. NHTSA officials are now concerned that Police, Colonel W. Steven Flaherty. dispatcher requests were confronted by cyber
future attacks on connected vehicles will have The discussions highlighted three different attacks without prior warning. While all of the
the potential to affect multiple cars in a single categories of emergent needs: (1) the require- responses were disrupted, in all cases, a normal
event.18 ment to address the possibility for cyber attacks equipment failure was suspected as the cause,
The U.S. Department of Homeland Security that impact police cars, impeding law enforce- and no suggestions of a cyber attack were
is also concerned about cybersecurity for motor ment officers from carrying out their duties; offered as a cause.
vehicles. The DHS Science and Technology (2) the requirement for officers arriving at the Police agencies worldwide rely on auto-
Directorate (DHS S&T), the Cyber Security scene of a traffic incident or crash to be able to mobiles and special purpose vehicles to perform
Division, and the U.S. Department of Transpor- collect sufficient information from the involved public safety missions, and the potential for cyber
tation Volpe Center (DOT Volpe), along with vehicle or vehicles to be able to determine intrusions is not limited to specific vehicle makes
the nonprofit research institute SRI Interna- whether a likely cause of the incident was a cyber or models. Law enforcement entities everywhere
tional, have formed a new Government Vehicle attack; and (3) the requirement to collect and should evaluate the risk to their vehicle fleets,
Cybersecurity Steering Group that first met in distribute the collected information that points particularly in light of technology enhancements
October 2015.19 This group was formed to assess to a cyber attack to those who are determined to like telematics that increase attack surfaces.
the threat to government vehicles and develop be the appropriate parties, potentially including It is imperative that awareness and visibility
appropriate security measures. police forces, vehicle manufacturers, vehicle of this issue lead to further research and the
Law enforcement agencies should also be owners, organizations that conduct cybersecurity development and the creation of detection,
concerned with preparing for how to investigate forensics analysis, and so forth. Discussions cen- deterrence, and defense mechanisms for
cyber attacks on vehicles—and they should be tered on the point that, unless special attention is consumer use and for fleet protection of public
equally concerned with ensuring their own fleet paid to this matter early on, security policies and safety vehicles. It is equally imperative that a
vehicles are protected so that the public safety solutions will likely be dominated by responses forensic capability be designed that will support
mission can still be achieved. It was this thought to actual attacks, rather than proactive solutions the capturing of data and allow for analysis of
that drove a recent public-private partnership designed to reduce the risks. reported cyber events.
undertaken by the Virginia State Police and the Based on these discussions, it was decided Several recommendations can be offered to
University of Virginia. that a point of entry for gaining new insights police managers for consideration.
Based on the growing risks associated with regarding these cybersecurity risks would be • Expand upon (or initiate) cyber
cyber attacks, in February 2014, Virginia Gover- to initiate an exploration of the possibilities for awareness training to include patrol
nor Terence R. McAuliffe organized a Virginia cyber attacks focused on current police cars. vehicles and other physical systems. THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 67

• Review or formulate policy for the Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Kickoff Meeting, October 22, 2015), email, September
physical inspection of police vehicles Administration, November 2011, 15, 2015.
(internal and external areas) prior to lib/43000/43500/43513/FHWA-JPO-11-130_FINAL 20
Steve Morgan, “Cybersecurity Market Reaches
beginning of duty and after maintenance _Comm_Security_Approach_11_07_11.pdf. $75 Billion in 2015; Expected to Reach $170 Billion by
by third-party vendors. 16
Pete Bigelow, “Short-Staffed NHTSA Struggles to 2020,” Forbes, December 20, 2015.
• Review organizational structure, Handle Car-Hacking Threats,” AutoBlog (blog), Octo- 21
Virginia, Office of the Governor, “Governor
personnel expertise, and mission ber 2, 2015, McAuliffe Announces Initiative to Protect Against
requirements to ensure they reflect short-staffed-nhtsa-struggles-to-handle-car-hacking Cybersecurity Threats,” news release, May 15,
cybersecurity matters as an element of -threats. 2015,
public safety. 17
Ibid. newsarticle?articleId=8430.
• Review existing criminal statutes related 18
to computer trespass and determine 19
Dr. Dan Massey (program manager, Cyber
future legislation that would include Security Division–DHS, invitation to participate in
cyber hacking of physical systems. Government Vehicle Cybersecurity Steering Group
It is recommended that police agencies
partner with the automobile industry, public and
private cybersecurity companies, and academia
to further research on development of a forensic
capability for data extraction and analysis at the
scene of investigations related to cybersecurity. v

Kim Zetter and Andy Greenberg, “Why the
OPM Breach Is Such a Security and Privacy Debacle,”
WIRED, June 11, 2015,
Federal Bureau of Investigation, “National Cyber
Security Awareness Month,” news release, October
1, 2015,
“Cyber Crime Checklist for Police Chiefs,”
Law Enforcement Cyber Center, October 8, 2015,
Line of Duty Deaths
Law Enforcement Cyber Center, “Welcome,”
“They will be remembered—not for the way they died, but for how they lived.”
Stephen Checkoway et al., “Comprehensive
Experimental Analyses of Automotive Attack Surfaces”
(paper presented at USENIX Security Symposium, San The IACP wishes to acknowledge the following officers, who made the
Francisco, CA, August 10, 2011), http://static.usenix ultimate sacrifice for their communities and the people they served. We extend our
.org/events/sec11/tech/full_papers/Checkoway.pdf. prayers and deepest sympathies to their families, friends, and colleagues.
Karl Koscher et al., “Experimental Security Analy-
sis of a Modern Automobile” (presented at IEEE Sym-
posium on Security and Privacy, Oakland CA, May
Public Safety Officer Jody Carl Smith Detective Chad Parque
2010.pdf. Georgia Southwestern State North Las Vegas Police
Ibid., 8. University Department of Public Safety Department, Nevada
Checkoway et al., “Comprehensive Experimental Date of Death: December 8, 2016 Date of Death: January 7, 2017
Analyses of Automotive Attack Surfaces.” Length of Service: 10 years
Koscher et al., “Experimental Security Analysis of Corrections Officer Lisa Mauldin
a Modern Automobile.” Miller County Sheriff’s Office, Arkansas Master Sergeant Debra Clayton
Andy Greenberg, “Hackers Could Take Control Date of Death: December 19, 2016 Orlando Police Department, Florida
of Your Car. This Device Can Stop Them,” WIRED, July Date of Death: January 9, 2017
22, 2014, Lieutenant William G. Fearon Length of Service: 17 years
Checkoway et al., “Comprehensive Experimental New Jersey State Police
Analyses of Automotive Attack Surfaces.” Date of Death: December 28, 2016 Deputy First Class Norman Lewis
Antuan Goodwin, “A Brief Intro to OBD-II Tech- Length of Service: 22 years Orange County Sheriff's Office, Florida
nology,” CNET, April 14, 2010, Date of Death: January 9, 2017
news/a-brief-intro-to-obd-ii-technology. Trooper Landon E. Weaver Length of Service: 11 years
Checkoway et al., “Comprehensive Experimental Pennsylvania State Police
Analyses of Automotive Attack Surfaces.” Date of Death: December 30, 2016
Anita Kim et al., An Approach to Communications Length of Service: 1 year
Security for a Communications Data Delivery System for
V2V/V2I Safety: Technical Description and Identification
of Policy and Institutional Issues (U.S. Department of


Capitol Police Section
IACP Section Membership Application Promotes exchange of information and develops standards for
increasing the efficiency and capabilities of each law enforcement
agency that provides service to our critical assets. Open to individuals
who are now, or have been, engaged in or responsible for providing
IACP Membership is a prerequisite for Section Membership. police services at a national or state/providence State House.
Defense Chiefs of Police Section
Promotes exchange of ideas and specific information and procedures
for law enforcement organizations providing police and security
services within military services and defense agencies. Open to
Name: ______________________________________________________________________
(Please Print) individuals who are now or have been engaged in or responsible for
providing law enforcement services within an IACP member nation’s
military services or defense establishment.
Title/Rank: __________________________________________________________________ Drug Recognition Expert Section
Provides a unique opportunity for those professionals already
associated with drug recognition to share common management,
Agency: _____________________________________________________________________ training, administrative and practicing concerns.
Indian Country Law Enforcement Section
Business Address: ____________________________________________________________ Promotes the professional status of those engaged inproviding police
services to Indian Country.
International Managers of Police Academy
City, State, Zip, Country: ______________________________________________________ and College Training Section
Facilitates the exchange of ideas, procedures, and specific information
Business Phone: _____________________________ Fax:_____________________________ for the professional leadership and management of education and
training within police agencies, as well as enhancing the quality of law
enforcement and policing at the international level through education
and training.
E-mail: ______________________________________________________________________ Law Enforcement Information Management Section
Facilitates the exchange of information among those individuals
Website: _____________________________________________________________________ responsible for computers, records, communications or other support-
service-related functions.
Legal Officers Section
IACP Membership #: __________________________________________________________ Assists in the establishment of professional standards, assistance
and cooperation among attorneys who provide legal advice or
representation to law enforcement administrators.
Signature: ___________________________________________________________________ Mid-Size Agencies Section
Capitol Police Section ...................................................................................................... $30 Dedicated to providing a voice within the IACP for chiefs of
jurisdictions with a population between 50,000 and 500,000, as well
as a forum for these leaders to share the unique challenges and
Defense Chiefs of Police Section ................................................................................... $15 opportunities in policing that emerge from departments of this size.
The section is further committed to embracing and leveraging the
Drug Recognition Expert Section .................................................................................. $25 special capacity and flexibility of these agencies to innovate and drive
progressive change within our profession with the goal of better
Indian Country Law Enforcement Section ................................................................... $25 policing our communities.
Police Foundations Section
International Managers of Police Academy and College Training Section ............. $25 Promotes networking and the exchange of ideas and
best practices among police executives and police foundation
Law Enforcement Information Management Section ................................................. $25 professionals.
Police Physicians Section
Legal Officers Section ...................................................................................................... $35 Facilitates the exchange of information among police medical
practitioners, promotes effective police medical practices, and acts as a
Mid-Size Agencies Section .............................................................................................. $50 resource of professional expertise to the association.
Police Psychological Services Section
Police Foundations Section ............................................................................................. $20 Develops professional standards, facilitates the exchange of
information among police psychological service providers, and acts as
Police Physicians Section ............................................................................................... $35 a resource of professional expertise to the association.

Police Psychological Services Section .................................. (initial processing fee) $50 Public Information Officers Section
Promotes the exchange of information and training among officers
who are responsible for planning and implementing effective public
(Must be a psychologist. Upon admission to the section, $50 processing fee applies to annual dues) information programs.

Public Information Officers Section ............................................................................. $15 Public Transit Police Section
Promotes meaningful relationships between police executives and
Public Transit Police Section ...............................................................................No charge cooperative efforts in the implementation of effective police matters
and the achievement of an accepted professional status of the police
service. Includedin this section are gaming enforcement, public
Railroad Police Section ........................................................................................No charge transportation, housing authority, airport police, seaport police and
natural resources.
Retired Chiefs of Police Section .........................................................................No charge Railroad Police Section
Smaller Department Section ........................................................................................... $20 Explores ways to improve the services of those responsible for
ensuring the safety and security of people and goods traveling by rail.

State and Provincial Police Alumni Section .....................................................No charge Retired Chiefs of Police Section
Open to IACP members who at the time of their retirement were
State and Provincial Police Academy Directors Section .................................No charge active members as prescribed in Article II, Section 2 of the IACP
Constitution. For the purpose of this section, retirement shall be
defined as the voluntary and honorable separation from a position in
State and Provincial Police Planning Officers Section ....................................No charge active and regular police duties because of age, physical disability, or
retirement on pension from the agency of employment.
University/College Police Section – Initial Member ....................................................... $50 Smaller Department Section
University/College Police Section – Each additional member from same institution........... $15 Serves as the collective voice of law enforcement agencies with fewer
than 50 officers or serves populations under 50,000. The Section
addresses the unique needs of these agencies, provides a forum for the
exchange of information, and advocates on behalf of these agencies with
Payment (Choose only one of the following methods of payment.) Amount to be charged _________ policy makers. Section Members are also granted affiliate membership
in the IACP’s Division of State Associations of Chiefs of Police.

1. Pay by Credit Card: Visa MasterCard American Express Discover State and Provincial Police Academy
Directors Section
Card #:______________________________________________ Exp. Date: _____/_____ Membership is open to individuals currently serving as directors
of state and provincial law enforcement training facilities. The
section meets annually to exchange information and disseminate
Cardholder’s Name: _______________________________________________________ proven ideas, plans, and methodologies among members and other
organizations interested in enhancing law enforcment training.

Cardholder’s Billing Address: _______________________________________________ State and Provincial Police Planning

Officers Section
Signature: ________________________________________________________________ Open to sworn and civilian members of planning and research units
of state and provincial law enforcement agencies, this section meets
in the summer of each year to share information concerning trends
Fax completed form with credit card authorization to 703/836-4543. Do not mail and fax and practices in law enforcement. The section maintains a database of
current projects in progress, as well as a compendium of information
form as charges will be duplicated. on the status of state and provincial law enforcement agencies.
State and Provincial Police Alumni Section
2. Pay by Check: Make checks payable to IACP (U.S. dollars only) and mail full Open to any member or previous member of the IACP who is, or was,
payment (no cash) with completed form to: IACP: Membership, P.O. Box 62564, affiliated with an agency belonging to the State and Provincial Police
Division and who was of command (lieutenant or above) rank at the
Baltimore, MD 21264-2564 time of retirement.
University/College Police Section
3. Pay by Purchase Order: Mail purchase order along with form to: Provides coordinated assistance in implementing effective university
policing practices and achieving an accepted professional status.
IACP: Membership, 44 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 200, Alexandria, VA 22314-2357 THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 69

Proper Trailer Loading Important to Prevent Trailer

Sway—Related Crashes
By James Fait, Director of Engineering on the rise.1 This article attempts to shed some Conversely, when a trailer is loaded improperly
light on improper trailer loading—one of the with too much of the cargo weight positioned in
Services; Steve Taub, Assistant General leading causes of tow vehicle-trailer combina- the rear of the trailer, as higher speed is reached,
Counsel; and Marco Garcia, Assistant tion incidents—and educational efforts to reduce the combination will begin to exhibit violent
Director of Engineering Services, those incidents, as well as available aids to law and uncontrollable sway, called “whipping.”
enforcement investigating vehicle combination Whipping can lead to a loss of control and a
U-Haul International Inc. crashes. significant crash.
Proper trailer loading is crucial to good tow- From an engineering perspective, there are

T railer towing is more popular than ever.

A person can’t watch a sporting event on
television without multiple commercials touting
ing stability of a tow vehicle and trailer combina-
tion by preventing excessive or unstable trailer
sway. This is well known in the trailer industry
two fundamental types of trailer sway: natural
sway and forced sway. Natural sway is how the
combination responds without steering inputs
the ability of a given vehicle to tow more and and is evidenced by the numerous warnings and from the driver, and it can be stable or unstable
more weight. Given the popularity of towing, instructions addressing this issue. However, a depending on the speed. Natural sway is a
the automobile industry has focused significant large segment of the public remains unaware of function of speed. As with any vehicle, with or
time on creating and updating trailer towing this important information—leading to prevent- without a trailer, as speed increases, stability
performance standards to ensure road safety able crashes. Additional public education and decreases. Whipping is an instability that begins
for both drivers towing trailers and the drivers awareness can play a crucial role in reducing automatically at “critical speed.” Critical speed is
around them. Despite these efforts, the National combination crashes. that speed at which the combination is unstable
Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) When a trailer is properly loaded with the and will experience trailer sway without any
has recently released statistics indicating that heavier cargo weight in front, normal stable driver input, and the critical speed for a given
overall traffic fatalities and traffic crashes are trailer towing behavior is generally experienced. vehicle-trailer combination depends on the par-
ticular loading condition. The lower the tongue
weight (downward weight on the hitch ball) or
the heavier the cargo is loaded toward the rear
of the trailer, the lower the critical speed. Once a
driver reaches critical speed, the combination is
unstable and a crash is imminent.
Forced sway is the result of driver steering
(most common) or other inputs. The trailer is
being forced to sway by the disturbing inputs.
Even if the trailer is properly loaded, when
the driver puts in significant steer inputs, the
combination will experience trailer sway. The
sway will continue and likely grow if the driver
continues to steer back and forth, reacting to the
feel of the vehicle’s motions. Further education
is required on the proper driving techniques
to prevent forced sway. There is a common
misconception that either braking or speeding
up will assist in reducing the trailer sway; in
reality, either of these will exacerbate the sway
condition, creating a greater likelihood of a cata-
strophic crash. Rather, the driver should hold
the steering wheel straight, let off the throttle,
do not brake, and let the vehicle slow down to a
more stable speed to allow the sway to subside.
Once at a safe place, the driver should then
check to ensure the cargo has not shifted and is
loaded properly, with the majority of the heavier
cargo weight loaded in front.
Trailer loading information is also applicable
to police investigation of crashes involving trail-
ers, particularly where trailer sway is evident or


reported. A combination loss of control crash has three factors of common In summary, understanding the importance of properly loading a trailer
interest: (1) speed, (2) trailer loading, and (3) driver inputs. These three is vital in the effort to reduce traffic crashes. Additional public education
factors interact to various degrees, depending on the physical facts. Police efforts, using available resources such as the Trailer Demonstrator, are an
investigation methods are available and commonly used to determine effective way to reach a large audience in a short amount of time. Likewise,
speed and driver actions. Trailer loading can be determined during law enforcement investigating combination accidents can have additional
investigation by simple techniques in most cases. This is accomplished by effective tools to determine the root cause of a crash. v
measuring the trailer tongue weight and trailer total weight, then calculat-
ing the percent tongue weight. A general rule for proper trailer loading is a Notes:
range of 8–15 percent tongue weight. In seeking to prevent a crash, as well 1
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, “Traffic Fatalities Up Sharply
as investigating the cause of a crash, drivers (and investigators) should in 2015,” news release, August 29, 2016,
check for the tongue weight and ensure the trailer is properly loaded, traffic-fatalities-sharply-2015.
which is of vital importance. In effect, a proper trailer percent tongue 2
The Trailer Demonstrator was initially presented to the public at the CVSA
weight will indicate that the trailer is properly loaded “heavier in front”; convention in Little Rock, Arkansas, in September 2016. A convention attendee
therefore, improper loading would not be the fundamental initial cause of took a 25-second video and posted it on the Internet. The video went viral with over
a trailer sway event. Conversely, a low percentage of trailer tongue weight 35 million views in a week. The Trailer Demonstrator is available at no cost to law
indicates improper trailer loading and a likely cause for trailer sway. enforcement to assist with any education, training, or public safety events. More
When investigating a catastrophic crash, there is a high degree of prob- information is available at
ability that the trailer tongue might not be intact. While obtaining weight
is difficult in these cases, it is not impossible. Tongue weight of a loaded
trailer is directly related to the longitudinal (front to rear) center of gravity
(CG) location of the loaded trailer. In fact, from a physics viewpoint, it is
the longitudinal CG location of a trailer that determines the dynamic sway
behavior, rather than the actual tongue weight. The tongue weight is just a
simple method to determine if the CG is in the proper location for the sub-
ject trailer. For a damaged trailer, the investigation process is to take certain
80% OFF
weight and dimensional measurements of the subject trailer, sufficient to
calculate the CG location, and then to calculate what the percent tongue
weight is for that CG location. This calculation puts the final answer back
into percent tongue weight form, which is helpful because most of the
proper loading information from trailer companies is provided in that
form. For a simple, free tool to use in applying this technique, go to https://
Those who attended the 2016 IACP Conference and Exposition may
have seen the Trailer Demonstrator, which showed the importance of SHOP
properly loading a trailer.2 The Trailer Demonstrator displayed that a
properly loaded trailer is stable even with significant driver input or trailer Free next-day delivery on online orders
disturbance. When the load was shifted to heavier in the rear of the trailer, over $50.
an improper loading condition, the combination became unstable, as
evidenced by uncontrollable trailer whipping. The Trailer Demonstrator SUPPORT
is initially running at a set constant speed, typically 55 mph, and the trailer
is initially loaded “heavier in front” with more weights on the front post. A Save on thousands of products marked
disturbance is initiated through steering the tow vehicle or striking the rear below retail price.
of the trailer. Trailer sway is observed and stops in a very short time. This
demonstrates a stable combination with a properly loaded trailer. This is SAVE
repeated a few times for consistency. Then, weight from the trailer front is
removed and placed on the rear of the trailer to improperly load the trailer Shop online or visit a local Office
“heavier in rear.” A disturbance is again initiated, and the sway develops Depot®store.
immediately into an uncontrollable whipping. This is also repeated a few
times to show consistency. Then, weights are returned to the initial proper
loading condition to reinforce the educational lesson that loading a trailer
“heavier in front” is stable. THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 71


Safeguarding Children of Arrested Parents

By Sabrina Rhodes, Project Manager,
IACP this toolkit includes all the resources cre- to promote public safety and reduce the likeli-
IACP and Karen Maline, Project ated during the project to help law enforcement hood of future misconduct, criminal behavior,
Manager, IACP agencies and officers reduce the potential trauma and victimization. It is also consistent with law
experienced by children who have parents that enforcement’s community service and assistance
become involved in the criminal justice system. function and is a direct component of principles

T he arrest of a parent can have a significant

traumatic impact on children, including
shock, immense fear, anxiety, or anger toward
Research clearly indicates that events,
such as the arrest of a parent, can and often do
have a negative impact on a child’s immediate
of community policing, problem-solving, and
conflict resolution. Unfortunately, many, if not
most, law enforcement agencies did not have
arresting officers. In recent years, an empha- and long-term emotional, mental, social, and policies, procedures, or training that specifically
sis has been placed on examining the effects physical health.1 Some of the negative outcomes addressed actions to take to reduce and prevent
of these events on children and the ways in these children may potentially experience (both this trauma. These resources are now available
which law enforcement can provide them with as children and adults) because of parental through the Safeguarding Children of Arrested
assistance—but clear guidance for law enforce- arrests include cognitive impairment, depres- Parents toolkit.
ment agencies had not yet been made widely sion, illegal drug use, domestic violence and The tools are based on the Safeguarding Chil-
available. In 2013, Deputy Attorney General other criminal activities, early onset sexual activ- dren of Arrested Parents Model Policy—a publica-
James Cole announced a partnership between ity, heart disease, and suicide.2 In addition, later tion that identifies policies and procedures law
the International Association of Chiefs of Police problems with authority figures in general and enforcement can implement to help mitigate
(IACP) and the Bureau of Justice Assistance law enforcement in particular can arise if officers the potential trauma to children, whether or not
(BJA), Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Depart- or other service providers do not take the time they are present, during the arrest of a parent.
ment of Justice (DOJ) to address this issue. to address the needs of the child. The toolkit includes the following resources:
The culmination of this three-year initiative is Helping to prevent or minimize a child’s • A roll-call training video that introduces
the Safeguarding Children of Arrested Parents exposure to potentially traumatic events is an the model policy to law enforcement
Toolkit for Law Enforcement. Produced by the operationally sound law enforcement strategy agencies. The video provides an
introduction and overview of the issue
and discusses the scope of the problem,
as well as the challenges faced by
responding officers. It also provides
guidelines for implementing the model
policy during pre-arrest, arrest, booking,
documentation, and follow-up to
ensure children of arrested parents are
• Two training keys that can be used in roll-
call or in-service training. These concise
documents include an overview of the
topic and discussion questions;
• A self-paced, interactive, online training
designed to educate front-line officers
in best practices for ensuring children’s
safety and well-being throughout the
parental arrest process;
• An archived online webinar series that
focuses on various topics related to
safeguarding children of arrested parents
and features moderated discussions from
subject matter experts across the United
States. The following topics are included:
»» Protecting Children of Arrested
Parents: Using a Trauma-Informed
»» Safeguarding Children of Arrested
Parents during Investigative and
Tactical Operations


»» Collaborating with Community
Partners to Safeguard Children of
Arrested Parents
»» Developing a Policy to Protect Children
of Arrested Parents
»» Preparing to Launch: Q & A on
Implementing Parental Arrest Policies
to Safeguard Children
»» Parental Arrest Policies and Protecting
Children: Training Your Department;
• A Safeguarding Children of Arrested
Parents Executive Briefing training
curriculum that includes a facilitator guide
and a 15-minute classroom PowerPoint
• A Safeguarding Children of Arrested
Parents Line Officer training curriculum
that includes a facilitator guide,
PowerPoint presentation, and videos for
1.5 hours of classroom instruction; The Safeguarding Children of Arrested Parents Project gained invaluable insight, guidance, and
• An article in Police Chief magazine direction from an esteemed group of subject matter experts in a variety of disciplines and allied
(January 2015) titled “Protecting Children partner agencies, including the following:
of Arrested Parents: Steps for Developing
and Implementing an Effective Policy,” • Administration for Children, Youth and • Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
which provides practical tips and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice
strategies from the model policy; Human Services
• Office of National Drug Control Policy,
• An implementation guide for law • Albany, New York, Police Department White House
enforcement executives, to accompany
the model policy titled Implementing a • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and • Office of the U.S. Deputy Attorney General
Parental Arrest Policy to Safeguard Children: Explosives, U.S. Department of Justice • The Osborne Association
A Guide for Police Executives;
• A “Safeguarding Children of Arrested • Center for Faith-based and Neighborhood • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Police
Parents” tip sheet providing summary Partnerships, U.S. Department of Department
information, as well as quick statistics and Education
• Plano, Texas, Police Department
tips for officers; and
• A “Safeguarding Children at the Time • City of San Francisco Office of Citizen
• Project WHAT!
of Parental Arrest Law Enforcement Complaints (California)
Pre-arrest/Arrest” checklist for front-line • Salt Lake City, Utah, Police Department
• Charlotte-Mecklenburg, North Carolina,
officers to use in preparation of parental
Police Department • Salt River Indian Reservation Police
arrest or to use onsite during a parental
arrest. Department (Arizona)
• Columbia University Center for
The Safeguarding Children of Arrested Psychoanalytic Training and Research • San Francisco Children of Incarcerated
Parents Toolkit for Law Enforcement can be (New York) Parents (California)
accessed at
For more information on IACP’s work to • Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. • San Francisco, California, Police
safeguard children of arrested parents, contact Department of Justice Department or visit the project
webpage at For infor- • Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. • Seminole County, Florida, Sheriff’s Office
mation on other law enforcement programs, Department of Justice • Substance Abuse and Mental Health
resources, and services for youth, visit IACP’s Services Administration, U.S. Department
Youth Focused Policing Resource Center at • National Alliance for Drug Endangered
Children of Health and Human Services v
• National Institute of Corrections, U.S. • U.S. Department of Health and Human
Notes: Department of Justice Services
Robert L. Listenbee, Jr., et al., Report of the Attorney
• U.S. Marshals Service, U.S. Department of
General’s National Task Force on Children Exposed to • National Resource Center on Children and
Violence (Defending Childhood Initiative, 2012), Families of the Incarcerated at Rutgers
29–35, University-Camden (New Jersey) • Urban Institute
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, • National Sheriffs’ Association • Domestic Policy Council, White House
“About the CDC-Kaiser ACE Study,” Major Findings, • Woodway, Texas, Public Safety
• National Tactical Officers Association Department
about.html. • New Haven, Connecticut, Police
Department • Yale University National Center
for Children Exposed to Violence
• New York City Police Department (Connecticut) THE POLICE CHIEF/FEBRUARY 2017 73

The advertisers in this issue can help equip your
department with the most efficient tools available today!
Always mention the Police Chief when contacting our advertisers.

Page # Page # Page #

2017 President's Membership Drive IACP Section Membership Reeves Company, Inc.
800.THE.IACP x 365 800.THE.IACP 800-452-1161–59

40 Under 40 Award Program IACP Technology Conference Sirchie

800.THE.IACP x 321 800.THE.IACP x 819 919.554.2244

Accident Support Services International Ltd. IAPro Southern Police Institute

877.895.9111 800.620.8504–21

Track Star International, Inc.

American Military University The Law Enforcement Chaplaincy Foundation 800.661.3515 707.490.9010
Vigilant Solutions
Center for Police Leadership & Training Northwestern University Center for Public Safety 925.398.2079
800.THE.IACP x 316 800.323.4011–45
WatchGuard Video
IACP Merchandise 800.605.6724 
800.678.0014 x 103 973.366.5868, 35

IACP Net Police Chief Editorial Calendar

800.227.9640 800.THE.IACP x 321
IACPreferred (Member Benefits)
800.THE.IACP Police Chief Subscriptions 800.THE.IACP x 261
-iacpreferred......................................................38, 63, 71

Please contact The Townsend Group, Inc. at 301-215-6710 if you The IACP does not recommend, endorse, or accept responsibility
are interested in or have questions about advertising in Police Chief. for the proper performance of any product advertised in these pages.


Police Chief Magazine – Online Edition
Always mention the
Police Chief when
contacting advertisers.
Receive FREE information FAST from companies featured in this issue of the Police Chief
Online Edition Find the edition at and choose Index to Advertisers
under Columns. Click the company’s URL to navigate to its website.

Print Edition While reading the print edition, type the company’s website address found
on the Index to Advertisers page or directly from the advertisement.
Call the company, since phone numbers are found on the Index to Advertisers
page and in their advertisements.

FAX Joycelyn Newell 703-836-5386
MAIL Police Chief, 44 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 200
Alexandria, VA 22314 DELIVER MAGAZINE TO: ❑ Home ❑ Business
Name _________________________________________________________
Street address (include apt. no.) ___________________________________
ID Number (on label) ____________________________________________
Title __________________________________________________________
City ___________________________________________________________
Department/Agency ____________________________________________
State _____________ Zip _________________________________________
Phone (_______) ________________________________________________
Fax (_______) __________________________________________________
❑ Yes, sign me up for the IACP e-mail newsletter
Email: _________________________________________________________
❑ Address change (ID number required) ____________________________
❑ Purchase order enclosed
❑ Renewal (ID number required) __________________________________
❑ Check/money order enclosed (make payable to IACP/Police
❑ New subscription Chief Subscriptions)
1-year subscription $30.00 U.S. dollars, drawn on U.S. banks only and mail full payment
2-year subscription $47.00 (no cash) with completed form to: Subscription Department,
3-year subscription $63.75 Best Value! IACP, P.O. Box 62564, Baltimore, MD 21264.
This section must be completed to process your order: Charge my: ___ Visa ___ MasterCard ___ Discover ___ American Express
Agency/Affiliation Rank/Occupation Population of Jurisdiction Cardholder's name________________________________________________
❑ Municipal/county ❑ Chief executive ❑ Under 2,500
police Address __________________________________________________________
❑ Sheriff ❑ 2,500 - 9,999
❑ Sheriff's dept. ❑ Command staff ❑ 10,000 - 49,999 City ______________________________________________________________
❑ State agency ❑ Supervisory personnel ❑ 50,000 - 99,999 State _______________ Zip __________________________________________
❑ Federal agency ❑ Line officer ❑ 100,000+
❑ Campus police Phone ____________________________________________________________
❑ Police civilian
❑ Military ❑ Crim. justice professor Card number _____________________________________________________
❑ Police academy ❑ Police equipment Exp. date _________________________________________________________
❑ Security dealer/distributor/
❑ Univ./college library manufacturer Signature _________________________________________________________
❑ Other ❑ Other
GPS Vehicle Tracking Solutions

Law enforcement agencies everywhere use

Track Star AVLS because it is: