electromagnetic energy conversion

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electromagnetic energy conversion

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Electromagnetic Energy

Conversion

Electromagnetism devices

1

Electromagnetic fields

Maxwell’s equations

div b = 0

Conservation equations

div d = ρv

Principles of Electromagnetism

Physical fields

h magnetic field (A/m) e electric field (V/m)

b magnetic flux density (T) d electric displacement (C/m2)

j current density (A/m2) ρv charge density (C/m3)

Principles of Electromagnetism 2

Lorentz force

Interaction of electromagnetic

fields with a point charge moving

at speed v

f = q (e + v × b)

only negativ charges moving)

f =j ×b Laplace force

Principles of Electromagnetism 3

Electromagnetic power

Poynting vector

s=e h

volume (interior normal)

⇥ ⇥

P = s · n ds = div s dv = p dv

V V V

Power density

p= div e ⇥ h = h · curl e + e · curl h

⇥p=h· tb +e·j+e· td

Principles of Electromagnetism 4

Material constitutive laws

Constitutive laws

d=ε e Dielectric law

j =σ e Ohm’s law

Material characteristics

µ magnetic permeability (H/m) Constant (linear materials)

ε dielectric permittivity (F/m) Function of the fields (nonlinear

σ electrical conductivity (Ω–1 m–1) materials)

Tensorial (anisotropic materials)

Function of temperature, mechanical

stress, ...

Principles of Electromagnetism 5

Magnetic constitutive law

b=µh µ = µr µ0 µr relative magnetic permeability

µ0 magnetic permeability of vacuum (H/m)

– Linear materials µr ≈ 1 (silver, copper, aluminum)

❖ Ferromagnetic materials

– Nonlinear materials µr >> 1, µr = µr(h) (steel, iron)

Saturation

Energy dissipation

Nonlinear Non (≡ area of the cycle)

univoque law

Steinmetz formula

p H = ω k h bνmax ( W / m3 )

pulsation ω, max. flux density bmax

coeficients kh and ν (1.5 < ν < 1.8)

Principles of Electromagnetism 6

Quasi-stationnary approximation

curl h = j + ∂t d

Small dimensions

compared to wavelength

curl h = j

Ampère’s law

Applications

Electrotechnical devices (motors, generators, power transformers, ...)

Usually, frequencies up to several 100’s of kHz

Principles of Electromagnetism 7

Electromagnetic models

All governed by Maxwell’s equations

❖ Electrostatics

– Distribution of electric field due to static charges and levels of electric potential

❖ Electrokinetics

– Distribution of stationary electric current in conductors

❖ Electrodynamics

– Distribution of electric field and currents in materials (both conductprs and

insulators)

❖ Magnetostatics

– Distribution of stationary magnetic field due to magnets and stationary

currents

❖ Magnetodynamics

– Distribution of magnetic field and eddy currents due to moving magnets and

time-dependent currents

❖ Wave propagation

– Electromagnetic wave propagation

Principles of Electromagnetism 8

Ampère’s law

Ampère’s law closed contour is equal to the algebraic sum of

the currents crossing any surface bounded by this

∫ h ⋅ dl = I contour par ce contour

div j = 0

Conservation of the current

∫ j ⋅ n ds = 0

The sum of the currents arriving at

a given point is zero

Principles of Electromagnetism 9

Faraday’s law

Faraday’s law of the magnetic flux density embraced by a

circuit (open or closed) gives rise to an

∫ e ⋅ dl = −∂ t Φ e.m.f

electromotive force (e.m.f.) ...

closed, gives rise to currents

generating magnetic flux

density opposing these

variations

div b = 0 Movement, velocity v

Conservation of the magnetic flux e =v×b

∫ b ⋅ n ds = 0

Magnetic flux lines are closed

Principles of Electromagnetism 10

Faraday’s law – Eddy currents

curl e = – ∂t b In a massive conductor subject to time-varying

magnetic field, e.m.f.s appear that give rise to

Faraday’s law

currents

∫ e ⋅ dl = −∂ t Φ

Eddy (or induced) currents

(degrades efficiency)

law) (degrades material efficiency)

For thin sheets, eddy current losses:

pF = b max ( W / m3 )

16

Stacks of thin magnetic sheets, parallel to the magnetic

flux density and electrically isolated pulsation ω, sheet thickness et ,

electrical conductivity σ,

max. magnetic flux density bmax

Principles of Electromagnetism 11

Skin effect

curl e = – ∂t b

Faraday;s law Skin effect

2

δ= ( m)

The skin depth δ characterizes the depth in the ωσµ

material at which the current (and the magnetic

field) tend to concentrate.

Increasing the frequency leads to smaller δ, ω pulsation (rad/m)

which leads to currents concentrated closer to σ electrical conductivity (Ω–1 m–1 )

the surface of the conductor. µ magnetic permeability (H/m)

Principles of Electromagnetism 12

Magnetic circuits

(e.g. in windings) or magnets

magnetic material

Magnetic field

through which the transfer of conversion of

energy is carried out (e.g. between airgaps

windings for electrical energy)

(good magnetic link)

materials to channel the

magnetic flux density

with airgaps (e.g. separating

moving parts)

Principles of Electromagnetism 13

Ideal magnetic circuit

neutral fiber length of the circuit

Magnetomotive forces

(m.m.f.)

∫ h ⋅ dl = h ! = n1I1 + n 2I2

section of the circuit

µ S n1I1 + n 2I 2

Φ = b S = µ h S = (n1I1 + n 2I 2 ) =

! R

n12 n n

Φ t1 = n1 Φ = I1 + 1 2 I2 = λ1 I1 + M12 I2 !

R R R=

µS

n1 n 2 n12

Φt2 = n2 Φ = I1 + I 2 = M 21 I1 + λ 2 I 2

R R

Inductances

n12 n 22 n n

λ1 = , λ2 = , M = M12 = M 21 = 1 2

R R R

Principles of Electromagnetism 14

Real magnetic circuit

n1I1 + n 2I2

Φ= Useful flux

R

Leakage flux

n1I1 n I

Φf 1 = et Φf 2 = 2 2

Rf1 Rf 2

⎛ n2 n2 ⎞ n n

Φ t1 = n1 (Φ + Φ f 1 ) = ⎜ 1 + 1 ⎟ I1 + 1 2 I 2 = λ1 I1 + M12 I 2 Leakage reluctances

⎜ R Rf1 ⎟ R

⎝ ⎠

n1 n 2 ⎛ n12 n12 ⎞

Φ t 2 = n 2 (Φ + Φ f 2 ) = I1 + ⎜ + ⎟ I = M 21 I1 + λ 2 I 2

R ⎜ R Rf 2 ⎟ 2

⎝ ⎠

Inductances

n12 n12 n2 n2 n n

λ1 = + , λ 2 = 2 + 2 , M = M12 = M 21 = 1 2

R Rf1 R Rf 2 R

Principles of Electromagnetism 15

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