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ELEC0431

Electromagnetic Energy
Conversion

Principles of Various electrical


Electromagnetism devices

University of Liège – Academic Year 2017-2018

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Electromagnetic fields
Maxwell’s equations

curl h = j + ∂t d Ampère-Maxwell’s equation

curl e = – ∂t b Faraday’s equation


div b = 0
Conservation equations
div d = ρv

Principles of Electromagnetism

Physical fields
h magnetic field (A/m) e electric field (V/m)
b magnetic flux density (T) d electric displacement (C/m2)
j current density (A/m2) ρv charge density (C/m3)

Principles of Electromagnetism 2
Lorentz force

Interaction of electromagnetic
fields with a point charge moving
at speed v
f = q (e + v × b)

For a conductor (electrically neutral,


only negativ charges moving)

f =j ×b Laplace force

Principles of Electromagnetism 3
Electromagnetic power

Poynting vector
s=e h

Power exchanged with a


volume (interior normal)
⇥ ⇥
P = s · n ds = div s dv = p dv
V V V

Power density
p= div e ⇥ h = h · curl e + e · curl h
⇥p=h· tb +e·j+e· td

Principles of Electromagnetism 4
Material constitutive laws
Constitutive laws

b=µh Magnetic law


d=ε e Dielectric law
j =σ e Ohm’s law

Material characteristics
µ magnetic permeability (H/m) Constant (linear materials)
ε dielectric permittivity (F/m) Function of the fields (nonlinear
σ electrical conductivity (Ω–1 m–1) materials)
Tensorial (anisotropic materials)
Function of temperature, mechanical
stress, ...

Principles of Electromagnetism 5
Magnetic constitutive law
b=µh µ = µr µ0 µr relative magnetic permeability
µ0 magnetic permeability of vacuum (H/m)

❖ Diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials


– Linear materials µr ≈ 1 (silver, copper, aluminum)
❖ Ferromagnetic materials
– Nonlinear materials µr >> 1, µr = µr(h) (steel, iron)

b-h law Hysteresis


Saturation
Energy dissipation
Nonlinear Non (≡ area of the cycle)
univoque law

Steinmetz formula

p H = ω k h bνmax ( W / m3 )
pulsation ω, max. flux density bmax
coeficients kh and ν (1.5 < ν < 1.8)
Principles of Electromagnetism 6
Quasi-stationnary approximation

curl h = j + ∂t d
Small dimensions
compared to wavelength

Conduction current density >>> Displacement current density

curl h = j
Ampère’s law
Applications
Electrotechnical devices (motors, generators, power transformers, ...)
Usually, frequencies up to several 100’s of kHz

Principles of Electromagnetism 7
Electromagnetic models
All governed by Maxwell’s equations
❖ Electrostatics
– Distribution of electric field due to static charges and levels of electric potential
❖ Electrokinetics
– Distribution of stationary electric current in conductors
❖ Electrodynamics
– Distribution of electric field and currents in materials (both conductprs and
insulators)
❖ Magnetostatics
– Distribution of stationary magnetic field due to magnets and stationary
currents
❖ Magnetodynamics
– Distribution of magnetic field and eddy currents due to moving magnets and
time-dependent currents
❖ Wave propagation
– Electromagnetic wave propagation
Principles of Electromagnetism 8
Ampère’s law

curl h = j The circulation of the magnetic field along a


Ampère’s law closed contour is equal to the algebraic sum of
the currents crossing any surface bounded by this
∫ h ⋅ dl = I contour par ce contour

div j = 0
Conservation of the current

∫ j ⋅ n ds = 0
The sum of the currents arriving at
a given point is zero

Principles of Electromagnetism 9
Faraday’s law

curl e = – ∂t b Any variation (time, movement or deformation)


Faraday’s law of the magnetic flux density embraced by a
circuit (open or closed) gives rise to an
∫ e ⋅ dl = −∂ t Φ e.m.f
electromotive force (e.m.f.) ...

Lenz’ law ... which, when this circuit is


closed, gives rise to currents
generating magnetic flux
density opposing these
variations
div b = 0 Movement, velocity v
Conservation of the magnetic flux e =v×b

∫ b ⋅ n ds = 0
Magnetic flux lines are closed

Principles of Electromagnetism 10
Faraday’s law – Eddy currents
curl e = – ∂t b In a massive conductor subject to time-varying
magnetic field, e.m.f.s appear that give rise to
Faraday’s law
currents

∫ e ⋅ dl = −∂ t Φ
Eddy (or induced) currents

Heating by Joule effect


(degrades efficiency)

Reduction of the global magnetic flux (Lenz’s


law) (degrades material efficiency)
For thin sheets, eddy current losses:

Laminated magnetic materials ω2 e 2t σ 2


pF = b max ( W / m3 )
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Stacks of thin magnetic sheets, parallel to the magnetic
flux density and electrically isolated pulsation ω, sheet thickness et ,
electrical conductivity σ,
max. magnetic flux density bmax
Principles of Electromagnetism 11
Skin effect
curl e = – ∂t b
Faraday;s law Skin effect

2
δ= ( m)
The skin depth δ characterizes the depth in the ωσµ
material at which the current (and the magnetic
field) tend to concentrate.
Increasing the frequency leads to smaller δ, ω pulsation (rad/m)
which leads to currents concentrated closer to σ electrical conductivity (Ω–1 m–1 )
the surface of the conductor. µ magnetic permeability (H/m)

Principles of Electromagnetism 12
Magnetic circuits

Produced by electric currents


(e.g. in windings) or magnets
magnetic material
Magnetic field
through which the transfer of conversion of
energy is carried out (e.g. between airgaps
windings for electrical energy)

Interest in high magnetic coupling magnetic material


(good magnetic link)

Magnetic circuits with magnetic


materials to channel the
magnetic flux density
with airgaps (e.g. separating
moving parts)
Principles of Electromagnetism 13
Ideal magnetic circuit
neutral fiber length of the circuit
Magnetomotive forces
(m.m.f.)
∫ h ⋅ dl = h ! = n1I1 + n 2I2
section of the circuit
µ S n1I1 + n 2I 2
Φ = b S = µ h S = (n1I1 + n 2I 2 ) =
! R

Reluctance of the circuit


n12 n n
Φ t1 = n1 Φ = I1 + 1 2 I2 = λ1 I1 + M12 I2 !
R R R=
µS
n1 n 2 n12
Φt2 = n2 Φ = I1 + I 2 = M 21 I1 + λ 2 I 2
R R
Inductances
n12 n 22 n n
λ1 = , λ2 = , M = M12 = M 21 = 1 2
R R R

Perfect magnetic coupling (λ1 λ2 = M2 )


Principles of Electromagnetism 14
Real magnetic circuit

n1I1 + n 2I2
Φ= Useful flux
R
Leakage flux

n1I1 n I
Φf 1 = et Φf 2 = 2 2
Rf1 Rf 2

⎛ n2 n2 ⎞ n n
Φ t1 = n1 (Φ + Φ f 1 ) = ⎜ 1 + 1 ⎟ I1 + 1 2 I 2 = λ1 I1 + M12 I 2 Leakage reluctances
⎜ R Rf1 ⎟ R
⎝ ⎠
n1 n 2 ⎛ n12 n12 ⎞
Φ t 2 = n 2 (Φ + Φ f 2 ) = I1 + ⎜ + ⎟ I = M 21 I1 + λ 2 I 2
R ⎜ R Rf 2 ⎟ 2
⎝ ⎠
Inductances
n12 n12 n2 n2 n n
λ1 = + , λ 2 = 2 + 2 , M = M12 = M 21 = 1 2
R Rf1 R Rf 2 R

Non-ideal magnetic coupling (λ1 λ2 ≥ M2 )


Principles of Electromagnetism 15