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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MOQUEGUA

PROFESSIONAL SCHOOL OF MINING ENGINEERING

GEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL IN THE MACRO SOUTHERN


REGION OF PERU

STUDENT:
Mamani Pinedo FRANKLIN JHOEL

SUBJECT:
Mining Geology

PROFESSOR:
Ing. JOSÉ ANTONIO SALAS MEDINA

MOQUEGUA – 2018
INDEX
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 2
I. METALLOGENIC PERIODS OF THE MACRO REGION SOUTH OF PERU ............. 3
II. TYPES OF CHARACTERISTIC DEPOSITS ..................................................................... 5
III. MINING PROJECTS IN THE MACRO SOUTH REGION OF PERU ............................ 6
IV. CONCLUSIONS ..................................................................................................................... 6
BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................................................................................................... 7

Mining Geology 1
GEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL IN THE MACRO SOUTHERN REGION OF PERU

INTRODUCTION
The mineral wealth of the Peru has its origin in the tectonic processes of the
lifting of the mountain range of the Andes, which fused and elevated mineral
substances to surface layers of the crust, being mostly deposited in ore
deposits polymetallic, which are distributed in the mountain range.

Minerals of economic importance in the Peru are the metal, but to a lesser
extent also exploited non-metallic minerals such as clays, salts, among
others.

Then will be the geological potential of the macro region south of the country,
comprising the regions of Apurimac, Arequipa, Moquegua, Ica, Puno, Tacna
and Cusco. The mining projects that foster further economic development in
these regions will be presented.

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I. METALLOGENIC PERIODS OF THE MACRO REGION SOUTH OF
PERU
Once metallogenic is a unit of geological time favorable for the deposition
of ores or characterized by a particular grouping of mineral deposits. In
the same area can be represented several times metal-genetic.
Times are metal-genetic that is counted in the South of the Peru: Jurassic
Medium-Higher, lower Cretaceous, higher Cretaceous and middle
Paleocene and Lower-Middle Eocene.
1.1. JURASSIC MEDIUM-HIGHER
The oldest deposits of this times are located in the Cordillera de la
Costa and correspond to deposits of copper porphyries and oxides of
Fe-Cu - Au.
Only referred to the age of a deposit of Fe-Cu - Au located in
Cocachacra oxide. It corresponds to the system of grain Cu-Au of Rosa
Maria (Aunt Maria). Further north in Ica are known deposits of this age,
as it is the case of the Mina Justa and other mineralization of Cu in
Marcona.
1.2. LOWER CRETACEOUS
Most important deposits of this period correspond to the oxides of Fe-
Cu - Au, which are mainly between Tacna and Ilo, where the veins of
iron on iron lips and Cerro Pelado are housed in granitoid dioritics to
injected granodioritics by a plutonic dioritic of 105 My. In Ilo, the
mineralization of Cu – Au in Santiago, Valparaíso and Licona they
mean a pluton granodioritic-tonalitic leucocratic of age 100-105 My.
Only known a porphyry Cu of the lower Cretaceous along with deposits
of Cu - Au of the same age in the Coastal Mountain. It is El Yaral leaflet
dated 106 My.
1.3. HIGHER CRETACEOUS
Within this time metallogenic is the Angostura prospect located 37 km
from the OS of Arequipa. Aligned to the mineralization of this age is the
Zafranal project, located 75 km from the Angostura leaflet NO. This
leaflet presents a mineralization of copper, phyllic and leached layer
rich in Hematite alteration zone with oxides, as well as a quartz
stockwork - limonite.

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1.4. MIDDLE PALEOCENE AND LOWER-MIDDLE EOCENE
Metallogenic of the Middle Paleocene and lower Eocene girdles are of
major economic importance worldwide, since there are porphyry
largest plant of Cerro Verde/Santa Rosa, Toquepala, Quellaveco and
Cuajone. This fascia along throughout the Pacific slope of the Andes
and extends from Peru SO to Chile with one greater length to 1500 km.
The oldest deposit corresponds to Cerro Verde, followed by Toquepala
and Cuajone, Quellaveco.

Figure 1 Map of metallogenic epochs of the Moquegua Region

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II. TYPES OF CHARACTERISTIC DEPOSITS
2.1. PORPHYRY OF CU-MO
The copper porphyries are large deposits of minerals of widely
dispersed Cu, low grade and high tonnage. They are genetically
related to “epizonales”, usually are igneous intrusions and commonly
porphyritic. They are characterized by multiple intrusive events, swarm
of dikes, intrusive breccias and dikes of cantos, where the rock box can
be of any type. Both can be intensely fractured.
The most important and representative copper porphyry, correspond
a: Toquepala, Cuajone and Quellaveco, Cerro Verde/Santa Rosa.
Other porphyry as the Los Calatos, Chapi, San Jose, Angostura, Santa
Catalina and Zafranal is also aligned to the mega porphyry and exhibit
the same features.
2.2. OXIDE DEPOSITS OF FE-CU-AU
Oxides of Fe-Cu - Au deposits are mainly defined by its high content of
magnetite or Hematite.
In the Coastal Mountain, the mineralization is located in vein and robes
along the stretch Tacna-Matarani, systems where volcanic and
sedimentary rocks of the Middle Jurassic are intruding PLUTONS and
dikes from the upper Jurassic and lower Cretaceous. The most
representative is: Cerro Canicora (CU-au), iron (Fe) Morrito, Licona,
Santiago, Valparaiso and Rosa Maria (Cu, Au).
2.3. POLYMETALLIC FILONIAN DEPOSITS
Have associations of Cu-(Pb-Zn-Mo-Ag-Au) and Cu-(Pb-AG), their
powers range from 0.4 to 1.5 m. The host rocks in correspond to the
coastal Batholith intrusive and are found mainly in the districts of Palca
and Ilabaya of Tacna.
2.4. SKARN DEPOSITS
Are deposits of replacement metasomatic characterized by the
presence of minerals calcosilicateds faneritics of coarse-grained of Ca,
Fe, Mg and Mn. selectively replace carbonated calcareous clastic
sedimentary rocks and can be associated with metal mineralization of
W, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sn, Fe-Ca and lower Au-Ag.
Its location is in Tacna, in the sector Caplina-Ataspaca skarn
occurrences are found in Taracahua (Zn, Pb, Cu), Ricardina (Pb, Zn,
Cu) and mantle (Cu, Mo) green (Ingemmet, 2000).

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III. MINING PROJECTS IN THE MACRO SOUTH REGION OF PERU
In Moquegua the projects Quellaveco (4,880 million dollars), include Los
Calatos (918 million) and San Gabriel (500 million).
Four mining projects are concentrated in Arequipa: Pampa de Pongo
(2,000 million dollars), Zafranal (1,157 million), Tía Maria (1,036 million)
and Don Javier (600 million).
In Cusco, Quechua projects ($850 million), Antapaccay Expansion
Tintaya-integration Coroccohuayco (590 million) and Accha (346 million).
In Puno mining projects Corani (625 million dollars), are Macusani (300
million), Ollaechea (180 million), recycling of tailings in the unit mining
San Rafael (165 million) and Santa Ana (71 million).
While Tacna provides for the expansion of the mining unit Toquepala (550
million dollars).

IV. CONCLUSIONS
 The macro region South (Apurímac, Arequipa, Moquegua, Ica, Puno,
Tacna, Cusco) has an important geological potential and identified
prospects representing 58% of the national portfolio are in their
territories.

 The macro region south of the Peru concentrated mining investment


projects, representing 55% of the total investment portfolio in mining.
The impact of these projects would reduce poverty levels to 5%
approximately.

 The southern area of the Peru currently represents 67% of the


national production of copper, which is the main product of the
country's copper export.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
 http://www.ingemmet.gob.pe/documents/73138/202784/P03_Epocas_Metal
ogeneticas_Yacimientos.pdf/b6006c5f-b058-40ea-9172-11e62e4e7f72
(REVIEWED19/04/18)

 http://cienciageografica.carpetapedagogica.com/2011/09/principales-
minerales-y-yacimintos.html (REVIEWED 19/04/18)

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