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# GRADE 10 SCIENCE POINTERS ,.;.

## LIGHT AND ITS REFLECTION LIGHT AND ITS REFLECTION

If an object does not emit its own light (which accounts for most If an object does not emit its own light (which accounts for most
objects in the world), it must reflect light in order to be seen. The objects in the world), it must reflect light in order to be seen. The
walls in the room that you are in do not emit their own light; they walls in the room that you are in do not emit their own light; they
reflect the light from the ceiling "lights" overhead. Polished metal reflect the light from the ceiling "lights" overhead. Polished metal
surfaces reflect light much like the silver layer on the back side of surfaces reflect light much like the silver layer on the back side of
glass mirrors. A beam of light incident on the metal surface is glass mirrors. A beam of light incident on the metal surface is
reflected. reflected.

Reflection involves two rays - an incoming or incident ray and an Reflection involves two rays - an incoming or incident ray and an
outgoing or reflected ray. In Figure 1 we use a single line to illustrate outgoing or reflected ray. In Figure 1 we use a single line to illustrate
a light ray reflected from the surface. The law of reflection requires a light ray reflected from the surface. The law of reflection requires
that two rays are at identical angles but on opposite sides of the that two rays are at identical angles but on opposite sides of the
normal which is an imaginary line (dashed in Fig. 1) at right angles to normal which is an imaginary line (dashed in Fig. 1) at right angles to
the mirror located at the point where the rays meet. We show in Fig. the mirror located at the point where the rays meet. We show in Fig.
1 that the angles of incidence i and reflection i' are equal by joining 1 that the angles of incidence i and reflection i' are equal by joining
the two angles with an equal sign. the two angles with an equal sign.

All reflected light obeys the relationship that the angle of incidence All reflected light obeys the relationship that the angle of incidence
equals the angle of reflection. Just as images are reflected from the equals the angle of reflection. Just as images are reflected from the
surface of a mirror, light reflected from a smooth water surface also surface of a mirror, light reflected from a smooth water surface also
produced a clear image. We call the reflection from a smooth, produced a clear image. We call the reflection from a smooth,
mirror-like surface specular (as shown in Figure 2a). When the mirror-like surface specular (as shown in Figure 2a). When the
surface of water is wind-blown and irregular, the rays of light are surface of water is wind-blown and irregular, the rays of light are
reflected in many directions. The law of reflection is still obeyed, but reflected in many directions. The law of reflection is still obeyed, but
the incident rays (Fig. 2b) strike different regions which are inclined the incident rays (F ig. 2b) strike different regions which are inclined
at different angles to each other. Consequently, the outgoing rays at different angles to each other. Consequently, the outgoing rays
are reflected at many different angles and the image is disrupted. are reflected at many different angles and the image is disrupted.
Reflection from such a rough surface is called diffuse reflection and Reflection from such a rough surface is called diffuse reflection and
appears matte. appears matte.

## Figure. 2 Light reflection from a) smooth surface (specular reflection

Figure. 2 Light reflection from a) smooth surface (specular reflection ) and b) rough surface (diffuse reflection). In both cases the angle of
) and b) rough surface (diffuse reflection). In both cases the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection at the point that the light ray
incidence equals the angle of reflection at the point that the light ray strikes the surface.
strikes the surface.
Light is also reflected when it is incident on a surface or interface
Light is also reflected when it is incident on a surface or interface between two different materials such as the surface between air
between two different materials such as the surface between air and water, or glass and water. Each time a ray of light strikes a
and water, or glass and water. Each time a ray of light strikes a boundary between two materials - air/glass or glass/water - some of
boundary between two materials - air/glass or glass/water - some of the light is reflected. The laws of reflection are obeyed at all
the light is reflected. The laws of reflection are obeyed at all interfaces. The amount of reflected light at the interface depends on
interfaces. The amount of reflected light at the interface depends on the differences in refraction between the two adjoining materials.
the differences in refraction between the two adjoining materials.
MAGNETS MAGNETS

A magnet is an object that exhibits a strong magnetic field and will A magnet is an object that exhibits a strong magnetic field and will
attract materials like iron to it. Magnets have two poles, called the attract materials like iron to it. Magnets have two poles, called the
north (N) and south (S) poles. Two magnets will be attracted by their north (N) and south (S) poles. Two magnets will be attracted by their
opposite poles, and each will repel the like pole of the other magnet. opposite poles, and each will repel the like pole of the other magnet.
Magnetism has many uses in modern life. Magnetism has many uses in modern life.

The most popular legend accounting for the discovery of The most popular legend accounting for the discovery of
magnets is that of an elderly Cretan shepherd named Magnes. magnets is that of an elderly Cretan shepherd named Magnes.
Legend has it that Magnes was herding his sheep in an area of Legend has it that Magnes was herding his sheep in an area of
Northern Greece called Magnesia, about 4,000 years ago. Northern Greece called Magnesia, about 4,000 years ago.
Suddenly both, the nails in his shoes and the metal tip of his Suddenly both, the nails in his shoes and the metal tip of his
staff became firmly stuck to the large, black rock on which he staff became firmly stuck to the large, black rock on which he
was standing. was standing.

Attraction - When two magnets or magnetic objects are close to Attraction - When two magnets or magnetic objects are close to
each other, there is a force that attracts the poles together. each other, there is a force that attracts the poles together.

Repulsion - When two magnetic objects have like poles facing each Repulsion - When two magnetic objects have like poles facing each
other, the magnetic force pushes them apart. other, the magnetic force pushes them apart.