VMware configuration: Verifying and viewing VMware ESX Server configuration files

18 Sep 2006 | Chris Wolf, Author Digg This! StumbleUpon Del.icio.us

IT reseller takeaway: Before you attempt a VMware configuration, make sure VMware ESX Server is ready to communicate on your clients' networks. This book excerpt from Virtualization: From the Desktop to the Enterprise offers best practices for verifying and viewing ESX Server files. Verifying ESX Server Configuration Information When ESX Server is booting, you can get a good idea of what services are being loaded. If you've used Linux-type operating systems, you'll encounter a familiar boot process. Before you start the configuration of ESX Server, let's make Server virtualization support sure the system is ready to communicate on the network. For Unix and Linux users, this section will seem basic, but it's essential for Microsoft administrators. If you're familiar with the information, skim this section and use it as a review. More virtualization resources You'll want to check the server's basic configuration, so you'll need to gain shell access by pressing Ctrl+Alt+F2. You can switch between shell sessions by pressing Ctrl+Alt+F1 through F12. So you can get an idea of how it works, toggle between the Welcome screen and the shell Login screen. At the shell Login screen, enter the administrator's username root, and use the password you configured earlier for the account. Caution: Unlike Microsoft OSs that are generally case insensitive, every command in Linuxlike operating systems is CaSe sEnsiTive. Everything! For instance, ROOT isn't the same thing as Root or root. These are all three different user accounts, and only one is the superuser administrator account²root. After logging into the ESX Server CLI, the first thing you'll want to check is the system's IP address information. Type ifconfig | less at the command line. (You could use the pipe with the more command, but less allows scrolling up and down with the arrow keys. Type q to quit.) You should have information for the loopback address (lo) and a minimum of two Ethernet controllers (eth0 and eth1). Remember that you need at least two NICs to bridge or NAT VMs to your network. If you dedicate a single NIC to VMs, you'll lose the ability to connect to the Service Console with a Web browser.

Table 5-3 lists the commands you'll need to memorize for ESX Server administration. you can attempt to use the setup command to configure your IP address information.com.1. you can even find it in the Microsoft NT Resource Kit. Viewing configuration files If you have a problem with the ping tests listed previously. These commands are referred to as colon commands because they start with a colon.apress. The lower-left corner should display a colon when executing colon .0. Whether you're a fan of Vi or not. Vi Survival Commands Command vi :q! :wq! :set nu esc i Arrow keys Backspace key Delete Action Starts the Vi editor Exits the Vi editor without saving changes (quit!) Exits the Vi editor and saves changes (write and quit!) Turns on line numbering Exits text insert mode Enters text insert mode Navigates the cursor Deletes previous character Deletes selected character vi <filename> Starts Vi and opens the given file for editing Vi has two different running modes: command mode and edit mode. for example. It comes with nearly every version of Linux. Test DNS by pinging a Web site with ping www. and then test the following using the ping command. Editing configuration files starts with a good text editor and enough knowledge to be dangerous. In command mode. Table 5-3. You can use Ctrl+C to break out of the looping echo requests and echo replies. so you may get only the domain name to resolve to an IP address. Though we could easily turn this into a Linux tutorial. A better solution to verifying configuration information is to check the configuration files from the command line. You know you're in command mode because you won't see "INSERT" in the lower -left corner of your display. it's an excellent text editor that gets the job done. y y y Test the server's TCP/IP stack by pinging the loopback address with ping 127. If no IP address information exists.Confirm that your server's information is correct. and some of us love it. Some Web servers block ICMP traffic. we'll just walk you through the basics. every keystroke is interpreted as a command and performs file functions such as editing and saving.0. Test the server's default gateway with ping . you'll have a problem configuring ESX Server through a Web browser. so now is as good a time as any to discuss the Vi editor: some of us hate it.

you'll spend needless time troubleshooting your host. press the Escape key (several times) to enter command mode. take a moment to fix any errors and save your changes. and use the Backspace and Delete keys to remove characters.x. Now that Text Editing 101 is out of the way.x. In text mode. Use the arrow keys to navigate the cursor. If you have any doubts as to what mode you're in. To quit without saving your current work.x ONBOOT=yes IP address information for the second network adapter is located in /etc/sysconfig/ networkscripts/ifcfg-eth1. The contents of the ifcfg-eth1 file will look similar to the following: DEVICE=eth1 ONBOOT=yes You can find DNS server configuration information in the resolv.x.x.x. open and view your system's information. You can find configuration files relating to the host name (FQDN) of your system in three places: y y y vi /etc/sysconfig/network vi /etc/hosts vi /usr/lib/vmware-mui/apache/conf/httpd. Review the contents of it by executing the following command: vi /etc/resolv. If anything is incorrect.x IPADDR=x.conf Default gateway information is located in the network file.x. The contents of the ifcfg-eth0 file will look similar to the following: DEVICE=eth0 BOOTPROTO=static BROADCAST=x. refer to Table 5-3. or to save your current work and quit. you can verify your ESX Server configuration information using the filenames listed next.x.x NETWORK=x.conf file. If not.x. Enter text mode from command mode by typing a lowercase i (for insert mode). typed characters are echoed to the screen and temporarily become part of the open document. Verify your host's settings with the following: .conf IP address configuration information for the first network adapter is located in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0. For each file.x NETMASK=x.commands. Make sure the default gateway is properly set.

restart the networking service by entering the following command: service network restart Continuing at the CLI. hostname www. execute hostname (for example. and verify your system's host name with uname ±a. You can move onto your post-installation housekeeping. Next. the ESX Server installation is complete. With positive results from network connectivity and name resolution testing.apress. . You'll perform these tasks by configuring and using the MUI. repeat the ping tests.com) to make the host name change effective without a reboot.vi /etc/sysconfig/network After verifying and making any necessary changes.

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