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History EOY Preparation

RUSSIA

Pre-Civil War
Bolshevik’s Strengths Weaknesses of Provisional Government
Refusal to Compromise Problems of Democratic Reform
 Mensheviks helped the Provisional Govt.  Prisoners freed & Revolutionaries returned- includes
 Bolsheviks never wavered Lenin who would eventually overthrow the govt.
o Disassociated from policies  Freedom of Press- easier for Bolsheviks to spread
o Repressed by “enemy” (Provisional Govt.) information
 Freedom of Assembly- People going on strikes often
Leadership of Lenin Image Tarnished
 Returned to lead Bolsheviks- revolution,  No Serious Reforms
unpopularity of Provisional Govt. o Delayed democratic elections due to WWI
 Promises (37% of people were deployed, not very good
o Land, Peace, Bread for democracy)- people viewed this as an
o Immediate Land Redistribution attempt to hold onto power longer
o End WWI o No Land Reforms- no redistribution of land
o Eliminate Hunger w/ Communism  People in Provisional Govt. were the
ones with land previously
o Appalling economic record- food shortages,
unemployment, debt
o Still in WWI
 Resources are continuously drained,
promises to allies- owe money, will
have to sign surrender treaty
(money+land)
General Kornilov Affair General Kornilov Affair (Commander-in-chief)
 Bolshevik’s help enlisted  Thought that there were revolutionaries in St.
o Railway Workers- Stop trains, military Petersburg
cannot come in  He tried to enter the city with the army to stop them
o Propagandists- spread propaganda that  Provisional Govt. though that they were starting a
Kornilov is the enemy of the revolution military coup
 No Blood, No Violence  Arrest of Generals- military no longer under Govt.
 Outcomes:
o Increased Support
o Rearmament
o Release of Prisoners
o Bolsheviks can now take down the
Provisional Govt. which is easier to take
down than the military

Done by Song Gil Seob


Russian Civil War (1917-1923)
 Parties
o Red Army: Communist Govt. + Volunteer-Based men + Strengthened by Cheka
o White Army: Mix of interested parties of Bolshevik’s downfall (Poor monarchists,
Mensheviks, Rich, Bourgeoisie)
o Green Army: Ukraine Nationalist Movement- less significant
o Black Army: Rival of Green Army, Anarchist (no Govt.)- less significant
 Reasons for Foreign Involvement
o Russian Withdrawal
 The Allies tried to get the old powers back to support them in war as the
Bolsheviks defaulted on foreign loans (ignored completely, blamed on the
previous rulers)
o Russo-German Alliance
 Against the Allies
o Spread of Communism
 Govt. has to be overthrown
 Outcomes:
o Bolshevik Victory
o Massive Casualties- 15 million people died (1 million red, ½ million white, 7-8 million
wartime casualties, 5 million from famine)
o Economic devastation
 Factories, Bridges, Mines, Machines: all gone
 Dropped to 1/7 of Industrial Production
 Output of factories dropped to 20%
 Cotton- dropped to 5%
 Iron- dropped to 2%

Factors Strengths of the Reds Weakness of the Whites


Leadership Strict unity of command- Division of Politically Diverse
Responsibility  The White Army was not a unified
 Lenin: Political Leader force. There were many groups:
 Leon Trotsky: War Commissar/Military Aristocrats, Middle-class,
Leader Mensheviks, people from conquered
o I/C of co-ordinating the military regions who had joined in to achieve
campaign independence from Russian rule
 Clear Division- prevented: duplication of  Each group had their own aims and
effort, waste of manpower and ideals but they were drawn together
resources, avoided confusion and chaos by political expediency of ridding the
Bolsheviks

Done by Song Gil Seob


Able Leadership  The leaders of the various groups
 Trotsky was a brilliant thinker and were independent and headstrong. It
speaker was difficult for them to co-ordinate
o Used Railways to transport their war effort against the Reds,
troops and supplies given the clashes in personalities and
o Bolshevik Army enlarged to 5 aims
million men  Thus, the Whites did not have a
o Enlisted Tsar’s ex-officers- single, unified leadership and this
experience in war, held their adversely affected their campaign
families ransom to make them
fight
Geographical Strategic Geography Peripheral Areas
Context  The Reds controlled the central area that  The White Army had difficulty co-
was: ordinating their war effort. They had
o Most populous: reservoir of difficulty in: Moving troops &
soldiers Communication
o Industries: placed on war-time  White advantage was the outlying
footing producing weapons regions which were the food-
o Railways- transport troops producing areas= supplied with food
o Bolsheviks overcame their
food shortage through grain
requistion
Wartime War Communism
Strategies  The whole economy was under the
control of the Govt.
o Industries: Weapons, mobilise
resources
o Requisition of Food: Ask the
peasants, even if they say no,
they still take the food
 5 million died from
famine
o No Private trade: Everything was
to go through the govt.
Others Popular Support Dependent
 Bolsheviks were seen to be patriotic in  The White Army was aided by
the eyes of the people foreign, democratic countries
 Bolsheviks capitalised on this by claiming (financial, weapons, personnel)
to be fighting against the Whites in Elitist
defence of the Russian Motherland  The Aristocrats represented the old
 This strong message was not lost on the order and Tsarist Rule
people who gave it their support  They were very closely related to the
Tsar
 If the Whites won: signal a return to
the old order?
o Many peasants feared this

Done by Song Gil Seob


Communist Rule- Under Bolsheviks & Lenin
 Political Changes
o Transfer of Power
 Parliamentary  Socialist
o Repression of opposition
 Arrests of Mensheviks
 Control of Press- no freedom, revolution goes back to the past
 Cheka
 Precursor to KGB
 More Blood- as much as possible
 Various ways for torture
 Economic Changes
o Nationalisation: Banks nationalised- money belongs to govt.
 Church- not much power due to atheist philosophy of Socialism
o Repudiation of foreign debt
 Does not return the 11 billion rubos borrowed saying that it was not the
Bolsheviks who borrowed
 Redistribution of Land
 Labour Policies (+)
o Working hours: 11-12 hours to 8 hours
o Minimum wage
o Govt. Representative
 Only receives recommendation, does not have to follow
 Social Changes
o Women’s rights
 Divorce
 Individual Property Rights
 Female Education
 Women’s wing in Central Communist Party
 Propaganda & Brainwashing
o Decriminalising homosexuality
 State does not care about what one does privately
o Combating Anti-Semitism
 Against Anti-Jew: Capitalist are the enemies instead
 WWI
o Split over WWI
 Lenin advocated for Withdrawal, others wanted to stay in the course
o Treaty of Brest-Litovsk  forced to sign
 Germany renewed attack
 Lost: 1/3 of manufacturing industry, 27% of agricultural land, half of population

Done by Song Gil Seob


Life under Stalin
 Lenin’s Death (1924, 1 year after Civil War through a series of strokes)
o Stalin took over as leader of the USSR, ruling for the next 25 years (1928-1953)
 Stalin
o Was in prison, nicknamed: “Man of Steel”- determination to withstand
o Humble Background, born in Tiflis, Georgia
o Became a Bolshevik in 1903
 Did not do much in terms of October Revolution
 Managed to bring down the Green and Black Armies in Civil War
o Power struggle between Trotsky and Stalin
 Lenin placed Stalin as Secretary-General
 A dull, administrative job, in charge of appointments
o His supporters were placed into key positions
 Lenin did not like Stalin
o Lenin wrote that Stalin should not take over in his last
testament- hidden by Stalin and Allies
o Single- minded: would do anything to achieve his objectives
o Played off contenders against each other
o Regarded as dull/colourless  No threat
 For those who obeyed Stalin:
o Public Housing
o Education
o Women treated better
 Yet:
o Strict Censorship
o Fear and Terror- KGB
o Distorted History
o Lack of Consumer goods
 Those who suffered:
o Opponents- political, writers, professionals, Officers

Done by Song Gil Seob


Political
 Totalitarianism
o 1945 Stalin Constitution
 Redesign Russian Govt.- Universal Voting, Secret Voting
o One party government- only those approved by Stalin can join
o Loyal Party Members
 Purges
o Great Purge (1936-38)
 Removal of huge groups of people: Trotsky, the rich peasants, former Tsarist
officials, half of Army officers, all of naval officers
 Placed those he could trust- purge partially due to threat to himself
o Widespread Suspicion- people report on each other
o Show Trials- “Show” Fairness & Justice
o Banishment, imprisonment, execution
o 1 Million deaths
 Cult of Stalin
o Grand Titles
o Fictionalised Biographies
o Pictures & Statues
o Cities and Towns named after him

20 Million deaths overall

Economical (1924- 5 March 1953)


 Aims of Industrialisation
o Transform Russia  from a destroyed economy
o Counter Germany and West  Fight off Capitalist Nations (May attack Russia again)
o Overtake Europe’s Economy (Ambition)
o Expand Military  Heavy Industry
 Methods
o Internal Financing
 Communism
 No Trade with others  in terms of heavy industry
 Debts  made it difficult for them to do anything with the Allies
 Reduce Consumption
 Reduce how much is being used, put the rest into the Bank which is
then invested into other things such as heavy industry
 Kulaks
 Take from Rich farmers

Done by Song Gil Seob


o 5 Year Plans
 1st 5 year Plan (1928)
 Relocating Industries  away from other European nations (move to
East)  In order to secure the industry infrastructure  protect from
invasions
 Focus on heavy Industry  1500 new factories
o 1928-1940: Number of workers in construction and transport
increased from 4 million to 12 million
 Increased production but target not met
Resource Situation Achievement Unrealistic Goals
Time 1928 1932 Target
Pig Iron (million tons) 3.3 6.2 8.0
Steel (million tons) 4.0 5.9 8.3
Coal (million tons) 35.4 64.3 68.0
Oil (million tons) 11.7 21.4 19.0
Electricity (billion kWh) 5.0 13.4 17.0
 2nd 5 year Plan (1932)
 Infrastructure  Railways: efficiency in production
 Realistic but unfulfilled Targets
o Better than before  to reward Russians (still unrealistic)
 Incentives & Punishments
o Depends on how well you work
o Women: sponsored child-care  so that they can work &
contribute to economy
 Consumer Goods/Agriculture vs. Weapons (focus)
o Failed: purges on the rich kulaks  when the most productive
are removed, the agriculture ↓
rd
 3 5 year Plan (1938-1941): Stopped early due to WWII
 Weapons
 Did not reach production goals
 Undeniable achievements: Annual Industrial Growth  12-13%

Done by Song Gil Seob


o Collectivisation
 Headed by party officials; pulling of resources into one for better effect (to
consolidate individual land and labour into collective farms); for industrialization
 Aim:
1.) Increase food supply for factory workers
2.) Increase raw materials for processing industry
3.) Increase crops to free up workforce  agriculture to industry
4.) Excess crops that were left over after consumption  sold to govt. at a low
price  govt. sell them to finance industrialization
 Measures:
 Collectivisation made compulsory
 Peasant reactions  burn own crops, attack party officials, kill livestock
 Harsh enforcement  shock brigades of Cheka: must meet quota; if not,
labour camps
 “Successful” Collectivisation
o Many who opposed no longer oppose due to fear
o 25 million farms formed 400 000 collectives
 Successes
 Food supplied by private land
 State grain collection increased  mechanisation released, millions of
surplus peasants to work in factories
o From 10.8 million (1928-1929) to 22.8 million tons (1931-1932)
 Peasants freed to work
o The increase in industry  mechanisation + collectivisation
 Government Control still present
 Failures
 Limited and unused machines
o Limited: not many in numbers
o Unused: people do not know how to use
 Demoralisation  people lost the will to farm as almost all would be
taken away
 Agriculture collapse
o Late 1950s: farm animal levels reaching 1928 levels
o Crop levels in 1936 fell to 1913 levels
 Massive Famine  produce little  people taken away
o E.g. Father leaves mother with children without anything
 Directly/Indirectly killed 12 million people

Done by Song Gil Seob


Essay questions
1. How far do you agree that the leaderships of the two parties were the most important factor
that decided the Russian Revolution of 1917?
2. “Russian Revolution made Russia better, not worse.” How far do you agree with the statement?
3. “Lenin was right about not wanting Stalin as his successor.” How far do you agree with this
statement?

How to write a SBQ


1.) Read the question and ALL SOURCES
2.) Determine the stand of each source (if more than one, decide yourself)
3.) Categorize the sources on the facts that they are portraying
4.) Decide your stand and plan out your criteria
5.) Write your introduction- talk briefly about the situation/context, the question and your stand
6.) Tackle the sources by CATEGORIES (e.g. Source A and Source C talks about…) if possible
a. Decipher the point
b. Elaborate & look back on CK
c. Link back to question
7.) Write your conclusion using the criteria and how everything relates back; make sure to say that
“thus, I believe that the sources agree to a large extent…” not “thus, I believe to a large extent…”

How to write SEQ


1.) Read the question clearly
2.) Decide on the main points you want to use (usually 3, if there is enough time- 4)
3.) Decide on the stand of the points and decide on what your criteria would be
4.) Write your introduction- talk briefly about the situation/context, the question and your stand
5.) Use PEEL to tackle each point
6.) Write your conclusion using the criteria and how everything relates back to the question

Done by Song Gil Seob


FRANCE

Circumstantial Factors/Existing Condition


System
 Estate System
o Structure
 First: Clergy (about 100,000 people)
 Second: Nobility (about 400,000 people)
 Third: Bourgeois, wage earners, peasantry (80% of population)
o Limited social mobility
 The third estate could not hold positions of importance in society and army
o Privileged versus underprivileged
 Only the third estate paid taxes
o Access to political power/voting process
 Tax System
o Unfair fiscal policies
o Inefficient system of collection
 National Debts
o Due to the 2 wars France fought, they lacked funds to do other things in the nation
o Luxury for the king
o This led to the taxation- make the first 2 estates pay, the reform failed
 Political System- Absolute Monarchy
o Monarchy had complete power to make decisions
o Political rights of the people
o The neighbouring countries- better in systems, stronger
 Russia- Catherine the Great- absolute monarchy
 Prussia- Frederick the Great- absolute monarchy
 Britain- George III- share with parliament

External Conditions/Threats/Influence
 Power Politics
 Literacy level of the people
o The commoners
 Low literacy level- these included things such as pornography which depicted
the monarchy as a low being
 These may have led to even more hatred towards the monarchy
 France’s involvement in Wars
o 7 Year War (against Britain)
 Despite fighting for such a long time, France still lost

Done by Song Gil Seob


 Soldiers are frustrated, the people are frustrated
 No gain but all losses from this war
o American Revolution
 France did not even have to be involved in this war
 However, they got involved in order to take a bit of revenge on Britain
as France was beaten in the 7 year war
 The ideology
 U.S.  Aiming to achieve democracy, free themselves from colonialism
 France at the time  Absolute Monarchy – somewhat similar to
colonialism
o The ideology was brought back to France after the war

Alternative Ideology
 Age of Enlightenment
o Humanism- Rise of individuals
o Natural Laws
 Philosophes- published the ideas
 Subjects: Nature, Science, Politics, Psychology, Philosophy, Social Sciences
 Secular
o Mass publication
 Elites
 Commoners
o Idea that natural laws can be applied to human society
 No longer ruled by divine laws
 Scholastic Philosophy
o Use of Reason
 Reason with criticism to effect change
 Challenge to Church and absolute Monarchy

People
 Personality of King Louis XVI
o Compared to King Louis XIV who was an intelligent king, King Louis XVI failed greatly
o Character- little charisma, audacity
o Ability- intellect & leadership lacking
o Enjoyed a luxurious life
 Great amount of food & wine when people are starving
o Tried reforms with no success (1787)
 Tried to make the first 2 estates pay taxes  failed, led to a moderate size
revolution by the nobles
 Personality of the Revolutionaries
o Character- Charismatic, boldness

Done by Song Gil Seob


o Ability- Intellect, leadership
o Ideas/Philosophy
 Different roles
o Peasants, Sans Culottes, Tradesmen, Intellectuals, Nobility, Church, Royal Family,
Military

Crisis
 Intensify unhappiness in a problematic society
 War/Financial problems
 Political problems  Decisions not working
 Necessity problems
o Bad harvest
 There was very little bread available in the market  Bread prices go up
 Despite this, the clergy and King Louis XVI with his family lived in luxury

Triggers
 Tennis Court Oath
o Consolidate the revolutionaries (20 June 1789)
o Bring about the leadership- tied the deputies together in a common cause
o These people refused to move when they were told to meet in their separate estates
o Swearing to carry on meeting until the government problem is solved
 Storming of the Bastille (14 July 1789)
o The breakdown of prison
o The followers came
o More and more people joined the revolution
 Calling of the Estates General - 1789(by King)
o Calling of representatives from the different estates
o Last done in 1614, 175 years later, it is again called by Louis XVI
o People bring about complains  Not fulfilled  Fuel the revolution

Done by Song Gil Seob


CHINA
Pre 1911
 Dynasty rule
o So these guys kept on killing each other, taking over the country then separating the
country then reuniting the country then killing the previous person then taking the
throne, then kill the person again and eventually, it ended up in the hands of the
o QING/MANCHU DYNASTY
 The last ruling dynasty of China
 Adopted a defensive posture towards European imperialism
 TWO Opium Wars, weaken Emperor’s control
 1895: War with Japan, shattering defeat; other nations also dived into action
 Reform was needed- Cixi’s nephew, the young Emperor, wanted to introduce
reforms into Chinese life
 However, he was imprisoned by Cixi
 Boxer Rising- Japan steps in to defeat it and capture Beijing  looting &
destruction
 Even the Empress saw the need for reforms  but too late
 Pu Yi (3) becomes last emperor- revolution starts within 3 years

Republic of China (1912-1949)


 Sun Yat-sen of KMT becomes provisional president of the republic; however, the presidency was
later given to Yuan Shikai
o Yuan Shikai proclaims to be the new Emperor of China (1915), but unpopular, abdicated
and dies in 1916
 His death causes the fragmentation of China’s politics
 National government was in Beijing, but powerless
 Warlords come and exercise their powers in various regions of China
o These warlords fought against each other for the grand prize of Beijing
 Students/Intellectuals wanted mass reform in China
o May Fourth Movement, Chinese Communist Party is set up with the help of USSR’s
Comintern
 Foreign nations (except Japan) were busy with WWI (started in 1914)
 KMT under Chiang Kai-shek reunifies the country in the late 1920s; but only strong enough to
tackle one warlord at one time
 Remote mountain area in Jianxi province, Mao’s communist party was being set up
o Spreading of the Communist ideals suited for China
o KMT recognizes this movement, understands that it needs to stop

Done by Song Gil Seob


 THE LONG MARCH (literally)
o Communists walked through China, fighting off against the nature as well as KMT forces
o Spreading of Communism throughout China
o Started off with 90,000, ended with far less
o Mao becomes head of CCP
o Builds the new base in Yenan
o Some consider it as a retreat- it may or may not have been one, but nevertheless, it
managed to spread communism beyond control
 United Fronts between CCP and KMT
o First: To defeat the warlords
o Second: To defeat Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War (WWII)
 Chinese Civil War (Post-war)
o Battles and peace negotiations both continued
o Fight over Manchuria (Soviet Union and KMT)
o Full-scale war in 1946
 U.S. helps KMT with military supplies and money
 CCP: lack resources, but had the faith of the people
 Continued to talk about the land reforms in countryside
 Gave them almost unlimited supply of manpower
 Eventually, CCP takes control & establishes People’s republic of China, KMT
retreats to Taiwan

Done by Song Gil Seob


MAO’s RULE
 Agrarian Reform Law (1950)
o Land transferred from rich landowners to peasants
o Collective farms- 8 million co-operatives in China, 90% belong here (1957)
 Food production could not match population increase
 (1953) Peasants encouraged to form co-operatives
 Join together lands, grown one large crop efficiently
 Resources pooled for equipment
o Trial for landlords & accusations against them
 Five Year Plan (1953-1957)
o To make China into an industrial superpower
o Focus on heavy industries- steel, coal & chemicals
o Surpassed most targets, railways built, population increased
 E.g. Steel- target: 4.12, actual: 5.24 million tons
 Crude oil- target: 2, actual: 1.42 million tons
 Social Reforms
o Health care: free, emphasis on prevention
o Literacy drive
 But basic education only, saw higher intellectuals (e.g. university professors) as
enemies of communism
o Cities cleaned up (e.g. anti-rat campaign in Shanghai)
o Women’s status improved
 Banned arranged marriages
 Divorce made easier
 More nurseries planned for women to join workforce
o Businesses under state control
o Propaganda
 To expose opponents of communist rule
 1951: 1.5 mil propagandists
 Wall posters, discussion/accusation/story-telling groups, memory meetings
 Each person with a target to meet
 Use of radio programmes: extol success of communist programmes and
dispense advice on daily things
 Control of newspapers
 Tight control of society
 Re-educated, sent to live with peasants, killed, follow Mao (hide true
feelings)

Done by Song Gil Seob


 Hundred Flowers Campaign
o The idea of letting the intellectuals discuss and criticize
o Eventually, the criticism reached uncontrollable levels
o Advise that the government ruled democratically, telling CCP to step down
o Mao refused to take in these criticisms, ends campaign abruptly in 1957
o Large number of critics arrested, re-educated or lost their jobs
 Great Leap Forward (1958-1960)
o Why?
 Economic Problems
 Co-operatives cannot keep up
 Need for a system to use huge resources of labour effectively
 Increase output to rival that of superpowers
 Need for Chinese communism: Soviet-style not suitable
 Increase prestige of communist China: communism as better, Strength of China
o How?
 Mass Steel Campaign: To produce enough steel to surpass England
 Creation of backyard furnaces
 Quotas to be met- daily materials melted down (e.g. cooking pots)
 Quality of steel: so poor that it could not be used
 Communes: To support new industry, collective farms  communes
 Collection of villages – organised own schools, health care, etc.
 City-dwellers used to improve infrastructure of country (e.g. dams)
 Communes: abolished private land and property
o Brigades of 600-1000 people
 Labour for harvesting channelled to steel production  food shortage
o By 1960, it became a failure
 Reasons behind failure:
 Small-scale factories could not produce sufficient goods of high quality
o Lack technical expertise, brittle iron, impure, almost unusable
 Food production suffered  concentration on construction projects &
communes, people no longer paid as much as they worked
 Famine (induced by weather)
 Sino-Soviet split (1960)  halt in aids
 Effects:
 Starvation: Poor weather (nature + human nature [but greater]); close
to 30 million died (1958-1962)
 Decreased production: Not ready to develop so quickly, insufficient
knowledge  production lower than in 1958
 Some success: frauds  govt. using millions to terrace Dazhai rocky hills
 Challenges to Mao’s position: humiliation, cash bonuses (capitalist?)

Done by Song Gil Seob


 Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
o Failure of Great Leap Forward  weaken Mao politically
o Rightists: implement economic policies against GLF
o Four targets (“Four olds”)  Ideas, customs, culture, habits
o Why?
 Transform society
 Economic gap between countryside & towns
 Cultural Purification to reach socialist goal of Equal Society
 Reform CCP
 Purify party ideologically, bring it back to true communism
 Do away with ranks to prevent abuses
 Correct thinking of intellectuals
 Remove Mao’s political Enemies
 Put the blames on the Capitalists
 Punish those who criticise GLF and divert blame from himself
 Regain prestige of CCP
o What? wud?
 Told the high school/university students to rebel against authority no more hair checks?
 Students urged to form Red Guards to criticise govt leaders and prof. workers
 Widespread destruction of buildings/books/art associated w/foreign influence
 Began peacefully, became violent in 1967 just 1 year… who let the students out? woof
 1969- Red Guards gone too far, regular army to disband them
o Effects and Consequences
 Towards Socialist road
 Uproot millions of people
 Professionals sent to countryside to work, not replaced appropriately
 Economic Impact
 Peasants had to sell whatever they produced to state
 Markets and economic co-operation with West: FORBIDDEN
 Near economic collapse (1966-1969)
 Mao’s Authority restored
 Enemies defeated hmm (e.g. Liu Shaoqi- in prison, beaten up, dead)
 Loss of support for CCP
 Internal fighting, loss of lives, social destruction  lower prestige
 Lost Generation
 Scientific/Technical education suffers setback
 Books destroyed, schools/universities closed
 Scientists jailed/sent to labour camps/died from torture scientists, kids?
 College exams suspended until 1977

Done by Song Gil Seob


 Death of MAO
o After CR  power struggle
o Lin Biao dies in ‘plane crash’
o Split leadership (Deng w/Zhou En-lai vs Gang of Four- arrested & put on trial)
o Significance
 Greater political freedom: Democracy wall opened- until Tiananmen
 Restored Prestige of CCP again?
 Economic Moderation
 Four modernisation: agriculture, industry, defence, science &technology
o Personal incentives re-introduced
 Responsibility of Payments: surplus crops for family’s private profit after
quota to govt.
 Special economic zones: Use of foreign investment
 Reforming of Education system
 Increase number of skilled workers in country
 Control of population growth
 One child per family campaign

Essay Questions
 Mao’s personal interest was the main factor behind the Cultural Revolution. How far do you
agree?
 “Whatever Mao has done, he has done if for China.” How far do you agree with the statement?
 “China was better and became better without Mao.” How far do you agree with the statement?
 “Revolutions destroyed China more than building it.” How far do you agree with the statement?

Done by Song Gil Seob


GERMANY
RISE & FALL OF WEIMAR REPUBLIC
 1929: Golden Twenties collapse  mass unemployment, poverty & hunger
 Many blame govt.  voted for extremist politicians who claimed to know solution (e.g. HITLER)
 New currency (Rentenmark)  Bad for HITLAR (HITLER but cooler sounding)
 The Dawes Plan – lower reparations payments, to pay as much as possible (from STRESEMANN-
Stressed out Prime Minister); replaced by Young plan 5 years later  reduce even further

 Improve foreign relations  join League of Nations bad idea


 Germany: no longer suffered from inflation, foreign banks: willing to lend money (mostly U.S.)
 GREAT DEPRESSION someone has to ruin it.
o Worldwide economic depression  began in U.S. sounds familiar?
o Bankrupt companies close down, workers lose jobs, low wages, short-time working,
worsening conditions of work
o Jobless become homeless
 Nazis and the Depression (1929-1932)
o Reichstag: Too many parties  no party ever had more than half the seats
 End up in coalition  could not agree on how much the jobless should be payed
 Social Democrats resigned from govt.
o Government by decree: Allows President, in an emergency, to make laws without
consulting the Reichstag
 Friends of President: had great influence (e.g. businessmen, Nazis, church)
o 1928: Nazis had 12 seats
o Election of 1930: Nazis had 107 seats  Huge efforts to increase their support further
o 1932: Nazis become the biggest party in the Reichstag, HITLAR demands Chancellor seat
o Worries of Civil War if armed forces are used to seize the parties  unstable nation
o Eventually Hindenburg (P) makes HITLAR the Chancellor (1933)
 Through legal & illegal methods
 Illegal: Munich Putsch  Something like Hitler talks in Beer halls, tries
this rebel-kinda-thing (Putsch), fails and is imprisoned for high treason
 Legal: Elections, propaganda  communist: scapegoat
o HITLAR’s Leadership
 Enlarge SA, set-up SS not social studies
 Great Depression: Indecisive govt. vs. His leadership
 Faithful supporters: SA, Middle-class, newspaper, Dr Joseph Goebbels
(propaganda dude), Herman Goering
o 1919 – 1923: UNSTABLE NATION  POPULAR NAZIS
o 1924 – 1928: STABLE NATION  UNPOPULAR NAZIS
o 1929 – 1933: UNSTABLE NATION  POPULAR NAZIS

Done by Song Gil Seob


NAZI DICTATORSHIP (1933-1939)
 WHO IS HITLAR (HITLER now)
o Goes through a troubled childhood, Goes through WWI, Iron Cross for bravery, Gets
through prison, Becomes Nazi leader, Becomes chancellor, Becomes dictator
 Reichstag Fire (Feb 1933): Reichstag building burnt down, not known who is responsible,
DECLARATION OF STATE OF EMERGENCY by Hindenburg (P)
o VERY VIOLENT election campaigns followed, Elections, Nazis win
o Enabling Act (Mar 1933) is established  Hitler can make laws w/o approval
o Trade Unions banned (May 1933), Other political parties banned (July 1933)
o Hindenburg dies in August 1934  Hitler combines President with Chancellor
 NAZI DICTATORSHIP BEGINS
o Situation: SA was dangerous to Hitler  wanted more power
o Hitler asks for absolute loyalty from his army  Sworn to Hitler
o Absolute control begins (e.g. block leader on every street, complex party system, people
living in fear  reporting of any suspicions  Concentration camps
o Absolute control of Mind and Body

GERMANY Questions
 How far do you agree that unfavourable external events were the most important factor that
led to Hitler’s rise to power before 1933? Explain your answer.
 As the Fuhrer, Hitler used several methods to consolidate his power in Germany after 1934.
Which do you think was the most effective approach? Explain your answer

Thematic Questions- VERY IMPORTANT


 Dictatorships
o What are some differences between each of the three dictatorships (Stalin, Mao &
Hitler)? Explain your answer.
o How similar are the main driving forces behind the dictatorships (Stalin, Mao & Hitler)?
Explain your answer.
o “All dictators are the same.” How far do you agree in reference to the dictatorships
(Stalin, Mao & Hitler)?
 Revolutions
o “Revolutions are necessary to bring about greater good.” How far do you agree? Make
references to any 2 case studies.
o “Revolutions all become evolutions.” How far do you agree? How far do you agree?
Make references to any 2 case studies. (NOTE: THIS QUESTION IS UBER-HARD)
o “Revolutions are never successful.” How far do you agree? Make references to any 2
case studies.

Done by Song Gil Seob


Stalin vs. Hitler- Dictatorship: Fear or Assurance?
Fear/Oppression Support/Assurance/Confidence
Hitler Stalin Hitler Stalin
Pol - Murder anyone in Nazi Party who might - Purges: Remove anyone - Masses of people - Socialist Realism:
oppose him who posed danger to his rule supporting the Enabling Communism developing
- Violence against other parties (e.g. (old Bolsheviks, Military, Act: Youths
Communists) NKVD) - Children  Education
- Enabling Act: Seize power  Law for - German workers & Taught that Stalin was a
the protection of People & State - Secret Police Usage Farmers support Hitler great ruler
- Labour Camps Produce useful children
- Night of Long Knives: SA killed, SS kept
(secret police) - Personality Cult: Used
Propaganda: pictures &
- Churches seen as a threat: originally places named after him
voted for him, Pope criticizes Hitler after
he dissolves Catholic Youth League
- Destroys Jews
- Bible replaced w/ Mein Kampf 
Propaganda
Econ 1935: Open Rearmament: Shows that 1st, 2nd, 3rd Five-Year Plans Building of Highway Job Creation
Germany was strong, ready to face off Heavy Industry increases, (Reichsautobahn) Manual labour
against the Allied forces state takeovers, Weaponry Industrial workers
Break Treaty of Versailles increases, consumer goods Unemployment goes down
Armed forces expanded in secret increases due to increase in jobs Incentives/Rewards
Very difficult goals (e.g. jobs in the army) Cash, birthday holiday,
Four Year plan: to make nation self- Public work schemes (e.g. national fame (e.g. Alexei
sufficient in food and raw materials Collectivization: Resistance road-building programme: Stakhanov the super-
The propaganda that guns are more  destroy livestock 80 000+ jobs) miner)
powerful than butter- standard of living Military: Cut over a million
drops, but army gets stronger Prison  punishment in unemployment registers

Terror & Discipline  Secret Managed to provide for


Police & Fine the bigger Army

Done by Song Gil Seob


Social Jews- persecuted, inferior race, sacking Massive Famines  7 million Various Work Schemes Women were viewed as
Nuremburg Laws: Strip Jews of basic deaths between 1932 & National Labour Service important in contributing
rights 1934 Public Work schemes to society
Little Harvest + taken by Law to reduce Communism views:
Employment: Jobs were extremely govt. Unemployment Everyone has a part to
difficult and did not pay much, forced Rearmament (see above) play
labour for 18-25 year-olds (must spend 6 Destruction of Religion Everyone must fight
months in Labour service, do military Youth  Nazi Schools: Everyone must
service for two years) Labour camps/Deported Textbooks to teach Nazi contribute to economy
 10 million Ideas, doubled PE CLASSES
Night of Broken Glass
Raid of 10 000 Jewish shopkeepers; 200 Kulaks are crushed Hitler Youth Involvement:
synagogues burnt, fine of one nearly all youngsters
billion marks (on Jews!), 91 Camps that were
murders, 20 000 in concentration successful
camps
Young Rebels: Antisocial
Anti-Semitic Propaganda spreading- behaviour + did the
radio, press, campaigns, banned things
misinformation, restrictions

Police & Party Control


Police: SS
Party: Complex structure, guard by blocks Women  given impt.
Roles
Women  sacked from judges, doctors, Mother’s Schools: Train in
teachers household and parenting
Could not serve on juries skills
Told to stick to “Three Ks”- Children, Lectures, Radio
church, kitchen programmes on household
Make-ups and trousers were topics
discouraged, slimming was not
preferred

Done by Song Gil Seob