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Abdullah Mohd Nasir Electrical Plant 342 13868783

1.0 Introduction

AC or also known as “Alternating Current” circuits are the most common type of circuits in
the real world which can refer to either voltage or current that alternates in polarity or
direction, respectively. AC can be implemented with the combination of inductors,
transformers, capacitors are unavoidable and nearly all of the time the same components can
be used more than 1 for different purpose. It is important to be able to analyse the voltage,
current and impedance that these components carry. The power factor is a ratio of the real
power flowing to the load to the apparent power and is a number between 0 and 1.

2.0 Objective

a) To raise awareness about electrical safety in the laboratory.


b) Familiarise and understand Alternating Current (AC) Circuit.
c) To be able to use and understand the data produce by the oscilloscope.
d) To be able to understand the importance of power factor

3.0 Equipment

a) Single phase multiple output transformers


b) Power Oscilloscopes
c) 1.1H inductor
d) 20µF Capacitor
e) 10 Ω resistor

4.0 Pre-laboratory

Figure 1: An AC Circuit

Use figure 1 to calculate the impedance and current of the circuit.

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4.1 calculations

L= 0.65 H C=25µF R=142Ω F=50Hz

Calculating XL and XC

XL = ωL XC =



= 2πfL = 204.204 Ω = = 127.32Ω
  π    µ

Impedance : ZTotal=R1+j(Xl - Xc)

= 142 + j(204.204 – 127.32)

76.88
= 142 2 + 76.88 2 ∠ (tan −1 )
142

= 161.48 ∠ 28.4° Ω


Current, I = VL =IXL

230∠0°
= = (1.424 ∠ -28.4°) x (204.204 ∠ 90°)
161.48∠28.43°

= 1.424 ∠ -28.4° A = 290.786 ∠ 61.6°

VR = IR VC =IXC

= 1.424 ∠ -28.43° x 142 ∠ 0° = 1.424 ∠ -28.43º x 127.32 ∠ -90º

= 202.208 ∠ -28.4° V = 181.309 ∠ -118.4º V

Power diagram

P = VIcosѲZ Q = VIcosѲQ

= 230 x 1.424 cos (28.43°) = 230 x 1.424 sin (28.43°)

= 288.021 W = 155.927 VAR

Q
S= P 2 + Q 2 ∠ tan −1
P

155.9
= 288.0 2 + 155.9 2 ∠ tan −1
288.0

= 327.52 ∠ 28.4° VA

Graph 1. phasor diagram

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6.0 Results Summary

Experiment Experiment Experiment Experiment


Circuits
1 2 3 4
Peak to peak voltage across CH1, V p 2 p (V) 72.0 69.9 69.5 72.0

CH1, Vmax 36 34.9 34.8 36

CH1, Vrms 25.46 24.7 24.6 25.5

Peak to peak voltage across CH2, V p 2 p (V) - 23.3 51.8 3.1

CH2, Vmax - 11.7 25.9 1.6

CH2, Vrms - 8.6 18.3 1.1

Current, I (A) - 0.07 0.14 0.11


Frequency, f (Hz) 50 50 50 50
1
Period, T = (ms) 20 20 20 20
f
Period between cursor 1 & 2 , α (ms) - 3.12 2.48 1.8
α
Phase different angle, ∆ = × 360° - 56.16 44.64 32.4
T

Table 1: Experimental Data for experiment1, experiment 2, experiment 3 and experiment 4

Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Experimental 4


Circuits
Experimental Theoretical Experimental Theoretical Experimental Theoretical
CH1, Vrms 24.7 22.13 24.6 17.44 25.5 20.8

CH2, Vrms 8.6 8.17 18.3 17.81 1.1 24.95

Current, I (A) 0.07 0.06 0.14 0.14 0.11 0.12


Phase different
56.16 60.44 44.64 44.4 32.4 49.89
angle (°)

Table 2: Comparison data between theoretical results and experimental results

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7.0 Calculations

7.1 Experiment 1

• Experimental calculation

VL P-P = 72.0 V


VL Max = 
  



VL rms =  .  
√

7.2 Experiment 2

Figure 2: Inductance Circuit

• Theoretical Results

XL = ωL ZTotal = R1 + (rint + jXL)

= 2πfL = 130 + (66 + j345.575)

= 2π x 50 x 1.1 = 196 + j345.575

= 345.575 Ω ∠ 90° =√196  345.575 = 397.288

*+.,
=&'() = 60.44°
-.

=397.288 Ω∠60.44° ( leading)

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/
Current, I = VL = IL XL
0

 1 °
= *-,.22 = (0.0629∠-60.44º) x (345.575 Ω ∠ 90°)
1 ). .++

= 0.0629 ∠-60.44°A = 21.737 ∠29.56 º

VR1 = ILR1 Vrint = IL rint

= (0.0629∠-60.44º) x (130 ∠ 0°) = (0.0629∠-60.44°) x (66 ∠ 0°)

= 8.177 ∠ -60.44° = 4.1514 ∠ -60.44°

VLtotal = IL ZLtotal

= IL x ( rint + jXL )

= 0.0629∠-60.44º x ( 66 + j345.575 )

= 0.0629∠-60.44º x 351.821 ∠79.188º

= 22.130 ∠ 18.75º

P = VI cos θz = 25(0.0629) cos (60.44) = 0.7758 W

Q = VI sin θz = 25(0.0629) sin (60.44) = 1.368 VAR


S Q
S = P + jQ = 1.573 ∠ 60.44 VA θz= 60.44

Power factor, cos θz = cos (60.44) = 0.493 Graph 2 : Power factor Diagram

Vs = VLtotal + VR1 = 25∠0

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Graph 3: Experiment 2 Scalled Phasor Diagram using AutoCAD

7.3 Experiment 3

Figure 3: Capacitance Circuit

• Theoretical Results

XC = Z=R-j(XC)

= = 130 – j(127.324)

=127.324Ω = = 181.965

So, Z = 181.965 Ω∠ -44.4˚ (lagging)

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Current, I = VC = I XC

= = (0.137∠-44.4º) x (127.324 Ω ∠ -90°)

= 0.137∠-44.4 A = 17.44 ∠-45.6 º V

VR2 = ILR2 VS = VC + VR2

= (0.137∠44.4º) x (130 ∠ 0°) = 25∠ 0˚

= 17.81 ∠ 44.4°

rms for IC and VC

Given: IC = VC = ICXC

= = (0.137∠ 44.4˚) x (127.324 ∠ -90 ̊)

= 0.137 ∠ 44.4 ̊ ∠ 45.6˚˚


= 17.44∠

Graph 4: Experiment 3 Scalled Phasor diargram using AutoCAD

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7.4 Experiment 4

Figure 4: Complete Circuit

• Theoretical Results

Impedance at parralel connection

3 4

3 5 4

6)789 5:4 ;<6:3 5=>?@ 578 ;



)789 5:4 5:3 5=>?@ 5789

 217.4 1 A 20.08˚

ZTotal = ZT + Rsensor = 217.4∠-20.08° + 10 Ω


= 204.185 – 74.64j + 10Ω
= 214.185 – 74.64j
= 226.82∠-19.213°Ω ( lagging)

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FG
DE 
HE
2510°

226.821 A 19.213
 0.110119.213°

 15.132∠48.893˚

VL = IL XL

= 0.0602∠-61.31 ˚ (345.575∠ 90°)

= 20.804 ∠28.69 ˚

VC = IC XC

= 0.1164∠49.893 ˚ (159.155∠ -90°)

= 18.526 ∠-40.11 ˚

VR1 = ILR1

= 0.0602∠-61.31 ˚ x 130 ∠ 0°

= 7.826 ∠ -61.31°

VR2 = ICR2

= 0.1164∠49.893 ˚ x 130 ∠ 0°

= 15.132 ∠ 49.893°

Vrint = IL rint

= 0.0602∠-61.31˚ x 66 ∠ 0°

= 3.9732 ∠ -61.31°

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VLtotal = IL ZLtotal

= 0.0602∠-61.31˚ x ( R1 + rint + jXL )

= 0.0602∠-61.31˚ x ( 130 + 66 + j345.575 )

= 0.0602∠-61.31˚ x 397.288∠60.44°

= 23.92 ∠ -0.87˚

VCtotal = IC ZCtotal

= 0.1164∠49.893 ˚ x (-jXC + R2 )

= 0.1164∠49.893 ˚ x (-j159.155 + 130 )

= 0.1164∠49.893 ˚ x 205.5∠-50.76°

= 23.92 ∠ -0.867˚

VTotal = ITotal ZTotal

= 0.110∠19.213˚ x 226.82∠-19.213°

= 24.95∠ 0

Graph 5: Experiment 4 Scale Phasor Diagram using AutoCAD

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8.0 Discussion

In the experiment, the power supplied is a 230 V with a frequency of 50 Hz. With the
information given, to complete a complete 360˚ cycle will take 20ms. During the experiment
session, the grahpical results show on the oscilloscope is a sinus graph which is different
what is suppost to show. The experimental data between the theoretical data is overall
different. The main reason cannot be confirmed, however we can only make an assumption
that this maybe have to do with technical error of the component as most component can’t
reach 100% efficiency as well as human error. An example, transformer has a small internal
resistance which causes the power supply not in its optimum state.

Regarding experiment 2, referring to table 2, its releaved that the experimental voltage across
the channel different between the theoretical results. This is because, the power supply in not
really providing power at an optimum level. When we refer back to the data, it’s show that
the power their provide is more than what suppost we accquire. This is not possible as it
might be dangerous to components inside the lab, as such it might cause harm to the user.
The same goes to the total current during experiment 2, showing a higher current than the
theoretical value.For experiment 3 and 4, we could conlude that the value of the experimental
data is higher compare to the theoretical data as the I mention before that the power suppy is
not optimum.

Moreover, another possible error cause the reading to be distintive is the instrumental error or
the equipment error. It may have contribute a large variation of error as we refer back to the
table 2. The efficiency of equipment might be more accurate as technology is getting more
advance, but as the any thing in this world it will also depreciate depending how long it
durablilty. For example is wire, it’s been use so many years in the lab without knowing the
defect suffered by the components internally and externally such as galvanic corrosion.

Another aspect of the experiment we take into account is the phase shift or phase different
angle. As we again refer to table 2, the value differ between the experimental and theoretical
as mention earlier. There not much that can be derieved from limited data given. However, it
can be cause by stray capacitance effects. Stray capacitance can allow leakage of signals
between isolated circuit or also known as undesirable capacitance between circuit wires,
between wires and the chassis, or between components and the chassis of electronic
equipment(Answer,2009). This can be refer to the transformer, it’s basically made up of coil
wound around its core and this gives it a nature similarly to inductor. All these effect may
have accumulated impact on the circuit tested and account for the large variations of the
phase angles measured.

Referring back to experiment 4, the capacitor parallel to the load, this causes the power factor
or phase angle to become smaller. The fewer angle in the circuit creates less lagging or
leading between powers.

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9.0 Conclusion

To wrap up, the experiment data was checked by the theoretical value acquired in the
calculation part. The data compromises of the magnitude of voltage, current and phase angles
with the given explanation given during the discussion part. In the end, a capacitor will cause
a leading phase angle in a circuit, while an inductor will cause lagging phase angle. A
capacitor in a parallel to the inductor and load will cause a reduce phase angle or also known
as power factor correction.

10.0 Reference List

• Answer.com, 2009. Stray Capacitance. Retrieved August 16, 2009 from,

http://www.answers.com/topic/stray-capacitance-electronics

• Wikipedia, 2009. Power Factor. Retrieved August 16, 2009 from,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_factor#cite_note-0

• Allaboutcircuit, 2009. Phase Shift. Retrieved August 16, 2009 from,

http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_6/chpt_4/10.html

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