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Chapter I

Introduction

Philippine revolution is believed to be following Marxist

ideology together with Leninist-Maoist ideology. These

ideologies are said to be the guiding principle in the conduct

of revolution.

Women’s liberation movement, in particular and as part of

the whole revolution in the Philippines, uses this ideology. It

is said in Marxism that women’s liberation is only achieved in

the liberation of the whole masses.

As part of the protest movement nationwide, culture became

an indispensable propaganda used against the ruling regime.

Street plays, guerilla theatres, and protest music flood the

streets as part of propagating the sentiments of the people then

and now.

As part of the marginalized sectors asserting for

liberation and democratic rights, women also exercised their

talents in pouring out their situations and their aims through

artistic means such as songs.

Nevertheless, it is extremely important for the women’s

liberation movement to grasp the line that political authority

is the backbone of all the other systems of authority. By

overturning that authority, we begin to overturn all the other


systems. Political struggle, participating vigorously in the

national democratic revolution now, is therefore the key link to

the great cause of women’s liberation. (J.M.Sison,1967)

Statement of Intent

This study would like to determine Marxism in the women’s

emancipation movement in the Philippines. Particularly, this

study would like to see the elements of Marxist ideology.

Specifically, it aims to find the elements of Marxism such as

historical materialism, class struggle, and the current

situation and struggle of the women in the Philippines in the

selected women revolutionary songs.

Statement of assumptions

a. The women’s liberation movement in the Philippines uses

Marxist Analysis in with women’s issues, concerns and in

waging their struggle;

b. The elements of Marxism the historical materialism is used

as a methodology by women’s liberation movement in

analyzing the cause of women’s struggle in the Philippines

society;

c. Class struggle is one of the applications of Marxist

analysis in the women’s liberation movement. This can be


reflected in their propaganda materials, specifically, in

the selected songs analyzed in this study.

Theoretical Base

Dialectical Materialism is the Philosophical foundation of

Marxism. It is seen as the complement of Historical Materialism.

It is characterized by the belief that history is the product of

Class Struggle. (http://en.wikipedia .org)

Hence, historical Materialism is the methodological

approach to the study of society, economics and history. It

looks for the causes of development and changes in human

societies in the way that humans collectively make mean to live,

thus giving an emphasis, through economic analysis, to

everything that co-exists with the economic base of society.

(ibid)

Moreover, as capitalism give rise to economic inequality,

dependence, political confusion and ultimately unhealthy social

relations between men and women, is the root of women

oppression. Women oppression is class oppression and women’s

subordination is seen as a form of class oppression. (ibid)

Nevertheless, class struggle is the active expression of

class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective.

Women oppression is hinged on class analysis. This recognizes

the historical exploitation of women as a sector within a social


class and as a gender that needs to transform an unjust social

system along with the task to liberate women in all aspects,

which are the indispensable role of women to achieve

revolutionary victory. (ibid)

Half of the Philippine population and half of the

revolutionary class is composed of women. Women, for a very long

time, have been prevented to fully realize and maximize their

potentials, capabilities and skills and to exercise their

necessary functions in the society. (Cagamay, 1995)

These triggered women, spearheaded by the students’ sector,

to participate in the ever-widening mass movement from the

schools to other sectors in the urban areas starting from Luzon

and creeping nationwide. (National Committee on Education 1996)

As part of the protest movement nationwide, culture became

an indispensable propaganda used against the ruling regime.

Street plays, guerilla theatres, and protest music flood the

streets as part of propagating the sentiments of the people then

and now.

However, it is extremely important for the women’s

liberation movement to grasp the line that political authority

is the backbone of all the other systems of authority. By

overturning that authority, we begin to overturn all the other

systems. Political struggle, participating vigorously in the


national democratic revolution now, is therefore the key link to

the great cause of women’s liberation. (J.M.Sison, 1967)

As part of the marginalized sectors asserting for

liberation and democratic rights, women also exercised their

talents in pouring out their situations and their aims through

artistic means such as songs.

Songs are sometimes used, through admonition, ridicule, and

in some cases even more direct action, to effect actual change

in the behaviour of erring members of society. Song texts, then,

can be used as a means of action directed toward the solution of

problems which plague a community. (Montanez, 1988)

Songs lead as well as follow, and political and social

movements, often expressed through sing because of the license

it gives, shape and force the molding of public opinion.

Limitations of the Study

The primary limitation of this study is the limited source

of material to be use. The songs are considered mainstream.

Hence, the availability of the songs and lyrics are limited.

There are no available lyrics of the song. Because of such

limitation, the researcher tried to transcribe the text or

lyrics by listening to the songs. Another limitation of this

study is the direct oral communication with the singers of the

artist themselves.
Nevertheless, this study is on the content analysis of

selected songs of women liberation movement in the Philippines

as propaganda materials of the women’s liberation movement in

the Philippines. It covers the selected most relevant songs in

line with the purpose to determine the dynamics of such

movement. As to the purpose understanding the current situation

of women and the purpose of a women’s liberation movement and

its ideals, and as to find out if they live-up to the principles

of Marxism, the researcher may also tackle this in the paper

briefly. (http://en.wikipedia .org)

Definition of terms

Historical Materialism – Historical Materialism is a Marxist

methodological approach to the study of society, economics and

history. It looks for the causes of developments and changes in

human societies. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_of_production

Mode of Production - In the writings of Karl Marx and the

Marxist theory of historical materialism, a mode of production

(in German: Produktionsweise, meaning 'the way of producing') is

a specific combination of: productive forces: these include

human labour power and the means of production (eg. tools,

equipment, buildings and technologies, materials, and improved

land) and desire. social and technical relations of production:


these include the property, power and control relations

governing society's productive assets, often codified in

law,cooperative work relations and forms of association,

relations between people and the objects of their work, and the

relations between social classes.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_of_production

Class Struggle – Class Struggle is an active expression of class

conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. Marx

described it as economic class struggle which is defined by

one’s relation to production.

http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/class_struggle

Content Analysis – Content Analysis is a standard methodology in

the social sciences for studying the content of communication;

the study of recorded human communications.

Women’s Liberation Movement – is a struggle for women’s equal

rights and status with men.

Imagery - Poetry communicates experience and experience comes to

us largely through the senses (seeing, hearing, smelling,

feeling, and touching). Imagery may be defined as the

representation through language of sense experience.


Reuben, Paul P. "PAL: Appendix F: Elements of Poetry." PAL:

Perspectives in American Literature- A Research and Reference

Guide.

Figure of Speech - A Figure of Speech is where a word or words

are used to create an effect, often where they do not have their

original or literal meaning

http://www.usingenglish.com/glossary/figure-of-speech.html

Propaganda – Propaganda [from modern Latin: 'Propaganda Fide',

literally “propagating the faith”] is a concerted set of

messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of large

numbers of people.

Political authority – Political authority (imperium in Latin) is

a type of power held by a person or group in a society.

Officially, political power is held by the holders of

sovereignty; the ability to influence the behavior of others

with or without resistance.

Ideals – Ideals are the principles or values that one actively

pursues as goals.
Significance of the Study

The songs of liberation movement of women in the

Philippines are said to be following Marxist ideology without a

clear as written or thesis basis. The movement itself is not yet

academically proclaimed to be a Marxist influence.

Hence, this study aims to provide the clear definition of

the content of the song of the women’s liberation movement in

the Philippines. This aims to provide the listeners of the songs

of this movement as to what sis the fundamental basis of the

song and its influence. As well as, to provide the academe the

picture of the identity of the songs and the artist as to what

its (song and the movement) underlying principles.

Songs can mirror the type of culture a society has. Study

of songs as propaganda materials is indispensable to the study

of the dynamism of the whole of the women’s liberation movement.

Therefore, to know the nature, ideals and the goals of the

movement, analysis of their songs is very important.

And particularly, to find out if these songs as and the

mirror of revolution and as propaganda material lives up to the

ideals and conducts of Marxism.


Chapter II

Review of Related Literature

It is said that Philippine Revolutionary Movement follows

the principles of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. Their actions and

goals are inline with the principle of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism.

Thus, it is very important to know if they live-up to these

principles as to their propaganda as to their songs.

It is extremely important for the women’s liberation

movement to grasp the line that political authority is the

backbone of all the other systems of authority. By overturning

that authority, we begin to overturn all the other systems.

Political struggle, participating vigorously in the national

democratic revolution now, is therefore the key link to the

great cause of women’s liberation. (J.M.Sison, 1967)

A. Historical Materialism

Dialectical materialism is essentially characterized by the

belief that history is the product of class struggle and obeys

the general Hegelian principle of philosophy of history, which

is the development of the thesis into its anti-thesis which is

sublated by the synthesis, which conserves the thesis and the

anti-thesis while at the same time abolishing it.


Historical materialism is the application of the principle

of the dialectical materialism in analyzing societies. Only

historical immaterialism is the exact and scientific guidelines

in studying societies. Its principles are the guidelines in

analyzing history, present and the future of Philippine society.

From experience human creates idea and uses this idea into

practice. When practice achieved its preempted results, it only

proves that the idea is right and will continue to use to

improve such idea. And if the desired result is not achieved, it

only shows that the whole of the idea or its part is wrong. This

idea then must be revised or changed so that it will fit

practice. It this process we can create exact idea from social

practice.

Thus, it looks for the causes of development and changes in

human societies in the way that humans collectively make mean to

live, thus giving an emphasis, through economic analysis, to

everything that co-exists with the economic base of society.

B. Current Women Issues and Concerns

Half of the Philippine population and half of the

revolutionary class are composed of women. Women, for a very

long time, have been prevented to fully realize and maximize

their potentials, capabilities and skills and to exercise their

necessary functions in the society.


Women are a great force in Philippine society. They compose

the more or less half of the 65 million Filipino. Women in the

Philippine society come from different classes. But the majority

of them are oppressed. 90% of women are workers and peasants.

This oppressed situation of workers and peasant women are caused

by imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat capitalism in the

country.

C. Women Emancipation

Marxist feminism is a subtype of feminist theory which

focuses on dismantling capitalism as a way to liberate women.

Capitalism gives rise to the inequality, dependence, political

confusion and ultimately unhealthy social relations between men

and women.

The Filipino women guarded in her heart the subversive memory

of equality before the Spaniards came. Women broke though the

mold to exert their influence in the society.

The gravity of woman question has mobilized women not only to

look for immediate relief to their current problems but to

search for a fundamental solution to this problem in all its

dimensions-ideological, systematic, structural and global.

Since the woman question is a social question, the solution

cannot be individual but social emancipation involving the


majority of Filipino women. This can only be possible with

organization.

Women believe that the freedom women seek will be brought

about by the resolutions of the problems of foreign dominations,

landless, and political repression, and in changing the

patriarchal value systems and structures of Philippine society.

D. Class Struggle

Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict

looked at from any kind of socialist perspective.

In capitalist society the individual; is shape by class

relations; that is peoples capacities, needs and interests are

seemed to be determined by the mode of production that

characterized the society that they inhabit. Marxist feminist

see gender inequality as determined ultimately by capitalist

mode of production. Gender oppression is class oppression and

women subordination is seen as a form of class oppression which

is maintained because it serves the interest of capital and the

ruling class.

The bourgeois clap-trap about the family and education,

about the hallowed co-relation of parents and child, becomes all

the more disgusting, the more, by the action of Modern Industry,

all the family ties among the proletarians are torn asunder, and

their children transformed into simple articles of commerce and

instruments of labour.
But you Communists would introduce community of women,

screams the bourgeoisie in chorus.

The bourgeois sees his wife a mere instrument of

production. He hears that the instruments of production are to

be exploited in common, and, naturally, can come to no other

conclusion that the lot of being common to all will likewise

fall to the women.

He has not even a suspicion that the real point aimed at is

to do away with the status of women as mere instruments of

production.

For the rest, nothing is more ridiculous than the virtuous

indignation of our bourgeois at the community of women which,

they pretend, is to be openly and officially established by the

Communists. The Communists have no need to introduce community

of women; it has existed almost from time immemorial.

Our bourgeois, not content with having wives and daughters

of their proletarians at their disposal, not to speak of common

prostitutes, take the greatest pleasure in seducing each other’s

wives.

Bourgeois marriage is, in reality, a system of wives in

common and thus, at the most, what the Communists might possibly

be reproached with is that they desire to introduce, in

substitution for a hypocritically concealed, an openly legalised

community of women. For the rest, it is self-evident that the


abolition of the present system of production must bring with it

the abolition of the community of women springing from that

system, i.e., of prostitution both public and private.

The Communists are further reproached with desiring to

abolish countries and nationality.

The working men have no country. We cannot take from them

what they have not got. Since the proletariat must first of all

acquire political supremacy, must rise to be the leading class

of the nation, must constitute itself the nation, it is so far,

itself national, though not in the bourgeois sense of the word.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-

manifesto/ch02.htm

The movement’s definition of gender oppression, it has been

pointed out, is still hinged on, class analysis that ignores the

commonalities of discrimination that women suffer across class,

race and tradition.

E. Movement

The period of the ‘60s was the time of social and political

upheaval. The worsening conditions of poverty and economic

injustice, and after the declaration of Martial Law in 1972, of

political repression, awakened an unprecedented social awareness

and social involvement. The First Quarter Storm gave a rich

harvest of political activists. It was during this period that


the women’s organizations with feminist perspective began to

appear. The first one was Malayang Kilusan ng Makabagong

Kababaihan (MAKIBAKA) which was founded in 1970 but had to go

underground when Martial Law was declared. There was a lull for

some years and it was not until the late ‘70s and early ‘80s

that feminist groups were formed—Kilusan ng Kababaihang Pilipino

(PILIPINA), Center for Women’s Resources (CWR), Katipunan ng

Bagong Pilipina (KABAPA), Samahan ng Makabagong Kababaihang

Nagkakaisa (SAMAKANA), etc. After the assassination of Ninoy

Aquino, more groups came up such as (Women’s Alliance for True

Change (WATCH) and Women for the Ouster of Marcos and Boycott

(WOMB). In 1984, the Concerned Women of the Philippines (CWP)

called for a consultation of the existing women’s groups to work

out a common orientation of a Third World Women’s movement. In

this consultation, a federation of women’s organizations called

General Assembly Binding Women for Reforms, Integrity, Equality,

Liberty and Action (GABRIELA) was formed.

The framework in which GABRIELA has founded its brand of

feminism is in the assertion that the oppression of women is

rooted both in the inequality and discrimination based on sex,

and in the poverty and injustices of the political and socio-

economic structures based on race and class. Thus the strategic

goal of the women’s movement in the Philippines is to transform

the structures breeding the condition of inequality between men


and women, between classes and between nations. This means

making the women’s movement an integral and vital component of

the Filipino people’s struggle for national sovereignty and

people’s democracy. Consequently, the struggle of the women

against patriarchy is waged simultaneously with the struggle for

national liberation (Corpuz: 1987).

F. Art and Literature and its Relation to Culture

In the world today all culture, all literature and art

belong to definite classes and are geared to definite political

lines. There is in fact no such thing as art for art's sake, art

that stands above classes, art that is detached from or

independent of politics. Proletarian literature and art are part

of the whole proletarian revolutionary cause; they are, as Lenin

said, cogs and wheels in the whole revolutionary machine (Tse-

tung:1967).

Revolutionary culture is a powerful revolutionary weapon

for the broad masses of the people. It prepares the ground

ideologically before the revolution comes and is an important,

indeed essential, fighting front in the general revolutionary

front during the revolution (ibid.).

Beliefs, consciousness are shaped by our experiences,

environment and the culture of the society where we grew up.

Culture, on the other hand, is the product of the past, of the


combination of experiences of the many. It is shaped by history,

of the systems like the government and methods of production,

and structure (like laws and education) – which usually is

determined by the ruling class in the society (Arriola: 1989).

The new mass art and literature in the Philippines today

are part and parcel of the national democratic revolution being

waged by the Filipino people against US imperialism, feudalism

and bureaucrat capitalism. They primarily serve the interests of

the basic masses of workers and peasants, Red fighters and lower

petty bourgeoisie, as well as their allies in the struggle for

national liberation and democracy. (Montaňez: 1988).

The art and literature of national democracy, like other

components of revolutionary culture, are necessarily national,

scientific and mass in character (ibid).

In order that these art and literature may truly reflect

the needs and aspirations of the masses, progressive and

revolutionary artists and writers participate in mass struggles

and integrate with workers and peasants to be able to know them

well. “From the masses, to the masses” is the fundamental

principle which guides the artists and writers in carrying out

their tasks: draw from the rich, lively and concrete experiences

of the masses the raw materials of art, forge these into fine

creative works, bring these works back to the masses, and

through the process of mass criticism, create more and finer


works to better serve the masses. Slowly, new artists and

writers are emerging from the ranks of workers, peasants and Red

fighters themselves.

G. Songs as Propaganda Materials

Of the artistic and literary forms being developed in the

countryside, the song is readily the most popular. This

popularity is due to a number of factors. First, the

revolutionary song succinctly expresses, in the emotive language

of the art, the ideas, experiences, sentiments and aspirations

which are directly linked to the tasks and struggles of the

masses. It employs the language of the masses (Pilipino and the

regional languages) and familiar song forms which are part of

the people’s traditional culture or are a usual fare in the mass

media which reach the countryside, mainly radio. Second, the

difficulty in producing and making available printed materials

and the generally low literacy level make the song form the most

accessible method of disseminating revolutionary ideas,

policies, calls, etc. to the masses. And the third factor is the

conscious effort of cadres, Red fighters and mass activists in

creating and disseminating songs—including those produced in

neighboring districts or other regions—within their areas of

operation.
One of the most obvious sources for the understanding of

human behavior in connection with music is the song text. Texts,

of course, are language behavior rather than music sound, but

they are an integral part of music and there is clear-cut

evidence that the language used in connection with music differs

from that of ordinary discourse (Merriam:1964)

We say, then, that not only are music and language

interrelated in the formation of song texts, but also that the

language of texts tends to take special forms. Therefore we

should expect that the language of texts would have special

significance and would function in special ways, and this seems

to be the case (ibid).

One of the most striking examples is shown by the fact that

in song the individual or the group can apparently express deep-

seated feelings not permissibly verbalized in other contexts.

Song itself gives the freedom to express thoughts, ideas, and

comments which cannot be stated baldly in normal language

situation (ibid).

Women struggle is reflected in their songs, which are used

for propaganda. Their struggle is also patterned in the

principles of Marxism. Thus, it is expected that their

propaganda materials such as songs reflects the principles of

Marxism.
Chapter III

Methodology

Method

This study falls under qualitative research, having

preferences for an in-depth understanding of social behavior and

the principles that govern social behavior. It relies on the

principles behind various aspects of social behavior. Hence, the

study has a need for a smaller and focused medium and data such

as texts, which categorizes into patterns, as the primary basis

for organizing and reporting results.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/qualitative_research\)

Specifically, the methodology employed in the study is

qualitative content-textual analysis. Content-textual analysis

is a research method which deals exclusively with text. It is a

technique on making inferences by objectively and systematically

identifying specified characteristics of messages such as books,

websites, and other recorded human communications.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/content_analysis\)

The study will analyze selected women’s revolutionary songs

that depict women’s liberation movement, aiming to find Marxist

elements in the contents.


Material

Songs of the women’s liberation movement will be used in

this study. Specifically, the song Babaeng Walang Kibo from Alab

ng Digma 1 (1991) and Babae from Sining Lila will be analyzed to

find Marxist element in them.

Data Analysis

1. Identification of Context Units

The identified context units are historical materialism,

class struggle and the women’s liberation movement in relation

to the women’s current issues and situation in the

Philippines.

2. Identification of Units of Analysis

Marxism is a principle; and principle has its elements.

These elements are used in an analysis and it becomes units of

analysis.

a. Historical Materialism

i. Mode of production

ii. Classes and class struggle

iii. Historical development of the society

b. Women’s Liberation Movement

i. Current women’s issues and situations


ii. Women’s revolutionary struggle for emancipation

3. Use of Matrix for Context and Analysis Units

Matrices were prepared (Appendix I – III) and then the

elements of units of analysis under each classification of

context units of Marxism as to the elements of songs (Babae

and Babaeng Walang Kibo).data from the songs/texts were

examined and indicated in the corresponding matrix cells.

4. Construction of Value Categories

The data in the matrices were analyzed, identified

commonalities, parallelism, and recurring ideas or themes.

Such commonalities, parallelism, and themes were synthesized

into value categories.


Chapter IV
Historical Materialism

Producing Product

Women do not only create product but they are the product
thereselves. They aren’t the tenants and farmers in the
countryside or the workers in factories and intellectuals from
the urban who create only create goods. They don’t only selling
the products they make but also, even their intellects are for
sale. The sale’s lady herself is for sale. She herself is a
product.
In song number seven, women are the dominant population in
the country and most of them are working as intellectuals,
farmers and workers.

“nakararaming kababaihan,
nabibilang sa mga nilikha;
may intelektwal,
magsasaka’t manggagawa.”
Song #7

However, these opportunities of women are not limited.


They’re not limited as the society provides more than these for
women; and more than these, women their selves are for sale.
Song number nine proves that production of goods is the not
the end for the works of women. Their work extends beyond what
are given above and surpasses beyond the production of goods.

“kaisipa’y binibinta,
katawa’y sinasanla,
kaluluwa’y priniprenda.”
Song # 9
Moreover, as she (women) becomes a product herself,
prostitution became an alternative for a source of income. She
became an object of desire.
The following are the emphasis of the idea:

“kayo ba ang mga Nena


na hanapbuhay ay pagpuputa?”
Song # 1

“hindi na mahuhubaran
ang babae sa pahayagan.”
Song # 2

”ika’y hindi pangkusina,


hindi pangkama,
ika’y ‘di bagay
tingnan sa pagnanasa.”
Song # 3

On this sphere, Marxism states that:

“the whole 'secret' of why/how a social order exists


and the causes of social change must be discovered
in the specific mode of production that a society has.”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_of_production

The above quotation provides the idea that the social


identity of women has its origin in the mode of production that
a ruling system has. How do we see women at the present are a
shadow of the mode of production in the Philippine society. And
the mode of production the Philippines has provides the identity
of women in the Philippine society.
Moreover, Marxism provides that the development of any
society have also its reasons and origin in the development of
the origin of production. Let us consider the following
quotations:

’The feudal mode of production. The primary form of


property is the possession of land in reciprocal contract
relations: the possession of human beings as peasants or
serfs is dependent upon their being entailed upon the land.
Exploitation occurs through reciprocated contract (though
ultimately resting on the threat of forced extractions).
The ruling class is usually a nobility or aristocracy. The
primary forces of production include highly complex
agriculture with the addition of non-human and non-animal
power devices (clockwork, wind-mills) and the
intensification of specialization in the crafts--craftsmen
exclusively producing one specialized class of product.”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_of_production

In the above mode of production, women only sell their


labor power for the aristocrats or nobilities in exchange for a
living. Notice that only labor has value. Only labor power has
the value of goods. Aside from labor power, the laborer is not
subject to value.
Proletariat and the Struggle for Emancipation

The oppressed of women struggles for emancipation. Under


the patriarchal society, women becomes traditional and
conservative, that is, backward, timid, weak and meek; they are
forced by the condition to be dependent to men.
As oppression continue to prosper within the mentioned
above society and class system, the oppress class of women
achieve a revolutionary consciousness to struggle for their
right.
“sino ang tutugon
sa abang kalagayan
kung hindi tayo
lilikha ng kasaysayan .“
Song # 9

As oasis of human race, though came across classes, women


struggle for emancipation. This struggle is seen in the face of
their movement against imperialism. Through the process of
revolution and finally, there after, embrace a kind system that
will emancipate them.

“ang bagong Gabriela,


ang bagong Lorena,
ang bagong Pilipina”
Song # 6
Historically Developed Oppression

Women’s oppression and struggle are part of the Philippine


historical development. Their oppression worsens as society
develops. Thus, their revolutionary struggle has its historical
development.

“Mula ng isilang ka Maria,


dinanas mo na
ang mga pang-aaping
‘di mo makaya.”
Song # 3

Noticeably, revolutionary consciousness is the shadow of


oppression as society develops.

“Paano nahubog inyong isipan?”


“kaapiha’y bakit iluluha?”
“…Maria Clara, mga Hule
at mga Sesa….Cindirella…
Nena. Gabriela…mga Teresa
At Tandang Sora.”
“mga babae, ang mithiin ay lumaya.”
Song # 1
Women’s Liberation Movement

Current Oppression

Women, as a class, are one of the neglected sectors in


Philippine society. They are one of the victims of exploitation,
suppression and repression. The mode of production tells us that
the social identity and status of every individual or class in
any given society is characterized by the mode of production.
The following will tell us what identity or social status
women have in our society:

“kaisipa’y binibinta,
Katawa’y sinasanla,
Kaluluwa’y piniprenda.”
Song # 9

This situation is proven by the fact that women are enslave by


patriarchal society.

“kayo ba ang mga Cindirella


ang lalaki ang tanging pag-asa?”
Song # 1

Women became dependent to men as to their survival in man


ruled society. Their survival on how they are expected and force
to live to the desire of the patriarchal society, no matter what
kind of expectation are they. Proofs are the following:

“…pangkusina….pangkama,
bagay tingnan sa pagnanasa,
…laruan.”
Song # 3

“…mahuhubaran ang babae


sa pahayagan.
…matatali sa tahanan
nating munti.” Song # 2

“ …babaeng dukha’t dinarahas.”


Song # 8
These issues and situation enhance women’s revolutionary
consciousness. The more the pain they receive, the more they cry
for emancipation.

Revolutionary Emancipation

Women view revolutionary struggle as the only way to


liberate them from exploitation, slavery, poverty and
repression. Nevertheless, they accept the fact that legal
struggle is an indespensable component of the whole struggle.
Hence, the struggle starts from changing of backward
consciousness. Women must shun with the patriarchal idea that
they are cursed to be not equal with men. Moreover, this
struggle for revolutionary consciousness is only achieved by
joining the mass movement and by building the organization of
nationalist women from different classes.

The following stanzas will prove the idea above:

“sulong kababaihan!
Sulong at lumaban!
Buoin natin ang samahan
Ng malayang kababaihan.”

“lumahopk sa produksyon
At pangmasang kilusan…”

“iwaksi ang hakahakang


Kababaiha’y mahina.
Meron tayong isip at lakas
Tulad ng ating kapwa.”
Song # 7

Moreover, women’s revolutionary movement believes that the


attainment of emancipation is only through and under the red
flag; that is, only through revolution.

The following stanza will qualify the above statement:

“kababaihan gumising ka!


Lumaban at magkaisa…
Humarap sa unos ng pakikibaka.
Itaguyod ang himagsikan
sa ilalim ng bandilang pula…”
Song #
Chapter V

Conclusion

No one can talk of revolution and leave the women


behind. The national liberation struggle cannot be won
without the participation of the female half of the
population. Thus, every revolutionary credo includes women.
This is a belief that comes from the realization that
women, especially from the basic exploited classes, bear
the brunt of the worst exploitation and oppression from a
rulling system.
In the countryside, peasant women along with their
families are being dislocated in larger number as they lose
their lands. In the cities, women workers lose their
permanent jobs as sub-contract labor and labor-only
contract has become the norm under the auspices of monopoly
capitalist globalization.
On the top of this, women are also at the receiving end
of the worst physical, sexual, mental and emotional abuse,
with no redress under the rulling system.
The oppressed condition of women is the basis of their
organization. Our nation’s history has consistently
witnessed women taking arms – the struggle against the
Spanish and American colonial rule, against the Japanesse
facist invaders and against landlord oppression and
exploitation. In these struggles women have fought side by
side with men, and in many instances, outstanding women
have fought as leaders of the struggle.
This revolutioanry heritage has been translated
exponentially in the current struggle for national and
social liberation, of which the women’s struggle for
emancipation is a part.
In general, this study aimed to detemine the role of
Marxism as an ideology in women’s struggle for
emancipation. Particularly, this study focused on finding
Marxist elements ten (10) chosen songs from Sining LiLa.
As shown in the matrices, it has been proven by this
study that women’s liberation movement in the Philippines
is deeply anchored in Marxist ideology. Maxism and its key
elements were detemined to be present in the women’s
revolutionary songs.
As shown in the matrices, all the songs have most of
Marxist elements present which only means that the women’s
liberation movement in the Philippines follows the Marxist
ideology. Evidently, this movement is a tangible expression
of such ideology.
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