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In this theoretical paper hypothetical situations
and instruments were used to form, analyse and derieve an
expression with the objective of filling loopholes in
einstein’s theory of time dilation [1,2,3,4,10,12].
Time dilation as presented by albert einstein in 1905
is one of the most experimented and reviewed topic. time
dilation states that time slows down in a moving object
which is given by.
ᵟ?’ =
ᵟ?
√1 −
?
2
?
2
Where: ᵟt’=dilated time elapsed v = speed of moving
object
ᵟt = actual time elapsed c = speed of light in
vacuum
The explanation and expression of time dilation
works only when vacuum is the medium of object
propagation. but, when a medium other than vacuum is
present, then this equation falls short of an important
factor that is, optical density[8,9]
.
My research paper here, presents an expression to
measure time dilation considering this missing factor.
light beam clocks[5,6,7] and the concept of closed and
bounded systems have been used as a link connecting
optical density to the original theory of time dilation. the
new derivation has a potential to reduce errors in
measurements in calculations which use the formula for
time dilation.

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ISSN No:-2456-2165

Ansh Sarkar

Abstract:- In this theoretical paper hypothetical situations Hence we need to consider the optical permittivity or the

and instruments were used to form, analyse and derieve an refractive index of the material or medium through which light

expression with the objective of filling loopholes in is propagating. the medium which we are considering in this

einstein’s theory of time dilation [1,2,3,4,10,12]. paper is thus only a possibility just like the light beam clocks

used by albert einstein.

Time dilation as presented by albert einstein in 1905

is one of the most experimented and reviewed topic. time II. METHOD

dilation states that time slows down in a moving object

which is given by. A hypothetical instrument : the light beam clock

let there be two mirrors m1 and m2 such that their

ᵟ𝒕 reflecting surfaces face each other. they are at separation of ‘l’

ᵟ𝒕’ = by means of a rod which has been omitted for the purpose of

2

√1 − 𝑣2 clarity (fig.3). let there be a pulse of light that moves to and

𝑐 fro after successive reflections.such a set up is known as a

light beam clock using which albert einstein proved his theory

Where: ᵟt’=dilated time elapsed v = speed of moving of time dilation.even we will be using the same to derieve a

object new expression.

ᵟt = actual time elapsed c = speed of light in

vacuum Equation for calculating speed of light in our

hypothetical medium.

The explanation and expression of time dilation

works only when vacuum is the medium of object let there be a slab made up of a substance which is

propagation. but, when a medium other than vacuum is optically transparent such that considerable amounts of light

present, then this equation falls short of an important passes through it.let it’s physical density[15,16] be ‘pd’ and it’s

factor that is, optical density[8,9]. optical density be ‘od’.this slab acts as a container to a

hypothetical medium with high refractive index.

My research paper here, presents an expression to

measure time dilation considering this missing factor. We know that the optical density denoted by a numerical

value known as the refractive index (r.i.) of the substance is

light beam clocks[5,6,7] and the concept of closed and given by.

bounded systems have been used as a link connecting

𝑐

optical density to the original theory of time dilation. the (r.i.) of substance =

𝑣

new derivation has a potential to reduce errors in

measurements in calculations which use the formula for c = speed of light[17] in vacuum ; v = speed of light in

time dilation. medium

I. INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND 𝑐

hence, we get : v = (𝑅.𝐼)𝑂𝐹

𝑆𝑈𝐵𝑆𝑇𝐴𝑁𝐶𝐸

In 1905 the great physicist albert eintstein[10] published 𝑐 𝑪

his theory of general relativity[11,13,14,18] followed by his theory therefore, velocity of light in medium (s m) = SM =. .𝑶.

𝑂𝐷 𝑫

of time dilation which changed our perception of time and .. .….(i)

matter. the theory of relativity particularly time dilation has by

far been proved by many experiments but with errors. Derieving the velocity of light in our hypothetical medium :

let us now consider a tank (or in other words , a system

The formula given by albert einstein is valid only when enclosed by a transparent medium with low r.i.). the tank is

the medium considered has very low resistance to the flow of fully air tight and impervious external physical agents. the

light i.e preferably vacuum. we know that absolute vacuum is surrounding temperature and pressure are kept at a sturdy non-

not possible. however empty a given system is, virtual fluctuating level .

particles and charges always appear and disappear even in a

closed system ! hence the vacuum or the ideal medium that light is free to enter and leave the system because of the

einstein reffered to must be containing particles and depending transparent medium binding the liquid in the confined space.

on the size and nature of these particles, the speed and path of

light will be affected.

IJISRT18JL106 www.ijisrt.com 58

Volume 3, Issue 7, July – 2018 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456-2165

let the refractive index of this liquid medium be ‘α’ and IV. DERIEVING THE NEW FORMULA

it’s physical density be ‘ᵦ’

Time dilation – optical density relation.

The correction mark is the meeting place of the two case 1:

media where the refraction of light takes place.

when light beam clock is at rest .

III. CONSIDER

Clearly, the light pulse travels a distance of ‘2l’.

A ray of light cd enters the setup , crosses the correction

𝟐𝑳 𝟐𝑳

mark and continues on a straight path . it bends and again and therefore, time taken = ᵟt = =

𝒗 𝒄′

then exits the setup.

or, 2Lα . . . .(iii)

Correction line ᵟt =

c

A B

µ=α

D C

D

Note: The medium surrounding the light beam clock (the

yellow background represents out hypothetical medium) is the

reason why light in this case has slowed down.

Case 2:

Now we shall be confining our focus on the Clearly in the second case when the light beam clock is in

velocity of light within the bounded medium motion we can see that.

‘abcd’.

2

Distance travelled = 𝑣ᵟ𝑡’

ᵟ𝑡’ = 2√𝐿2 + ( )

Now for the velocity of light in the medium : firstly from 2

eq.(i) which we derieved earlier, we can clearly see that the

speed of light in this given medium of refractive index = α will

not be equal to ‘c’. hence we introduce c’ as the speed of light

in the hypothetical medium which is given by :-

𝒄

sm = ……. (from eq.(i))

𝑶𝑫

𝑐

c’ = . . . . (ii)

𝛂

considerably large values of α. hence the speed of light in this

medium is slower than the actual speed of light. we thus, move

on to derieve a new expression for time dialation based on this

concept of optical density. {where ᵟt is the dilated time elapsed}……….by pythagoras

theorem

IJISRT18JL106 www.ijisrt.com 59

Volume 3, Issue 7, July – 2018 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456-2165

hence the time between two successive reflections is :- or,

2 ………time =

𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 2L

2 𝑣ᵟ𝑡’ 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑

{ c }

ᵟ𝑡’ = √𝐿2 + ( ) (𝜶)

𝑐′ 2 ᵟ𝒕’ =

𝟐 𝟐

√𝟏 − 𝒗 . 𝟐𝜶

or, 𝒄

2

𝑐ᵟ𝑡’ ……………raising both sides to power ½ (sq. rt.)

( )

2𝛼

or,

2

𝒄 𝑣ᵟ𝑡’

…c’= = 𝐿2 +

….we get(the required

) equation after transposition

𝜶 2 2𝐿𝛼

………taking α( to the ) numerator

𝑐 ᵟ𝑡

or, ᵟ𝑡’ = ᵟ𝑡’ =

2 2 2 2

√1 − 𝑣 .2𝛼 √1 − 𝑣 . 2𝛼

𝑐 2

2

…..replacing (2lα/c)𝑐by ᵟt from eq(iii) 𝑐

( ) ᵟ𝒕’ 𝒗ᵟ𝒕’

( 𝜶 ) = 𝐿2 + ( )

2 2

hence we derieve the expression:-

ᵟ𝒕

ᵟ𝒕’ =

or, 2 2

√1 − 𝛼 .2𝑣

2 𝑐

𝑐 2 ᵟ𝒕’

(( ) − 𝑣 2 ) ( ) = 𝐿2

𝜶 2

2

V. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

ᵟ𝒕’

…………taking ( ) as common

2 Let us now compare the equation that we have derieved

to that given by albert einstein.

or,

Einstein’s equation New equation

2 2

ᵟ𝒕’ 𝐿

( ) =

2 𝑐 2 ᵟ𝑡 ᵟ𝑡

( ) − 𝑣2 ᵟ𝑡’ = ᵟ𝑡’ =

𝜶

√1 − 𝑣2 2 2

√1 − 𝛼 .2𝑣

𝑐2 𝑐

𝑐 2

………….transposing( ) – v to rhs 2

𝜶

Hence we can clearly see the similarity between the two

or, equations.

4𝐿2 einstein neglected the property of optical density of substances

{ } in his ideal medium which itself had particles in it. due to this

𝑐 2

4𝐿2 ( )

……..transposing

(ᵟ𝒕’)2 = 2 to rhs….taking

2

(c/α)

2

(ᵟ𝒕’)2 = 𝜶 we can also explain the slight inaccuracies which have taken

𝑣 2 . 𝜶2 place in practically conducted experiments. experiments by

𝑐 2 𝑣 2 1−

( ) [1 − ] 𝑐2 scientists and analysts using atomic clocks revealed minute

𝜶 𝑐 2

as part of numerator (𝜶) inaccuracies which are justified as follows.

VI. DISCUSSION

take into consideration: two atomic clocks[19,20]: one on the

ground and the other on an aeroplane (an experiment that has

been conducted quite a few times before).

IJISRT18JL106 www.ijisrt.com 60

Volume 3, Issue 7, July – 2018 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456-2165

let the aeroplane be travelling with a velocity ‘va’ REFERENCES

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elapsed as. ᵟ𝒕 [7]. www.emc2-explained.info/the-light-clock/.

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𝑐

[9]. Von fraunhofer, joseph (1817). "bestimmung des

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brechungs und farbenzerstreuungs vermogens

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values as : v = va and α = (r.i)of air = 1.000277 akademie der wissenschaften zu münchen. 5:

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ᵟ𝒕 [10]. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/einsteins-

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conceptualization-of-time-dilation.pdf.

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(1992), "recent developments in solar-system tests of

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√1 − (1.000277)

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𝑐 𝑐

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IJISRT18JL106 www.ijisrt.com 61

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