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Acute Malnutrition

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Learning Objectives

• Discuss acute malnutrition and the need for a


response.
• Describe the principles of CMAM.
• Describe recent innovations and evidence making
CMAM possible.
• Identify the components of CMAM and how they
work together.
• Explore how CMAM can be implemented in
different contexts.
• Identify global commitments related to CMAM.

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A vicious cycle: economics, hunger, health

Poverty  diminished Physical & cognitive


access to agricultural & impairment,
food resources  susceptibility to
malnutrition disease, early death 
nutrition inability to earn an
income
Economic
marginalization
 inability to
provide for self or
family
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The Millennium Development Goals

At a UN Millennium (2002) summit, the nations of the world


set eight MDGs to be achieved by 2015
• The world's main development challenges were identified
• Specific actions and targets (the MDGs)
• A commitment to provide the means was made by
189 nations & signed by 147 heads of state
The MDGs break down into
• 21 quantifiable targets
• Targets are measured by 60 time-lined indicators

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Nutrition & Millennium Development Goals

Primary goal is to
eradicate extreme
poverty & hunger

Nutrition – is a direct prerequisite to goals


1, 3, 4, 5 & 6; indirectly to 2, 7 & 8
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Centrality of nutrition to MDGs 1, 2, & 3

1. Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger. Poverty is the main


determinant of hunger. In turn, malnutrition irreversibly
compromises physical & cognitive development & thus
transmits poverty & hunger to future generations.

2. Achieve universal primary education. Malnutrition


diminishes the chance that a child will go to school, stay in
school, or perform well in school

3. Promote gender equality, empower women. Women’s


malnutrition impairs the whole family’s health & nutrition
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Centrality of nutrition to MDGs 4, 5, & 6
4. Reduce child mortality. Delivery of a live healthy child is
dependent, above all, on a well nourished mother. Protein & folic
acid are critical here
5. Improve maternal health. Malnutrition accentuates all major risk
factors for maternal mortality, e.g., inadequate protein, iron,
iodine, vitamin A & calcium
6. Combat serious infectious diseases. Malnutrition aggravates
infections, immune competence, transmission & mortality in
HIV, malaria, tuberculosis
Adapted from Gillespie and Haddad (2003)
http://web.worldbank.org/

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Causal Model of Malnutrition
The UNICEF Model
What is undernutrition?
• A consequence of a deficiency in nutrients in the
body
• Types of undernutrition?
• Acute malnutrition (wasting and bilateral pitting oedema)
• Stunting
• Underweight (combined measurement of stunting and
wasting)
• Micronutrient deficiencies
• Why focus on acute malnutrition?

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What is undernutrition?

Photo credit: Mike Golden


Key Information on Acute Malnutrition

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Undernutrition and
Child Mortality

• 54% of child mortality is


Perinatal &
Newborn
associated with underweight
22%

• Severe wasting is an
important cause of these
Pneumonia
20% Malnutrition deaths (it is difficult to
54% All other
causes
estimate)
29%

Malaria • Proportion associated with


8%

Measles
acute malnutrition often grows
5% Diarrhea
HIV/AIDS
4% dramatically in emergency
12%
contexts

Caulfied, LE, M de Onis, M Blossner, and R Black, 2004 12


Magnitude of ‘Wasting’ Around the
World – not only in emergencies

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Source: Webb and Gross, Wasted time for wasted children, The Lancet April 8, 2006
Recent History in the Management of Severe
Acute Malnutrition (SAM)

• Traditionally, children with SAM are treated in


centre-based care: paediatric ward, therapeutic
feeding centre (TFC), nutrition rehabilitation unit
(NRU), other inpatient care sites.
• The centre-based care model follows the World
Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for
Management of Severe Malnutrition.

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Centre-Based Care for Children with SAM:
Example of a Therapeutic Feeding Centre
(TFC)

• What is a TFC?

• What are the advantages and disadvantages of a TFC?

• What could be changed about the TFC model to


address these challenges?

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Centre-Based Care for Children with SAM:
Challenges

• Low coverage leading to late presentation


• Overcrowding
• Heavy staff work loads
• Cross infection
• High default rates due to need for long stay
• Potential for mothers to engage in high risk
behaviours to cover meals

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CMAM

• A community-based approach to treating SAM


• Most children with SAM without medical complications can
be treated as outpatients at accessible, decentralised sites
• Children with SAM and medical complications are treated as
inpatients
• Community outreach for community involvement and early
detection and referral of cases
• Also known as community-based therapeutic care
(CTC), ambulatory care, home-based care (HBC) for
the management of SAM

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Core Components of CMAM (1)

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Core Components of CMAM (2)
1. Community Outreach:

• Community assessment
• Community mobilisation and involvement
• Community outreach workers:
- Early identification and referral of children with SAM before
the onset of serious complications
- Follow-up home visits for problem cases
• Community outreach to increase access and coverage

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Core Components of CMAM (3)
2. Outpatient care for children with SAM without medical complications at
decentralised health facilities and at home
• Initial medical and anthropometry assessment with the start of medical treatment
and nutrition rehabilitation with take home ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF)
• Weekly or bi-weekly medical and anthropometry assessments monitoring
treatment progress
• Continued nutrition rehabilitation with RUTF at home

ESSENTIAL: a good referral system to inpatient care, based on Action


Protocol

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Core Components of CMAM (4)
3. Inpatient care for children with SAM with medical complications or
no appetite
• Child is treated in a hospital for stabilisation of the
medical complication
• Child resumes outpatient care when complications
are resolved

ESSENTIAL: good referral system to outpatient care

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Core Components of CMAM (5)

4. Services or programmes for the management of moderate acute


malnutrition (MAM)

• Supplementary Feeding

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Recent History of CMAM
• Response to challenges of centre-based care for the
management of SAM
• 2000: 1st pilot programme in Ethiopia
• 2002: pilot programme in Malawi
• Scale up of programmes in Ethiopia (2003-4 Emergency),
Malawi (2005-6 Emergency), Niger (2005-6 Emergency)
• Many agencies and governments now involved in CMAM
programming in emergencies and non-emergencies
• E.g., Malawi, Ethiopia, Niger, Democratic Republic of Congo,
Sudan, Kenya, Somalia, Sri Lanka
• Over 25,000 children with SAM treated in CMAM
programmes since 2001 (Lancet 2006)

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Principles of CMAM

• Maximum access and coverage


• Timeliness
• Appropriate medical and nutrition care
• Care for as long as needed

Following these steps ensure maximum public health impact!

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Maximise Impact by Focussing on
Public Health
SOCIAL FOCUS CLINICAL FOCUS

Population Individual level


level impact impact
(coverage) (cure rates)
Early presentation Efficient diagnosis

Access to services Effective clinical protocols

Compliance with treatment Effective service delivery


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Key Principle of CMAM

Maximum access and coverage

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N Darfur 2001

Karnoi & Malha


Tina
Um Barow
Kutum

Mellit

Fata Barno Koma


El Sayah

Serif Korma
Kebkabiya El Fasher

Um Keddada

Tawila & Dar el Saalam


100 kms

Hospital TFC
Taweisha

El Laeit 27
N Darfur 2001

Karnoi & Malha


Tina
Um Barow
Kutum

Mellit

Fata Barno Koma


El Sayah

Serif Korma
Kebkabiya El Fasher

Um Keddada

Tawila & Dar el Saalam


100 kms

Hospital with inpatient care


Taweisha
Outpatient care site
Inpatient care site El Laeit 28
Bringing Treatment Into the Local
Health Facility and the Home

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Key Principle of CMAM

Timeliness

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Timeliness: Early Versus Late Presentation

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Timeliness (continued)
• Find children before SAM
becomes serious and
medical complications
arise
• Good community outreach
is essential
• Screening and referral by
outreach workers (e.g.,
community health workers
[CHWs], volunteers)

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Catching Acute Malnutrition Early

Inpatient care Outpatient Care SFP 33


Key Principle of CMAM

Appropriate medical care


and nutrition rehabilitation

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Appropriate Medical Treatment and
Nutrition Rehabilitation Based on Need

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Key Principle of CMAM

Care as long as it is needed

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Care For as Long as Needed
• Care for the management of SAM is provided as long as needed
• Services to address SAM can be integrated into routine health
services of health facilities, if supplies are present
• Additional support to health facilities can be added during certain
seasonal peaks or during a crisis

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New Innovations Making
CMAM Possible

• RUTF
• New classification of acute malnutrition
• Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) accepted as
independent criteria for the classification of SAM

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Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF)
• Energy and nutrient dense: 500
kcal/92g
• Same formula as F100 (except it
contains iron)
• No microbial growth even when
opened
• Safe and easy for home use
• Is ingested after breast milk
• Safe drinking water should be
provided
• Well liked by children
• Can be produced locally
• Is not given to infants under 6
months
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RUTF (continued)
• Nutriset France produces ‘PlumpyNut®’ and has
national production franchises in Niger, Ethiopia,
and Zambia
• Another producers of RUTF is Valid Nutrition in
Malawi, Zambia and Kenya
• Ingredients for lipid-based RUTF:
• Peanuts (ground into a paste)
• Vegetable oil
• Powdered sugar
• Powdered milk
• Vitamin and mineral mix (special formula)
• Additional formulations of RUTF are being
researched
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Local production-RUTF
Malawi and Ethiopia

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Effectiveness of RUTF

• Treatment at home using


RUTF resulted in better
outcomes than centre-based
care in Malawi
(Ciliberto, et al. 2005.)
• Locally produced RUTF is
nutritionally equivalent to
PlumpyNut®
(Sandige et al. 2004.)

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WHO Classification for the
Treatment of Malnutrition

Acute Malnutrition

Severe Acute Malnutrition Moderate Acute Malnutrition


Therapeutic Feeding Centre Supplementary Feeding

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Classification for the Community-Based
Treatment of Acute Malnutrition

Acute Malnutrition

Severe acute malnutrition Severe acute malnutrition Moderate acute malnutrition


with medical complications* without medical complications without medical complications**

Supplementary
Inpatient Care Outpatient Care
Feeding

*Complications: anorexia or no appetite, intractable vomiting, convulsions,


lethargy or not alert, unconsciousness, lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI),
high fever, severe dehydration, severe anaemia, hypoglycaemia, or hypothermia
**Children with MAM with medical complications are admitted to supplementary
feeding but are referred for treatment of the medical complication as appropriate
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Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) for
Assessment and Admission

• A transparent and understandable measurement


• Can be used by community-based outreach
workers (e.g., CHWs, volunteers) for case-finding in
the community
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Screening and Admission Using MUAC

• Initially, CMAM used 2 stage screening process:


• MUAC for screening in the community
• Weight-for-height (WFH) for admission at a health facility
= Time consuming, resource intense, some negative feedback,
risk of refusal at admission
• MUAC for admission to CMAM (with presence of bilateral
pitting oedema, with WFH optional)
= Easier, more transparent, child identified with SAM in the
community will be admitted, thus fewer children are turned
away

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Anthropometric Indicators of Malnutrition

• Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC)


• Some studies have shown MUAC to be the single best
predictor of mortality in children between 1 and 5
years.
• Community volunteers can be easily trained to
measure MUAC.
• MUAC is currently recommended for screening in the
community. Children who meet criteria for
malnutrition are referred to a clinic or hospital for
further evaluation.
Measuring
MUAC
MUAC: Community Referral

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Components of CMAM
1. Community outreach
2. Outpatient care for the management of SAM
without medical complications
3. Inpatient care for the management of SAM with
medical complications
4. Services or programmes for the management of
MAM

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1. Community Outreach
Key individuals in the
community:
• Promote CMAM services
• Make CMAM and the
treatment of SAM
understandable
• Understand cultural
practices, barriers and
systems
• Dialogue on barriers to
uptake
• Promote community case-
finding and referral
• Conduct follow-up home
visits for problem cases 51
Community Mobilisation
and Screening

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2. Outpatient Care
• Target group: children 6-59 months with SAM
WITHOUT medical complications AND with good
appetite
• Activities: weekly outpatient care follow-on visits at
the health facility (medical assessment and
monitoring, basic medical treatment and nutrition
rehabilitation)

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Clinic
Admission for
Outpatient Care

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Outpatient Care:
Medical Examination

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Outpatient Care:
Routine Medication
• Amoxycillin
• Anti-Malarials
• Vitamin A
• Anti-helminths
• Measles vaccination

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Outpatient Care: Appetite Test

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RUTF Supply

• Ensure understanding
of RUTF and use of
medicines
Provide one week’s
supply of RUTF and
medicine to take at home
Return every week to
outpatient care to
monitor progress and
assess compliance

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3. Inpatient Care
• SAM with medical
complications or no
appetite
• Medical treatment
according to WHO and/or
national protocols
• Return to outpatient care
after complication is
resolved, oedema reduced,
and appetite regained
• All infants under 6 months
with SAM receive
specialised treatment until
full recovery 59
4. Services or Programmes for the
Management of MAM
• Activities
• Routine medication
• Dry supplementary
ration
• Basic preventive health
care and immunisation
• Health and hygiene
education; infant and
young child feeding
(IYCF) practices and
behaviour change
communication (BCC)
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Components of CMAM

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Relationship Between Outpatient Care and
Inpatient Care
• Complementary
– Inpatient care for the management of SAM with
medical complications until the medical condition
is stabilised and the complication is resolving
• Different priorities
• Outpatient care prioritises early access and
coverage
• Inpatient care prioritises medical care and
therapeutic feeding for stabilisation

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Programme Outcomes for 21
Inpatient and Outpatient Care
Programmes – 2001 to 2006
21 programmes in Ethiopia, Malawi, Sudan, Niger. 23,511
children with SAM treated and documented.
(results for com bined outpatient and inpatient)
3%
2%
4%

11% Cured
Defaulted
Died
Transferred
Non-cured

80%
Collins et al Lancet 06
CMAM in Different Contexts
• Extensive emergency experience
• Some transition into longer term programming, as in the
cases of Malawi and Ethiopia
• Growing experience in non-emergency or
development contexts
• e.g., Ghana, Zambia, Rwanda, Haiti, Nepal
• Growing experience in high HIV prevalent areas
• Links to voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) and
antiretroviral therapy (ART)

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When Rates of SAM Increase:
Shock/crisis
Emergency Levels
GAM and SAM above seasonal norms
Transition

Non-Emergency
e with increased numbers Emergency Levels Post emergency

Capacity to manage severe acute (Exceed MoH capacity) High numbers reducing
malnutrition strengthened in ongoing Facilitate MOH to cope with MoH resumes normal
health and nutrition programs within increased numbers programming within
existing health system (in-country rapid response) existing health system
))capacity)
Community based prevention based Link outpatient and
nutrition programs. SAM identified in inpatient care with
GM and screening through MUAC health/nutrition community
based programming

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Global Commitment for CMAM (1)
• WHO consultation (Nov 2005) – agreement by WHO to
revise SAM guidelines to include outpatient care and endorse
MUAC as entry criterion for programmes
• United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) accepted
CMAM globally (2006)
• United Nations (UN) Joint Statement on Community-
Based Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition (May
2007) – support for national policies, protocols, trainings, and
action plans for adopting approach: e.g., Ethiopia, Malawi,
Uganda, Sudan, Niger

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Global Commitment for CMAM (2)

• Collaboration on joint trainings between WHO,


UNICEF, United Nations High Council for Refugees
(UNHCR), and United States Agency for
International Development (USAID)
• Donor support for CMAM development,
coordination and training
• Several agencies supporting integration of CMAM
into national health systems

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