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Torque Method for Erection of Steel Girder Bridge & Steel Truss Bridge

Overall Structure:

The main structure of the through type steel truss bridge is 4 – Span simple supported steel truss
girder with each span 47.2 m
The vertical loads as dead and live are carried by two vertical trusses.

Horizontal wind load is born by two horizontal trusses, which meanwhile connect the
vertical trusses and thus make up whole three – dimension truss system.
The main structure of the deck type steel girder bridge consists of plate girders, cross frames
and lateral bracings with spans of 10.0m, 15.0m and 20.0m.
The vertical loads as dead and live are carried by the steel girders.

Horizontal loads such as wind load on structure and on live load are born by cross frames
and lateral bracings.
Structure of the Truss:

The main truss is formed of Triangle trusses

The space between two main trusses is 5.4 m.

Space between two main nodes is 5.9 m.

The main truss section height is 7.6 m.

The cross section of main truss member is box – shape and H –

shape Top chords and bottom chords section are box shape.

The maximum plate thickness formed by members is 25 mm.

The cross section of web member is H – shape.

Maximum length of member is 11.8 m.

Maximum lifting weight is 9.22 ton.

The main truss joint is dismountable model.

Each adjacent member on site is connected by nodes plates and splicing plates with HSFG bolting.

Each span of the main truss has a design camber.

Camber is introduced to counterbalance the deflection resulting from self weight, super imposed
dead loads and ½ of train load. Camber is generally used to reduce the corresponding moment
which in trun reduces the moment of inertia and hence girder sections are optimized.
The camber setting method of the main truss is to make the top chords longer or shorter.

The variance of length is obtained by change the distance of splicing bolts to the node center.
The length of the chord member remains the same.

Connecting System :

Among connecting system, the top / bottom / longitudinal bracing only play the role of
withstanding the lateral wind and connecting the two main trusses.
The forces on them are little that will not dominate the cross sectional design of bracing members.

Both top plane and bottom plane of the girder are connected with longitudinal bracing.

The bracing members are H – shape cross section. All of them are welded and fabricated in the factory.

Portal frame, designed at main truss bearings to ensure smooth pass of train on the bridge.

Each member has H – shape cross section.

All of them are welded and fabricated in the factory and to be bolted with M20 Torque – shear
high strength bolts in site.
Transverse Connecting System:

Transverse bracing is set on top of verticals at every other node. Each member has H or T section.

All welded and fabricated in the factory, to be bolted with M20 torque – shear high strength
bolts on site.
Girder Fabrication:

Main auxiliary materials and welding materials: the quality shall comply with the stipulations in
related standards. Reinsertion shall be conducted as per related standards to ensure the
mechanic properties of welded joint not lesser than steel standards.
Treatment of friction face of HSFG bolts :

The friction face of connection parts of main truss members is obtained by sand blasting

treatment. The friction coefficient of test plate ex – works is not less than 0.30

The test plate for rechecking will be delivered to site with girder members.

The friction coefficient in rechecking on site shall not be less than 0.30

Pre Camber Requirement :

Required Pre camber in design

Node L0 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8
Camber 0 26.27 47.56 63.18 65.97 63.18 47.56 26.27 0
in mm
HSFG Bolting : Class 10.9 M20 Torque – shear high strength bolts are adopted for the bridge.

HSFG Bolt Tightening Technique Test :

1.Tightening technique test consist of Torque coefficient test.

2.Tightening tool calibration method test.

3. Inspection of tightening quality.

4.Test of slip coefficient of faying surface.

The above mentioned 4 tests must be conducted by the team in site.

1. Torque – shear Axial force test: The projects adopt the Torque – shear method, therefore,
smaller the dispersion ratio the better. Select 8 HSFG sets to do the torque – shear axial
force test.
2. Tightening tools calibration method test: The torque electrical wrench shall be tested and
calibrated before use. The torque value will be set with pre conditions of ensuring HSFG
pretension meeting designed requirements, and it shall not be altered causally during usage.
Usually axial force meter and torque meter will be used in the test. Normally, the ring torque
wrench and pointer wrench will be calibrated by torque method or hanging weight method before
using. Detailed record will be prepared and will be kept and issued by the team.
3. The slip coefficient of faying surface test: The slip coefficient of faying surface will be
provided by the manufacturer before delivery, f value shall not be less than 0.30, it shall not
be less than 0.30 during resisting in site.
Bolt, Nut and Washer:

High strength friction grip bolts (HSFGB) will be used for connection of main girder structure.

Bolts are IS 4000 – 1992 & IS 3757 – 1985 and shall be of class 10.9 as specified in IS 1367 (Part
– 03) – 2002.
High strength structural Nuts shall confirmed to IS 6623 – 1985 and shall be off property class
10 as specified in IS: 1367 (Part – 6) – 1994 hardened.
Tempered washers to be used with HSFG bolts shall Confirmed to IS: 6649 – 1985

Girder Launch Method:

Gantry Mounting Method

Torque Method:

Torque Method (Calibrated wrench tensioning method) will be used for installation of HSFG bolts.

Torque to be applied with torque wrenches.


Minimum bolt tension to be applied with electrical wrenches and ring winch (Both with fixed torques).

Torque method for two steps tightening: Pre tightening and Final tightening controlled by
fixed torque electrical wrench.
Pre tightening torque will be 60% of final tightening torque, with round figure taken.

Inspection after pre tightening: Strike one side of nut with 0.3 kg hammer while holding the other side
by hand. The ones with serious vibration are unqualified, they should be re - tightened. The inserted
depth of 0.3 mm pin into the plate space after pre – tightening shall not be more than 20 mm.
Final tightening torque (T = KFD N – M) It is controlled by the fixed torque electrical wrench.

First calibrate the electrical wrench as the final tightening torque, then the electrical wrench
will be automatically switched off when the final tightening torque obtained.
Inspection after final tightening: Fastening method is applied – draw one thin line on nut, washer
and plate; re – tighten bolts with pointer wrench, read the torque value while nuts are initially
rotated, the over tightened and less tightened value shall not be higher than 10%. Retighten those
of less tightened while replace the bolts of overt tightened.
Note : The HSFG Bolt installed everyday shall be inspected in the same day.

Slip Coefficient requirements on HSFG Bolt (Hole diameter of 22 mm):

Slip coefficient (Surface friction coefficient) of faying surface of HSFG is important condition
relating to joint strength.
It is required in the Code that the friction coefficient of faying surface is 0.45 while the friction
coefficient of members and joints in manufacturer shall not be less than 0.55.
But it is designed as 0.30 for the Bridge

Rechecking of slip coefficient on site after the friction face treatment on members and joints, three
test pieces with same materials , same treatment method must be provided when delivery to help
the construction company to recheck friction coefficient (Slip coefficient) before installation on site.
The Slip coefficient test shall be conducted by steel fabrication batch, the manufacturer
and installation company will do it individually.
The Slip coefficient test is conducted on tension test machine with sliding load measured. The axis
of test pieces shall be strictly centralized with the center of test machine clamps.
The minimum of Slip Coefficient must equals or larger than design value.

Check Torque of HSFG Bolt:


The Torque Coefficient of HSFG Bolt is an impatient data for torque method erection.
Torque coefficient of HSFG fastener assembles (10.9S Class) should be guaranteed by
the HSFG manufacturer.
The average value of torque coefficient of fastener assembles in the same batch is 0.11 – 0.15

The standard deviation of the torque coefficient shall be less than or equals to 0.010.

The torque coefficient will vary with temperature, time duration and operation conditions.

The torque coefficient test method on site: Select 8 bolts from different types of bolts,
conduct torque coefficient test by axial force meter (Torque meter)
The torque coefficient is calculated by the following formula –

K = T/ F*D

K = Torque Coefficient

D = Diameter of Bolt, mm

T = Tightening Torque, N – M

F = Minimum Bolt tension of HSFG KN , Value of HSFG M20 (20 mm) shall be controlled
within scope of 170 – 203 KN

Tightening torque values are calculated from the formula


T = KDP,
where T = tightening torque, lb-in.;
K = torque-friction coefficient;
D = nominal bolt diameter, in.; and
P = bolt clamping load developed by tightening. lb.

Clamp load is also known as preload or initial load in tension on bolt. Clamp load (lb.) is calculated
by arbitrarily assuming usable bolt strength is 75% of bolt proof load (psi) times tensile stress area
(sq. in.) of threaded section of each bolt size.
Proof load generally lies between 85-95% of yield strength.
HSFG Tightening Wrench:

Following types of HSFG tightening wrenches:

1. Normal tightening wrench: used for normal tightening of HSFG during girder erection.
There are ring socket wrench and open wrench. One end of these wrenches is pointed, to
cater for girder positioning. This wrench is not required calibrated.
2. Snug Tightening wrench: Required to be indicative, 300 NM. Normally we use
indicator wrench, while more advanced digital one also adopted.
3. Final tightening wrench: Usually Two Types – Electric fixed torque wrench is adopted
normally. If the electric fixed torque wrench cannot be applied in any specific positions,
manual fixed torque ring wrench will be adopted.
The wrench required in this project is 600 KNM and 1000 KNM
4. Inspection Wrench: According to the requirements of the Code, when the torque method
adopted in HSFG installation, tightening method will be adopted to check it after final
tightening. The wrench used for check is called inspection wrench that shall be
indicative. There are normally two types of inspection wrench: One is with indicator (Dial
Indicator) Another is Digital, Both can be used.
Diameter and Required Torque of High Strength Friction Grip Bolts for BR 37 and
Minor Steel Girder Bridges

Dia Torque
16mm 375N-m ~ 400N-m
20mm 550N-m ~ 600N-m
22mm 600N-m ~ 660N-m
24mm 700N-m ~ 750N-m
30mm 800N-m ~ 850N-m
IS : 3757 - 1985

TABLE 1 DIMENSIONS FOR HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL BOLTS*


( Clause 2.1 )
All dimensions in millimetres.

Thread Size d M16 M20 (M22) M24 (M27) M30 M36

p Pitch of thread 2 2.5 2.5 3 3 3.5 4

100 31 36 38 41 44 49 56
bref For length/Nom -----------
-
> 100 38 43 45 48 51 56 63
Max 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
c
Min 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
da Max 18.7 23.24 25.24 27.64 31.24 34.24 41.00
Max 16.70 20.84 22.84 24.84 27.84 30.84 37.00
ds
Min 15.30 19.16 21.16 23.16 26.16 29.16 35.00
Max † † † † † † †
dw
Min 24.9 31.4 33.3 38.0 42.8 46.5 55.9
e Min 29.56 37.29 39.55 45.20 50.85 55.37 66.44
Nom 10 12.5 14 15 17 18.7 22.5
k Max 10.75 13.40 14.90 15.90 17.90 19.75 23.55
Min 9.25 11.60 13.10 14.10 16.10 17.65 21.45
k' Min 6.5 8.1 9.2 9.9 11.3 12.4 15.0
r Min 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.5
Max 27 34 36 41 46 50 60
s
Min 26.16 33 35 40 45 49 58.8

Chamfer length z Max 3 3.8 3.8 4.5 4.5 5.3 6

Note — Sizes shown in brackets are of second preference.


*For hot-dip galvanized bolts, the above dimensions apply before galvanizing.
†dw, Max = s actual.

2
IS : 3757 - 1985

3
Inspection of Steel Girder

DIMENSIONAL CHECK –

  Overall length
 Bearing centers
 Height
 Girder center
 Squareness
 Fairing of holes
 Verticality
 Alignment of the girder

INSPECTING FOR DEFECTS BEFORE ERECTION –

 KINKS: Sharp bends in flange or web plates that do not reveal warps.

 WARPS: Wavy sections in flange or web plates that are an indication of buckling or excessive
temperature effects caused by welding.

 BENDS: Gradual curves in plates that are not indicated as being part of the design.

 CRACKS: These are very serious defects when in a steel beam because they can grow and eventually
cause sudden failure of a plate, which can cause collapse of the beam or even the entire superstructure.

 PLUMBNESS: Using a Plumb Bob or square, check to see that flange plates are perpendicular to the web
plate and that stiffener plates are perpendicular to top and bottom flange plates.

WELD DEFECTS –

Undercuts: As can be seen in the diagram at right, undercutting


causes a reduction in base metal thickness. Adding more material at
the undercut points repairs this condition.

Overlaps: This diagram shows a weld with considerable overlap.


Overlap is an overflow of weld materials onto the base metal. The
weld material does not fuse with the base metal. Overlaps should be
removed and the base metals should be rewelded.
Porosity: Gas bubbles trapped in the weld material cause porosity.
This condition causes a weak weld. You will recognize this by the
large number of small holes in the weld material. Removing the
defective weld and rewelding the joint, correct this condition.

Cracks: Cracks are very serious welding defects that must be


repaired. You should be sure the cracks are removed and the joints
are rewelded

Spatter: Spatter is not a serious welding defect because it does not


affect the strength of the weld. However, spatter should be removed
because paint will not adhere to it well and it gives an undesirable
appearance. Wire brushing and chipping will remove spatter.

DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES

Length
Member with both ends finished for contact bearing  1 mm
Individual components of members with end plate
connection + 0 mm,- 2 mm
Other members
i) Upto and including 12 M  2 mm
ii) Over 12 M  3.5 mm

Width
Width of built-up girders  3 mm
Deviation in the width of members required to be + 0 mm,- 3 mm
inserted in other members

Depth
Deviation in the depths of solid web and open web + 3 mm,- 2 mm
girders.

Straightness
Deviation from straightness of columns L/3000 subject to a maximum of 15 mm where L is
length of member
i) In elevation + 5 mm,- 0 mm

ii) In plan L/1000 subject to a maximum of 10 mm


Deviation of centre line of web from centre line of
flanges in built-up members at contact surfaces 3 mm

Deviation from flatness of plate of webs of built-up 0.005 d to a maximum of 2 mm where d is depth of the
members in a length equal to the depth of the member.
member.

Tilt of flange of plate girders


At splices and stiffeners, at supports, at the top 0.005 b to a minimum of 2 mm where b is width of the
flanges of plate girders and at bearings member.

At other places 0.015 b to a maximum of 4 mm where b is width of the


member.

Deviation from squareness of flange to web of L/1000, where L is nominal length of the diagonal
columns and box girders

Deviation from squareness of fixed base plate (not D/500, where D is the distance from the column axis to
machined) to axis of column. This dimension shall the point under consideration on the base plate.
be measured parallel to the longitudinal axis of the
column at points where the outer surfaces of the
column sections make contact with the base plate.

Deviation from squareness of machined ends to D/1000,where D is as defined in 9 above


axes of columns

Deviation from squareness of machined ends to D/1000, where D is as defined in 9 above


axes of beams or girder.