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**Form: AM ∙ HM = (GM)2 Squared Identities: Sine Law:
**

2 sin 𝑎 sin 𝑏 sin 𝑎

Ax + Bx + C = 0 2 2

sin A + cos A = 1

Arithmetic Progression: = =

Roots: 1 + tan2 A = sec 2 A sin 𝐴 sin 𝐵 sin 𝐴

d = a 2 − a1 = a 3 − a 2

s 2 − 4AC

−B ± √B 1 + cot 2 A = csc 2 A Cosine Law for sides:

x= a n = a1 + (n − 1)d cos 𝑎 = cos 𝑏 cos 𝑐 + sin 𝑏 sin 𝑐 cos 𝐴

2A Sum & Diff of Angles Identities:

a n = a x + (n − x)d Cosine Law for angles:

Sum of Roots:

n sin (A ± B) = sin A cos B ± cos A sin B cos 𝐴 = − cos 𝐵 cos 𝐶 + sin 𝐵 sin 𝐶 cos 𝑎

B Sn = (a1 + a n )

x1 + x2 = − 2 cos (A ± B) = cos A cos B ∓ sin A sin B Spherical Polygon:

A

Harmonic Progression: tan A ± tan B πR2 E E = spherical excess

Product of Roots: - reciprocal of arithmetic tan (A ± B) =

C 1 ∓ tan A tan B AB = E = (A+B+C+D…) – (n-2)180°

progression 180°

x1 ∙ x2 = + Double Angle Identities:

A Geometric Progression: Spherical Pyramid:

1 minute of arc =

r = a 2 /a1 = a 3 /a2 sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A 1 πR3 E 1 nautical mile

Binomial Theorem cos 2A = cos 2 A − sin2 A V = AB H = 1 nautical mile =

a n = a1 r n−1 3 540°

6080 feet

Form:

a n = a x r n−x cos 2A = 2 cos 2 A − 1 1 statute mile =

(x + y)n cos 2A = 1 − 2 sin2 A 5280 feet

1 − rn n-sided Polygon

rth term: Sn = a1 2 tan A # of diagonals:

1 knot =

r th

= nCm x n−m y m 1−r tan 2A = n Interior Angle, ɤ: 1 nautical mile

a1 1 − tan2 A d = (n − 3) (n − 2)180° per hour

where: m=r-1

S∞ = 2 γ=

1−r n

Deflection Angle, δ: Area = n ∙ ATRIANGLE

Worded Problems Tips Triangle Common Quadrilateral δ = 180° − γ 1

Age Problems 1 Square: Rectangle: Area = n ∙ R2 sinβ

A = bh Central Angle, β: 2

→ underline specific time conditions A = s2 A = bh

2 360° 1

Motion Problems P = 4s P = 2a + 2b β= Area = n ∙ ah

1 n 2

→a =0 A = ab sin C d = √2s d = √b 2 + h2

2

→s = vt Parallelogram:

1 sin B sin C Polygon Names

A = a2 A = bh 16 - hexadecagon

Work Problems 3 - triangle

2 sin A A = ab sin θ 17 - septadecagon

Case 1: Unequal rate 4 - quad/tetragon 18 - octadecagon

work A = √s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c) 1 5 - pentagon

A = d1 d2 sin θ 19 - nonadecagon

rate = 2 6 - hexagon/sexagon 20 - icosagon

time a+b+c 7 - septagon/heptagon 21 - unicosagon

Case 2: Equal rate s= Rhombus: 8 - octagon 22 - do-icosagon

→ usually in project management 2 A = ah 9 - nonagon 30 - tricontagon

→ express given to man-days or man-hours A = a2 sin θ 10 - decagon 31 - untricontagon

Trapezoid 1 11 - undecagon/ 40 - tetradecagon

Clock Problems A = d1 d2 monodecagon 50 - quincontagon

11M − 60H 1 2 12 - dodecagon/ 60 - hexacontagon

+ if M is ahead of H

θ= - if M is behind of H

A = (a + b)h bidecagon 100 - hectogon

2 2

Ellipse 13 - tridecagon 1,000 - chilliagon

A1 n ma2 + nb 2 14 - quadridecagon 10,000 - myriagon

a2 + b2

Ex-circle- 1 1 1 1 = ;w = √ A = πab C = 2π√ 15 - quindecagon/ 1,000,000 - megagon

A2 m m+n 2 pentadecagon ∞ - aperio (circle)

= + +

In-circle 𝑟 𝑟1 𝑟2 𝑟3

Triangle-Circle Relationship General Quadrilateral

Centers of Triangle Inscribed Circle:

Circumscribing Circle: Cyclic Quadrilateral: (sum of opposite angles=180°)

INCENTER abc AT = rs

- the center of the inscribed circle (incircle) AT = A = √(s − a)(s − b)(s − c)(s − d)

of the triangle & the point of intersection of

4R

Escribed Circle: Ptolemy’s Theorem is applicable:

the angle bisectors of the triangle.

opposite side a+b+c+d

diameter = AT = R a (s − a) ac + bd = d1 d2 s=

sine of angle 2

a b c AT = R b (s − b) Non-cyclic Quadrilateral:

d= = = AT = R c (s − c) ε

sin A sin B sin C

A = √(s − a)(s − b)(s − c)(s − d) − abcd cos 2

2

Pappus Theorem

CIRCUMCENTER

- the center of the circumscribing circle Pappus Theorem 1: Prism or Cylinder Pointed Solid

(circumcircle) & the point of intersection of SA = L ∙ 2πR V = AB H = AX L 1

the perpendicular bisectors of the triangle. v

V = AB H

Pappus Theorem 2: LA = PB H = Px L 3

AB/PB → Perimeter or Area of base Right Circ. Cone Reg. Pyramid

V = A ∙ 2πR H → Height & L → slant height 1

AX/PX → Perimeter or Area of cross- LA = πrL LA = PB L

NOTE: It is also used to locate centroid of an area. section perpendicular to slant height 2

**Spherical Lune: Spherical Wedge:
**

Special Solids Spherical Solids

ORTHOCENTER Alune 4πR2 4

Sphere: Vwedge 3 πR

3

- the point of intersection of the altitudes of Truncated Prism or Cylinder: =

4 θrad 2π =

the triangle. V = AB Have V = πR3 θrad 2π

LA = PB Have 3 Alune = 2θR2 2

LA = 4πR2 Vwedge = θR3

3

Frustum of Cone or Pyramid: Spheroid:

H 4 Spherical Zone:

V = πabc

V= (A + A2 + √A1 A2 ) 3

Azone = 2πRh

3 1 LA = 4π [

a2 + b2 + c 2

]

CENTROID Spherical Sector:

3

- the point of intersection of the medians of 1

the triangle. Prolate Spheroid: V = Azone R

3

4 2

V = πabb V = πR2 h

3

a2 + b2 + b2 3

Prismatoid:

LA = 4π [ ] Spherical Segment:

H 3

V = (A1 + 4AM + A2 ) For one base:

6 Oblate Spheroid: about major axis 1

EULER LINE 4

V = πh2 (3R − h)

V = πaab 3

- the line that would pass through the 3 For two bases:

orthocenter, circumcenter, and centroid of a2 + a2 + b2

LA = 4π [ ] 1

the triangle. 3 V = πh(3a2 + 3b2 + h2 )

about minor axis 6

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