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# Quadratic Equation Progression Trigonometric Identities Spherical Trigonometry

Form: AM ∙ HM = (GM)2 Squared Identities: Sine Law:
2 sin 𝑎 sin 𝑏 sin 𝑎
Ax + Bx + C = 0 2 2
sin A + cos A = 1
Arithmetic Progression: = =
Roots: 1 + tan2 A = sec 2 A sin 𝐴 sin 𝐵 sin 𝐴
d = a 2 − a1 = a 3 − a 2
s 2 − 4AC
−B ± √B 1 + cot 2 A = csc 2 A Cosine Law for sides:
x= a n = a1 + (n − 1)d cos 𝑎 = cos 𝑏 cos 𝑐 + sin 𝑏 sin 𝑐 cos 𝐴
2A Sum & Diff of Angles Identities:
a n = a x + (n − x)d Cosine Law for angles:
Sum of Roots:
n sin (A ± B) = sin A cos B ± cos A sin B cos 𝐴 = − cos 𝐵 cos 𝐶 + sin 𝐵 sin 𝐶 cos 𝑎
B Sn = (a1 + a n )
x1 + x2 = − 2 cos (A ± B) = cos A cos B ∓ sin A sin B Spherical Polygon:
A
Harmonic Progression: tan A ± tan B πR2 E E = spherical excess
Product of Roots: - reciprocal of arithmetic tan (A ± B) =
C 1 ∓ tan A tan B AB = E = (A+B+C+D…) – (n-2)180°
progression 180°
x1 ∙ x2 = + Double Angle Identities:
A Geometric Progression: Spherical Pyramid:
1 minute of arc =
r = a 2 /a1 = a 3 /a2 sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A 1 πR3 E 1 nautical mile
Binomial Theorem cos 2A = cos 2 A − sin2 A V = AB H = 1 nautical mile =
a n = a1 r n−1 3 540°
6080 feet
Form:
a n = a x r n−x cos 2A = 2 cos 2 A − 1 1 statute mile =
(x + y)n cos 2A = 1 − 2 sin2 A 5280 feet
1 − rn n-sided Polygon
rth term: Sn = a1 2 tan A # of diagonals:
1 knot =
r th
= nCm x n−m y m 1−r tan 2A = n Interior Angle, ɤ: 1 nautical mile
a1 1 − tan2 A d = (n − 3) (n − 2)180° per hour
where: m=r-1
S∞ = 2 γ=
1−r n
Deflection Angle, δ: Area = n ∙ ATRIANGLE
Worded Problems Tips Triangle Common Quadrilateral δ = 180° − γ 1
 Age Problems 1 Square: Rectangle: Area = n ∙ R2 sinβ
A = bh Central Angle, β: 2
→ underline specific time conditions A = s2 A = bh
2 360° 1
 Motion Problems P = 4s P = 2a + 2b β= Area = n ∙ ah
1 n 2
→a =0 A = ab sin C d = √2s d = √b 2 + h2
2
→s = vt Parallelogram:
1 sin B sin C Polygon Names
A = a2 A = bh 16 - hexadecagon
 Work Problems 3 - triangle
2 sin A A = ab sin θ 17 - septadecagon
work A = √s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c) 1 5 - pentagon
A = d1 d2 sin θ 19 - nonadecagon
rate = 2 6 - hexagon/sexagon 20 - icosagon
time a+b+c 7 - septagon/heptagon 21 - unicosagon
Case 2: Equal rate s= Rhombus: 8 - octagon 22 - do-icosagon
→ usually in project management 2 A = ah 9 - nonagon 30 - tricontagon
→ express given to man-days or man-hours A = a2 sin θ 10 - decagon 31 - untricontagon
Trapezoid 1 11 - undecagon/ 40 - tetradecagon
 Clock Problems A = d1 d2 monodecagon 50 - quincontagon
11M − 60H 1 2 12 - dodecagon/ 60 - hexacontagon
+ if M is ahead of H
θ= - if M is behind of H
A = (a + b)h bidecagon 100 - hectogon
2 2
Ellipse 13 - tridecagon 1,000 - chilliagon
A1 n ma2 + nb 2 14 - quadridecagon 10,000 - myriagon
a2 + b2
Ex-circle- 1 1 1 1 = ;w = √ A = πab C = 2π√ 15 - quindecagon/ 1,000,000 - megagon
A2 m m+n 2 pentadecagon ∞ - aperio (circle)
= + +
In-circle 𝑟 𝑟1 𝑟2 𝑟3
Centers of Triangle Inscribed Circle:
Circumscribing Circle: Cyclic Quadrilateral: (sum of opposite angles=180°)
INCENTER abc AT = rs
- the center of the inscribed circle (incircle) AT = A = √(s − a)(s − b)(s − c)(s − d)
of the triangle & the point of intersection of
4R
Escribed Circle: Ptolemy’s Theorem is applicable:
the angle bisectors of the triangle.
opposite side a+b+c+d
diameter = AT = R a (s − a) ac + bd = d1 d2 s=
sine of angle 2
a b c AT = R b (s − b) Non-cyclic Quadrilateral:
d= = = AT = R c (s − c) ε
sin A sin B sin C
A = √(s − a)(s − b)(s − c)(s − d) − abcd cos 2
2
Pappus Theorem
CIRCUMCENTER
- the center of the circumscribing circle Pappus Theorem 1: Prism or Cylinder Pointed Solid
(circumcircle) & the point of intersection of SA = L ∙ 2πR V = AB H = AX L 1
the perpendicular bisectors of the triangle. v
V = AB H
Pappus Theorem 2: LA = PB H = Px L 3
AB/PB → Perimeter or Area of base Right Circ. Cone Reg. Pyramid
V = A ∙ 2πR H → Height & L → slant height 1
AX/PX → Perimeter or Area of cross- LA = πrL LA = PB L
NOTE: It is also used to locate centroid of an area. section perpendicular to slant height 2

Spherical Lune: Spherical Wedge:
Special Solids Spherical Solids
ORTHOCENTER Alune 4πR2 4
Sphere: Vwedge 3 πR
3
- the point of intersection of the altitudes of Truncated Prism or Cylinder: =
the triangle. V = AB Have V = πR3 θrad 2π
LA = PB Have 3 Alune = 2θR2 2
LA = 4πR2 Vwedge = θR3
3
Frustum of Cone or Pyramid: Spheroid:
H 4 Spherical Zone:
V = πabc
V= (A + A2 + √A1 A2 ) 3
Azone = 2πRh
3 1 LA = 4π [
a2 + b2 + c 2
]
CENTROID Spherical Sector:
3
- the point of intersection of the medians of 1
the triangle. Prolate Spheroid: V = Azone R
3
4 2
V = πabb V = πR2 h
3
a2 + b2 + b2 3
Prismatoid:
LA = 4π [ ] Spherical Segment:
H 3
V = (A1 + 4AM + A2 ) For one base:
6 Oblate Spheroid: about major axis 1
EULER LINE 4
V = πh2 (3R − h)
V = πaab 3
- the line that would pass through the 3 For two bases:
orthocenter, circumcenter, and centroid of a2 + a2 + b2
LA = 4π [ ] 1
the triangle. 3 V = πh(3a2 + 3b2 + h2 )