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Fabrics can be constructed in a variety of ways, ranging from the matting together of fibrous materials to the intricate interlacing of complex yarn systems. The major classifications of fabric constructions are Woven Fabrics. Weaving of fabrics consist of interlacing systems of yarn. By varying the interlacing, a wide variety of different fabric constructions can be made. Knitted Fabrics. Fabrics can be constructed from one or more continuous yarns by the formation of a series of interconnected loops. Knitting tough a complex form, is one type of looping construction, Crochet is another. Non Woven. Masses of fibers can be held together into a fabric by interlocking of fibers by mechanical action or by fusing fibers together with heat, adhesive or chemicals. Examples of a few fabrics constructed by these means include felt, bark cloth, spun lace, spun bonded and needle-punched fabrics and bonded webs. Knotted Fabrics. Some fabrics are created by knotting yarns together. Lace, nets, macramé and tatting are produce by knotting. Braided Fabrics. Fabrics may be created by plaiting together yarns or strips of fabrics. The components are interlaced in a diagonal pattern over under one another to form a flat or tubular fabric of relatively narrow width. Films. Since films are not considered to be true textiles. They are sometimes laminated to textiles. They are sometimes laminated to textiles and therefore may be part of the structure of some textile products. They are synthetic polymers extruded in the form of sheets rather than as fibers. In some cases, these films are eventually made into fibrous form by a process called fibrillation or by cutting the sheet into fibers. Stitch-Through Fabrics. Stitch through or stitch bonding is a relatively new technique for constructing fabrics in which two sets of yarns or masses of fibers are stitched together into a fabric structure by another set of yarns. Textile Composites. These materials generally consist of one or more textile components impregnated with or embedded in a resin matrix. Textile composites are generally used for high technology products for industry, the military and aerospace.
Woven Fabrics Oldest & widely used method of construction Made with two or more sets of yarns interlaced at right angles to each other. single yarn is used. of warp & weft yarns per square inch. Fabric count of a balanced fabric: 78 X 78 or 64 X 60. width – 20 – 60 inches (handwovens:27 – 36 inches. Skewed fabric: Filling yarn is at an angle other than 900 to warp yarns. fused. On-grain: Warp yarns lie parallel to each other (lengthwise) & weft yarns lie parallel to each other (crosswise). Power loom: 40 – 60 inches) Done on a machine called handloom or power loom - - - - GRAIN: Position of warp yarns relative to filling yarns in fabric. Yarns in lengthwise direction: warp/ends. Fabric lengths & widths: length – 40 – 100 yards or more. yarns in crosswise direction: filling/weft/picks Selvage: self-edge of fabric on both sides along the length of the fabric. more twist in warp yarns. fringe. fabric does not drape properly. E. . Denotes closeness or compactness of fabric. Higher the count. Off-grain: Lowers fabric quality. BALANCED FABRIC: Will have a ratio of warp to weft yarns as 1:1. Warp & weft yarns lie perpendicular to each other.g. FABRIC COUNT/THREAD COUNT: No. Grain: indicates warp & weft positions in fabric. Plain. E. less stretch along warp yarns. BALANCE: Ratio of warp yarns to filling yarns in a fabric. leno & tucked selvage. 80 X 76 (80 warp yarns & 76 weft yarns in 1 inch) Fabric weight is measured in Grams per square meter (gsm).g. split. Made with more closely placed warp yarns. higher strength. Bowed fabric: Filling yarns dip in the centre of fabric. width:1/4th inch. It usually made more compact and stronger than the rest of the fabric. better the quality of fabric. warp yarns lie straighter & more stronger. Printed designs are not straight. Lengthwise grain Crosswise grain Bias & True bias Identification of grain: selvage parallel to lengthwise grain. The selvedge prevents the fabric from raveling. This fabric is more durable.
opening between warp yarns through which weft yarn passes Picking: inserting of weft yarn by the shuttle through the shed Beating up: packing the weft yarn into the cloth to make it compact Taking up: winding newly formed cloth onto the cloth beam. The Drop wire is a device that will stop the loom if an end should break. Preparing the Filling Yarns for Weaving Yarn that is to be used for filling must be packaged in some from that allows it to be unwound easily for transport through the shed is called a shuttle and is made up of a wooden carrier into which a quill or pirn is placed.g. heddle eye. Preparing the Wrap Yarns for Weaving Before their use on the loom. Fabric count of a unbalanced fabric: 144 X 76 or 100 X 60. The number of harnesses required for the loom is determined by the weave. Basic/Simple Weaves 2.UNBALANCED FABRIC: Will have a ratio of warp to weft yarns as 2:1. wrap and filling yarns must be prepared for weaving. Heddle wires are held in frames called harnesses. The warp yarns are conveyed to a cylinder called the cloth beam which is in front. E. and the reed comb like device that will push each filling yarn close against the completed fabric. each wrap end (yarn) must be threaded through its own drop wire. In preparation for weaving. a warp and a weft. Each square of the paper represents the yarn that appears on the top. the heddle eye is the opening in a heddle that carries the yarn. WEAVING PROCESS Weaving is the process of making cloth with two components. Letting off: releasing yarn from warp beam Classification of Woven Fabrics 1. Basic Weaving Operation – 4 basic steps – Primary Motions Once the filling yarns have been prepared and the wrap beam containing the sized yarns is placed at the back of the loom. Compound/Complex/Novelty Weaves Basic/Simple Weaves: 3 basic weaves . The loom goes through a series of motion Shedding: raising and lowering of warp yarns by means of harness to form shed. Weaves are represented on graph paper or point paper. Placing the wrap yarns on the loom is done either by drawing-in or by tying-in. and reed dent. It exhibits rib like structure. and can be done by very simple techniques on complicated loom.
Flat duck. firm & wears well. formed by yarns at right angles whereby each warp yarn interlaces with each weft yarn Properties: least expensive to produce. 2X4. Right Hand Twill . shrinks easily. Oxford cloth is 2X1 & monk cloth is 4X4. The direction of the twill on the back of the cloth is opposite to the twill line on the face. panama are other examples. hopsacking. poplin. It has a right or wrong. Balanced Twill – same number of warp pass over filling yarns. faille. have more yarn slippage. reversible unless surface design. 3 harness are required for twill weave. less absorbent. Twill Weave Each warp or weft yarn floats across two or more weft or warp yarns with a progression of interlacing by one to the right or to the left. 2X2. used as background for printing/embroidery Rib Weave fabrics rib effect is produced by using heavy yarns in the filling direction or by more warp than filling yarns per inch.diagonals run upwards to the left. ottoman. from left to right or a combination of both. forming a distinct diagonal line or wale.a) Plain Weave b) Twill Weave c) Satin Weave Compound/Complex/Novelty Weaves a) Dobby Weave b) Jacquard Weave c) Double Cloth & Double Weave d) Pique e) Pile Fabrics f) Surface Figure Weaves Plain Weave Simplest weave requiring a 2 harness loom. broadcloth. Denim . Eg Bengaline. good wrinkle recovery. 2X2.diagonals run upwards to the right Left Hand Twill . durable & wears well. abrasion resistant. 3X2. Soil resistant. softer & pliable. 4X4 Unbalanced Twill – have uneven number of warp or filling yarn. 4X4. It is reversible. Direction of diagonal may be formed from right to left. taffeta Basket Weave fabrics Basket weave is made by treating two or more yarns as one in either the warp or weft or both the directions and interlacing them in plain weave. Eg 2X1. wrinkles more. It is not as firm as plain weave.
Jacquard Weave Characteristics: highly intricate large designs using coloured yarns and multi-weaves produced on loom with jacquard attachment. firm. Weaving pattern controlled by a plastic tape with punched holes that control the raising & lowering of warp yarns. Are more expensive. Swivel . Pique Lightweight to heavyweight cotton fabric with a raised woven design. Sateen is weft faced. Incorporates all 3 basic weaves & their combination. Eg Brocade. Used for home furnishing. Steep twill – with larger angles.Broken Twill – combines right or left hand twills Herringbone Twill – a series of inverted V’s are formed resembling the backbone of the herringbone fish. These are more stronger than Spot weave. extra yarn floats across back of fabric Clipped / unclipped Spot – embroidery like design are achieved through either extra warp or weft yarn. Damask. wrinkle resistant. herringbone. Satin is warp faced. pliable. Twill Angles – according to the angles of the diagonal line. yarn slippage. Between 2 motifs. matelasse Surface Figure /Extra Yarn Weaves Extra warp or weft yarn introduced in fabric to produce designs at regular intervals. In these weave the extra yarn is interlaced with the background at different places to avoid pulling. tapestry. produced by a combination of two or more basic weaves. Lengthwise wales or cords on the face of fabric (formed by extra warp yarns) that are held in place by . elaborate & decorative fabrics. Lappet – contains extra warp yarns. apparel. Each warp yarn is controlled separately by punched cards that are laced together in a continuous strip. E.g. Long floats on the back when cut is called Clipped Spot & when uncut – Unclipped Spot. Most commonly used in suiting fabrics.contains extra filling yarns. Reclining twill – with smaller angles. Compound/Complex/Novelty Weaves/ Figure/ Decorative weave Dobby Weave Small figured designs (floral or geometrical) woven repeatedly throughout the fabric. hound’s-tooth Satin Weave Each warp/ filling yarn floats over 4 filling/ warp yarns & interlaces with 5th filling/ warp yarn. durable (yarns packed closely together).45° ∠ . It uses up to 32 harness. Regular twill . brocatelle. with progression of interlacing by 2 to right or left (warp faced/ weft faced). Luster (long floats).: denim. 5 harness are required for satin weave. using a dobby attachment on the loom.
marquisette. Irregular. fruit sacks. firmly holding the filling yarn in the figure – 8 loops formed. terry. Produces a variety of fabrics. Other Special Weaves Crepe Weave Crinkled or pebbly surface. mesh. Hound’s tooth – 2 up. rice net. gauge. Leno fabrics are open and gauge like. utilizing 3 sets of yarns. Two fabrics are woven together on the same loom. Woven Pile Fabrics 3-dimensional fabrics. Leno Weave The warp yarns are paired. one above the other & laced together with an extra set of warp or weft yarns called binder yarns (5 sets of yarns). Warp pile fabric.crosswise weft floats on the back of fabric. indistinct pattern utilizing both plain and satin weave using dobby attachment are made. Textured yarns. Triaxial Fabric . reversible. Pile fabrics are commonly prepared by this method. velour. 4 or 5 sets of yarn. honeycomb. greater firmness & strength than plain weave.Uncut pile – terry. stable. bedcord. bicomponent yarns (uneven shrinkage). embossing. Used for upholstery. corduroy Colour & Weave Effect Pattern produced in a fabric by using a certain weave and a certain arrangement of differently coloured yarns in both warp and filling. 45° left hand twill. In all these plain weave. Leno weave is useful in reducing yarn slippage. Few crepe weave fabric are available. synthetic fibers and thermoplastic property is used. huck toweling. Extra set of yarns forming the pile may be cut to produce an erect pile on the face of fabric – Cut Pile – velvet or left uncut to form loops on one or both sides of fabric. With a special leno or doup attachment warp yarns are crossed/ twisted over each other in pairs around each pick. Usescurtain. Weft pile fabric – velveteen. Other crepe fabrics are created using crepe yarn which are highly twisted (up to 65 tpi). and group of 4 yarns of one colour are arranged in both warp & filling followed by the other colour. plushes. grenadine. may have different color or design on the two sides. pique Double Cloth They are made with 3. drapery and heavy apparels. They are not interwoven but laid under the cords to emphasize quilted effect. granite. Made on dobby or jacquard loom. 2 down. Eg waffle. warp & weft to form base fabric & extra set of warp or weft yarns to form pile or loop surface.velvet. Extra warp yarns (stuffer yarns) do not show on face of fabric. stamping crepe like effect are being used. mosquito net.
Uses – aerospace. The warp yarns are placed diagonal to each other by special attachments. balloon. resistance to shear forces & raveling. industrial fabrics. Stability against stretching in all direction even bias. truck covers. Lighter. basic basket triaxial weave & biplane weave. longer life & less material required than biaxial fabrics. 2 warp & 1 filling. through which the filling yarn is interlaced. sail cloth.Triaxail fabrics have 3 set of yarns. . Three major weaves – basic triaxial weave. uniforms & outerwear. strong resistance. It is an ancient weave used in basket weaving.
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