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# Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,

## Geodetics: Implications for GIS Professionals

May 10, 2018

Michael Barnes
APSG Education Foundation Chair 2010-2020
APSG Chair 2008-2009

1
30 minutes

Content

## • Geodetic Datums and Map Projections

• Ten geodetic awareness topics for you
• A Random Thought: geodetics on the world stage
• Finally …

References:
www.apsg.info
www.iogp.org
www.epsg-registry.org
APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018
Hierarchy of Mapping
Ellipsoid

## stable Unstable w/o Datum

P
hp

Projected
λp Φp
Zp CRS
Equator is a derivative
Yp Xp of the Datum
(Geog CRS)
Easting, Northing,
Elevation (above MSL)

## Datum (ellipsoid & origin)

is the Foundation
X,Y,Z Cartesian and Lat, Long, Ht

Source: APSG
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Beware . . .

## Knowing the map projection and all its

parameters is insufficient
(even if the ellipsoid is known)
…Unless associated with a Geographic Coordinate
Reference System / Datum

## The Map Projection coupled with a

GeogCRS / Datum makes a Projected Coordinate
Reference System (or ProjCRS)

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

Geodesy Reference Surfaces

H
h

N=h-H
Ellipsoid
Normal to Ellipsoid Normal to Geoid
Geoid
Terrain

b
a

Geoid Ellipsoid
Equipotential surface which Surface where Computations are made
approximates to MSL 1/f = a/(a-b)
APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018
Source: APSG
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Half of the story

Reference Ellipsoids

## • Fundamental to hundreds of Geodetic Datums

• 77 in the epsg-registry
• Most commonly used in petroleum are:
% of
EPSG Code Reference Ellipsoid Name Used
total

## 7004 Bessel 1841 38 7%

7030 WGS 84 29 5%

Others 70 15%

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Two part story

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Wrong Datum, Wrong Location
1000

500

Selected 8
  ( meters )

0 Projects
Datums in
Red

-500

-1000
-1000 -500 0 500 1000
  ( meters ) Source: Phil Summerfield

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018 8

Consequences of Poor Datum Handling

450

225 (CSRS)
  ( meters )

WGS 84 56

0 Cape

Pulkova
42

-225
Minna
Aratu
Abidjan

-450
-450 -225 0 225 450
  ( meters )

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Map Projections characteristics

## Azimuth & Angle

Area

General

Length
Shape
Shear
Distortion is unavoidable in any projection

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

Typical Map Projection Methods

## • Universal Transverse Mercator

• Transverse Mercator
• Lambert Conformal Conic
• Albers
• Mercator
• Others less frequently: Stereographic,
Oblique Stereographic, Oblique Mercator

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

Map projections: Area Calculations for CONUS

Areas:
Ellipsoidal 8,067,169.67 km2
Albers Equal Area Conic 8,072,019.56 km2 [+0.06%]
Lambert Conformal Conic 7,193,234.60 km2 [-10.83%]
Mercator Cylindrical 13,702,681.84 km2 [+69.86%]
APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018 Source: Phil Summerfield
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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

## 10 Self Assessment Questions:

10 seconds response

Easy !
Don’t know, I need more awareness

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

## Q1. How many Horizontal Geodetic Datums are

databased in the EPSG registry?

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Review www.epsg-registry.org

## 460 Horizontal Geodetic

Datums in the Database

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

## Q2. What is the definition difference between a

Coordinate System and a Coordinate
Reference System?

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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CS is a subset of CRS
• Coordinate Systems are:
– Cartesian, Ellipsoidal, Spherical, Vertical
Coordinate System
Code - CS CS Name CS Type Dimension Remarks

## 4400 Cartesian 2D CS. Axes: Cartesian 2 Used in projected and

easting, northing (E,N). engineering coordinate
Orientations: east, north. reference systems.
UoM: m.

## • Coordinate Reference System:

– Geographic 2D, Geographic 3D, Geocentric,
Projected, Compound, Engineering, Vertical
Coordinate Reference System
Code - Coord Sys Datum Base CRS Projn Conv Cmpd Hor Cmpd Vert
CRS Name Area code CRS Type CRS Scope
CRS code code Code Code CRS Code CRS Code

## 32615 WGS 84 / 2028 projected 4400 4326 16015 Large and

UTM zone medium
15N scale
topographic
mapping
and
engineering
APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018 survey.
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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

## Q3. What accuracy dilution can I expect from a

horizontal geodetic datum transformation?

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Estimated accuracies of 2,114 Datum Transformations
absentia
25-100 m 100-800 m
0.3% 10%
6%
Less than 1 m
10-25 m 56%
4%
5-10 m
7%

1-5 m
17%

## Source: EPSG Registry v9.2

APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018
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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

## Q4. Name 3 common map projections that

preserve area ratios?

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Equal Area Map Projections

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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5 kinds of Reference North

## True North = Direction of the meridian through a

point
Magnetic North = Differs from True North by
declination and varies with time
Grid North = Differs from True North by
convergence
Gyro North = a measurement of True North by
instrument
Plant or Project or Rig North = strictly a “local”
non-georeferenced orientation
APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018
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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

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EPSG CRS 32615

## Definition codes are really useful,

they assist data handling
(ensuring; consistency, completeness,
correctness and verified)

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

encounter?

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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There is no standard foot

## 13 kinds of feet and 2 kinds of meters in use

Reference Units: Biggest Petroleum Industry Problem

## 1 ftUS = 1.000002 ft (Intl), but this is still important for UTM,

generating 30-60 foot errors, depending on latitude

## Other Feet: Clarke’s Foot, Sears 1922, 2 for Benoit

(both 1895), Gold Coast Ft., 4 Indian Ft.
(1865, 1937, 1962 & 1975) and 2 British
Feet (1865 & 1935)

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

## Q8. Where is a good source of guidance for

understanding of Vertical Data in GIS?

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www.iogp.org

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Basic geodetic considerations

## • Joining Turn Points

➢ grid (plane)
➢ parallel, meridian, geodesic
➢ loxodrome (rhumb line)

## But also note:

• Calculation of Area
➢ Map Grid (with and without corrected area scale factor)
➢ Ellipsoidal
➢ Ground or other surface level Ref: OGP GN’s and Prior
APSG presentations for
technical explanations

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

## Q10. Decimal degrees truncated at 0.000001

degrees implies what realistic metric
accuracy?

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Latitude dependent

0.000001 degrees ≡ 6 to 60 cm

## Original source: APSG

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If you remember nothing else….. “not unique”

## • Latitudes and Longitudes are not unique unless

qualified with datum name
• Projection Coordinates are not unique unless
qualified with projection name, zone and datum
• Heights are not unique unless qualified with
Surface Reference (Vertical Datum)
• Reference Norths are not unique unless qualified
• Units of Measure are not unique unless qualified
with Unit Reference

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

A random thought:

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Core to UNCLOS is maritime states rights to resources

## 200 nautical miles = 230 miles = 370 km

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Boundaries are politically sensitive, legally and technically complex, and need good geodesy

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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20 nations with license blocks beyond 200 nM

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Complex Multiple Overlapping Claims

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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Before GIS, we had 200 years of geodetic surveying
and mapping .. the science is still the same ..

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

National Geodetic Survey of Nepal 1981-1983 40
Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

Final thoughts on

## APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018

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