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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,

Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

Geodetics: Implications for GIS Professionals


May 10, 2018

Michael Barnes
APSG Education Foundation Chair 2010-2020
APSG Chair 2008-2009

APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018


1
30 minutes

Content

• Geodetic Datums and Map Projections


• Ten geodetic awareness topics for you
• A Random Thought: geodetics on the world stage
• Finally …

References:
www.apsg.info
www.iogp.org
www.epsg-registry.org
APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018
Hierarchy of Mapping
Ellipsoid

stable Unstable w/o Datum


P
hp

Projected
λp Φp
Zp CRS
Equator is a derivative
Yp Xp of the Datum
(Geog CRS)
Easting, Northing,
Elevation (above MSL)

Datum (ellipsoid & origin)


is the Foundation
X,Y,Z Cartesian and Lat, Long, Ht

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Source: APSG
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Beware . . .

Knowing the map projection and all its


parameters is insufficient
(even if the ellipsoid is known)
…Unless associated with a Geographic Coordinate
Reference System / Datum

The Map Projection coupled with a


GeogCRS / Datum makes a Projected Coordinate
Reference System (or ProjCRS)

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Geodesy Reference Surfaces

H
h

N=h-H
Ellipsoid
Normal to Ellipsoid Normal to Geoid
Geoid
Terrain

b
a

Geoid Ellipsoid
Equipotential surface which Surface where Computations are made
approximates to MSL 1/f = a/(a-b)
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Source: APSG
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Half of the story

Reference Ellipsoids

• Fundamental to hundreds of Geodetic Datums


• 77 in the epsg-registry
• Most commonly used in petroleum are:
% of
EPSG Code Reference Ellipsoid Name Used
total

7022 International 1924 125 24%

7019 GRS 1980 92 17%

7012 Clarke 1880 (RGS) 47 9%

7004 Bessel 1841 38 7%

7030 WGS 84 29 5%

7008 Clarke 1866 24 5%

7011 Clarke 1880 (IGN) 19 4%

7024 Krassowsky 1940 14 3%

Others 70 15%

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Two part story

Examples of Geodetic Datums

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Wrong Datum, Wrong Location
1000

500

Selected 8
  ( meters )

0 Projects
Datums in
Red

-500

-1000
-1000 -500 0 500 1000
  ( meters ) Source: Phil Summerfield

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Consequences of Poor Datum Handling

450

NAD 27

NAD 83
225 (CSRS)
SAD 69
PSAD
  ( meters )

WGS 84 56

0 Cape

Pulkova
42

-225
Minna
Aratu
Abidjan

-450
-450 -225 0 225 450
  ( meters )

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Map Projections characteristics

Azimuth & Angle


Area

General

Length
Shape
Shear
Distortion is unavoidable in any projection

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Typical Map Projection Methods

• Universal Transverse Mercator


• Transverse Mercator
• Lambert Conformal Conic
• Albers
• Mercator
• Others less frequently: Stereographic,
Oblique Stereographic, Oblique Mercator

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Map projections: Area Calculations for CONUS

Areas:
Ellipsoidal 8,067,169.67 km2
Albers Equal Area Conic 8,072,019.56 km2 [+0.06%]
Lambert Conformal Conic 7,193,234.60 km2 [-10.83%]
Mercator Cylindrical 13,702,681.84 km2 [+69.86%]
APSG at Esri Petroleum GIS Conference | Houston May 2018 Source: Phil Summerfield
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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

10 Self Assessment Questions:


10 seconds response

Easy !
Don’t know, I need more awareness
What is Barnes talking about?

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

Q1. How many Horizontal Geodetic Datums are


databased in the EPSG registry?

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Review www.epsg-registry.org

460 Horizontal Geodetic


Datums in the Database

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

Q2. What is the definition difference between a


Coordinate System and a Coordinate
Reference System?

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CS is a subset of CRS
• Coordinate Systems are:
– Cartesian, Ellipsoidal, Spherical, Vertical
Coordinate System
Code - CS CS Name CS Type Dimension Remarks

4400 Cartesian 2D CS. Axes: Cartesian 2 Used in projected and


easting, northing (E,N). engineering coordinate
Orientations: east, north. reference systems.
UoM: m.

• Coordinate Reference System:


– Geographic 2D, Geographic 3D, Geocentric,
Projected, Compound, Engineering, Vertical
Coordinate Reference System
Code - Coord Sys Datum Base CRS Projn Conv Cmpd Hor Cmpd Vert
CRS Name Area code CRS Type CRS Scope
CRS code code Code Code CRS Code CRS Code

32615 WGS 84 / 2028 projected 4400 4326 16015 Large and


UTM zone medium
15N scale
topographic
mapping
and
engineering
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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

Q3. What accuracy dilution can I expect from a


horizontal geodetic datum transformation?

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Estimated accuracies of 2,114 Datum Transformations
absentia
25-100 m 100-800 m
0.3% 10%
6%
Less than 1 m
10-25 m 56%
4%
5-10 m
7%

1-5 m
17%

Source: EPSG Registry v9.2


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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

Q4. Name 3 common map projections that


preserve area ratios?

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Equal Area Map Projections

• Albers Equal Area Conic

• Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

• Lambert Cylindrical Equal Area

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

Q5. How many Reference Norths are used?

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5 kinds of Reference North

True North = Direction of the meridian through a


point
Magnetic North = Differs from True North by
declination and varies with time
Grid North = Differs from True North by
convergence
Gyro North = a measurement of True North by
instrument
Plant or Project or Rig North = strictly a “local”
non-georeferenced orientation
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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

Q6. What is the meaning of EPSG code 32615?

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EPSG CRS 32615

WGS 84 UTM zone 15N

Definition codes are really useful,


they assist data handling
(ensuring; consistency, completeness,
correctness and verified)

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

Q7. How many Units of Measure do we


encounter?

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There is no standard foot

13 kinds of feet and 2 kinds of meters in use


Reference Units: Biggest Petroleum Industry Problem

US Survey Foot vs. International Foot

1 ftUS = 1.000002 ft (Intl), but this is still important for UTM,


generating 30-60 foot errors, depending on latitude

Other Feet: Clarke’s Foot, Sears 1922, 2 for Benoit


(both 1895), Gold Coast Ft., 4 Indian Ft.
(1865, 1937, 1962 & 1975) and 2 British
Feet (1865 & 1935)

2 meters: International Meter and German Legal Meter

Other linear units: Chains, Links, and Yards

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

Q8. Where is a good source of guidance for


understanding of Vertical Data in GIS?

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www.iogp.org

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

Q9. What types of lines are used for delineation


of Block Licenses?

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Basic geodetic considerations

Block License Delineation

• Joining Turn Points


➢ grid (plane)
➢ parallel, meridian, geodesic
➢ loxodrome (rhumb line)

But also note:

• Calculation of Area
➢ Map Grid (with and without corrected area scale factor)
➢ Ellipsoidal
➢ Ground or other surface level Ref: OGP GN’s and Prior
APSG presentations for
technical explanations

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

Q10. Decimal degrees truncated at 0.000001


degrees implies what realistic metric
accuracy?

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Latitude dependent

0.000001 degrees ≡ 6 to 60 cm

Original source: APSG


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If you remember nothing else….. “not unique”

• Latitudes and Longitudes are not unique unless


qualified with datum name
• Projection Coordinates are not unique unless
qualified with projection name, zone and datum
• Heights are not unique unless qualified with
Surface Reference (Vertical Datum)
• Reference Norths are not unique unless qualified
with Heading Reference
• Units of Measure are not unique unless qualified
with Unit Reference

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Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

A random thought:

Geodetics matters to International Peace

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Core to UNCLOS is maritime states rights to resources

Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) at 200 nM

200 nautical miles = 230 miles = 370 km


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Boundaries are politically sensitive, legally and technically complex, and need good geodesy

Disputes over boundaries and transboundary resources

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20 nations with license blocks beyond 200 nM

Subject to an additional ISA Royalty Payments ?

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Complex Multiple Overlapping Claims

Geopolitical tangle in South China Sea

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Before GIS, we had 200 years of geodetic surveying
and mapping .. the science is still the same ..

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National Geodetic Survey of Nepal 1981-1983 40
Experts in Geomatics, Surveying, Positioning,
Geospatial Data, and Mapping Sciences

Final thoughts on

“Geodetics: Implications for GIS Professionals”

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