You are on page 1of 128

BIPOLAR JUNCTION

TRANSISTOR
( BJT )
Short history
1904
The Vacuum tube diode was
introduced by J. A. Fleming

its known then as the Fleming


Valve or Thermionic Valve.
VACUUM TUBE DIODE
PLATE PLATE

Ip Ip

VP VP

CATHODE CATHODE

VAC VAC

REVERSE BIAS
FORWARD BIAS
1906- TRIODE

Lee de Forest
added a third
element called the
control grid to the
vacuum tube,
resulting in the first
amplifier, the triode
TRIODE ELEMENTS
PLATE
CONTROL GRID

VPK

VGK CATHODE

VAC

COMMON CATHODE CONFIGURATION


THREE TRIODE PARAMETERS
1. AMPLIFICATION FACTOR () = is the ratio of
the change in grid voltage (Vg) to the change
in plate voltage (Vp) at a constant plate
current (Ip)

 at_Ip_constant
Vg
Vp
2. Plate Resistance= is the ratio of the change in
plate voltage (Vp) to the change of plate current
(Ip) at a constant grid voltage (Vg).
Vp
rP  @Vg  constant
Ip
3. Transconductance (gm) = is the ratio of the
change of plate current (Ip) to the change in grid
voltage (Vg) at a constant plate voltage (Vp)

Ip
gm  @Vp  constant
Vg
3 TRIODE PARAMETERS
RELATION

rP gm
Early 1930’s

The four element tetrode and


the five elements pentode
gained prominence in the
electronics industry.
December 23, 1947
The first transistor was
demonstrated by
What was the first name given
to a transistor?

Answer : Point Contact Transistor


Why TRANSISTOR?
contraction of TRANSFER
TRANS and
RESISTOR
ISTOR
force – voltage/current
water flow – current
- amplification

Understanding of BJT 13
Transistor is a three terminal solid
state device which is capable of

AMPLIFYING SIGNALS
Bipolar Junction Transistor

technically described B as
JBipolar Junction
T Transistor
“Bipolar “ because they use two
“Bi
different
means two
types of semiconductor
materials namely N type and P type
1. N type & 2. p type
and because they use opposite
polarity biasing voltage
Junction?

“ Junction “ because they


use current – carrying PN
junction
What is a junction?

That part where holes and


electrons participate in the
injection process into the
oppositely polarized
oppositely polarized
material
Why not unipolar?
Unipolar – only one carrier is
employed

Example of a unipolar device?

FET
BJT is usually termed as a 3
terminal current controlled
device

WHY?
The Bipolar junction transistor consist of two
back to back P-N junctions manufactured in
a single of a semiconductor crystal.

Three region:
Emitter
Base
Collector
Emitter – it is more heavily doped than any of the
other regions because its main function is to
supply majority charge carries (either electrons or
holes) to the base.
Base – it forms the middle section of the transistor.
It is very thin (10-6m) as compared to either the
emitter or collector and is very lightly-doped.
Collector – its main function (as indicated by its
name) is to collect majority charge carries coming
from the emitter and passing through the base.
Two types of transistor

1.

2.
PNP Pointing iN NPN Not Pointing iN
Construction for
PNP & NPN

0.15

E C

0.001

RATIO = widthtotal / widthbase=150


Proper biasing to function as
an amplifier

P N P N P N
Basic operation

majority carrier minority carrier

P N N P
The collector is the The base is very The emitter is
largest and is
connected to the heat thin lightly doped small and heavily
sink doped

Base–Collector is reverse
bias. 99% 0f the carriers
Base-emitter is forward
injected Into the base
bias
region are swept to the
collector
A PNP transistor
Emitter (p) Base (n) Collector (p)

Hole flow
_
+
A forward – biased P-N junction is
basically a low resistance path for
current flow. Conversely , a reverse –
biased P-N junction represents a high
resistance path
Three transistor currents
IC
C

B
IE = IC + IB

IB
β = IC / IB
α - common base ,
E
short circuit amplification
IE
factor
α = IC / IE
β - common – emitter,
forward–current amplification
factor
Note
The collector current , IC , is always much
larger than the base current
Typically , IC is between 49 and 300 times
greater than IB
Examples
1.The collector current is 1.2 mA when the
base current is 24 micro ampere. What is
the current gain ,  , of the transistor
2.The  of a certain BJT is known to be
approximately 180. How much base
current is required in order to have 18 mA
of collector current
Example
3. Suppose you measure the base
current for a certain BJT and find it is
15 A. The corresponding collector
current is 2mA. What is the dc
current gain , , of the BJT if it is an
NPN transistor ? If it is a PNP
transistor ?
Transistor Amplifying Action

IE IC
P N P

IB
Vin=200mV RL= 5kΩ
Ri=20Ω Ro=100k Ω

Solve for the voltage gain (Av)?


Transistor Amplifying Action
This is one basic principle on which power
gain is produced by a transistor. In effect,
the transistor has transferred the signal
from low resistance TRANSFER
(input) to a high
resistance (output).Thus,
RESISTOR the word
transiENstor relates the concept of
transfer and resistance

TRANS ISTOR

Hence TRANSISTOR
Amplified Output
Note:

Transistor uses a small amount of base


current to control a large amount of
collector current
The base region in a BJT is extremely thin
and very lightly doped. This is why it is
possible to force current to flow between
the emitter and collector whenever base-
emitter junction is forward biased.
Three transistor circuit
configuration
1. Common base configuration ( CB )
2. Common emitter configuration (CE )
3. Common collector ( CC )

Common – is used to denote the electrode


that is common to the input and output
circuits.
Common Base

Base is common to both input


and output

ICBO – leakage current


emitter current IE is the input current and collector IC
is the output current.
Ratio of the collector current to the emitter is called
dc alpha (αdc)

Note: Negative sign has been omitted, since we are


concerned with only magnitudes of the current.
0.95 to 0.999
Basic features of common base
amplifiers

1.The input signal is introduced into the emitter,


and the output is taken from the collector
circuit ( the base is common to input and
output )
2.The input circuit is very low impedance,
usually between 1  and 50  .
3.The output circuit is high impedance
(about 1k to 1 M )
4.Current gain is always lesser than 1
5.There is no phase reversal between the input
and output signals.
EXAMPLE
Following current reading are obtained in a
transistor connected in CB configuration: IE
= 2mA and IB = 20μA. Compute the values
of α and IC
Common Emitter

Emitter is common to both input


and output

ICEO – leakage current


Input signal is applied between the base and
emitter and output signal is taken out from
the collector and emitter circuit.

Value of β 20 to 100
Basic features of Common Emitter
Amplifiers
1.The input signal is introduced into the
base circuit, and the output is taken
from the collector circuit ( the emitter
is common to the input and output)
2.The input circuit is low impedance .
Typically , the input impedance is in
the range of 25 to 5 k
3.The output circuit is medium to high
impedance , approximately 50  to
50k.
4.Current gain is always greater than 1
5.There is 180 degrees phase reversal
between the input and output signals
Common Collector

Input Output

Collector is common to both input


and output

IECO – leakage current


Input signal is applied between base and
collector and output signal is taken out from
emitter-collector circuit.
Basic features of Common
Collector Amplifiers
1. The input signal is introduced into the
base circuit , and the output is taken from
the emitter circuit ( the collector is
common to both the input and output)
2. The input circuit can have a very high
impedance
3.The output impedance is relatively low
4.The circuit provides voltage gain less
than 1
5. There is no phase reversal between the
input and output signals
EXAMPLE
The reverse saturation current of an NPN
transistor is common-base circuit is 12.5µA.
For an emitter current of 2mA. Collector
current is 1.97mA. Determine the current
gain and base current.
EXAMPLE
A transistor operating in CB configuration
has IC = 2.98mA, IE = 3.00mA and ICO =
0.01mA. What current will flow in the
collector circuit of this transistor when
connected in CE configuration with a base
current of 30µA.
SIMPLE WAYS TO
MEMORIZE THE BASIC
FEATURES OF 3 CIRCUIT
CONFIGURATION
Common Base – poor Ai, best Av
Common Emitter – moderate Ai and Av, best Ap
Common Collector- best Ai, poor Av
Relationship between
 and 
= /(1+)

=/(1-)
DC BIASING of BJT
To use the devices for amplification of
voltages or current , or as a control
elements, it is necessary to bias the
device
Therefore, the reason for Biasing:
To turn the device ON and place it in
operation in the region of its
characteristics where the device
operates most linearly
IMPORTANT BIASING RULE
PNP transistor, both collector and base are
negative with respect to the emitter (N of
negative being the same as the middle letter
of PNP) collector is more negative than
base.
NPN transistor, both collector and base are
positive with respect to the emitter (P of
Positive being the same as the middle letter
of NPN) collector is more positive than the
base
Two transistor Characteristic Curves:
1. Input Characteristic Curve
– Plot of Iin vs Vin at various values of Vout
regardless of its configuration

2. Output Characteristic Curve


– Plot of Iout vs Vout at various values of Iin
regardless of its configuration
Quiescent or Q point – operating point
Three transistor regions of
operation
1. Saturation region
2. Active region
3. Cut – off region
Saturation
is the condition in which voltage
across the device is as small as
possible with the current in the
device path reaching a limiting
or saturating value
Cut – off
is the condition in which the
device no longer conducts
Linear or Active region
is the condition in which the device
conducts at normal operation , that is ,
an amplifying action occurs
The magnitude of current is between
cut – off and saturation
A common region of operation when a
transistor is used as an amplifier
Conditions
Linear region operation
Base – emitter ----- Forward biased
Base – collector ----- Reverse biased

Cut – off region operation


Base- emitter ------- reverse biased
Base-collector ------- reverse biased

Saturation region operation


Base – emitter ----- Forward biased
Base – collector ----- Forward biased
ILLUSTRATION
REGARDLESS
OF
POLARITY
ACTIVE REGION
C
N
B SATURATION REGION
P

N
E CUT – OFF REGION
Basic uses of BJT
1.Switching
2.Amplifying
3.Impedance matching
Types of BJT biasing ckts.
1. Fixed bias circuit
2. Fixed bias circuit with
emitter resistor
3. Beta independent circuit
RB1 RC
FIXED BIAS CIRUIT

EMITTER STABILIZED

RB2 RE

BETA INDEPENDENT
BETA INDEPENDENT
(also called Voltage Divider Bias)

RB1 RC

Vcc

RB2 RE

Two methods of analysis:


1. Exact analysis
2. Approximate analysis
BIAS STABILIZATION

SENSITIVITY FACTOR vs.


STABILITY FACTOR
Is the measure of the stability of the network
due to some parameter variations
(particularly temperature)
IC is sensitive to each of the
following parameters
 – increases with increase in
temperature
VBE – decrease about 7.5 mV per
degree Celsius increase in
temperature
ICO – reverse saturation current –
doubles in value for every 10
oC increase in temperature
Stability Factor ( S )
is defined for each of the parameters
affecting bias stability

– S ( ICO ) = IC / ICO


–S ( VBE ) = IC / VBE
–S ( ) = IC / 
Notes
Networks that are quite stable and
relatively insensitive to temperature
variations have low stability factor

The higher the stabilitity factor, the more


sensitive the network to variations in that
parameter
Transistor’s AC Analysis
The sinusoidal input signal in
any amplifier determines
whether the amplifier is a SMALL
SIGNAL AC AMPLIFIER or a
LARGE SIGNAL AC AMPLIFIER
Why AC Analysis in amplifiers?
To determine the overall characteristic of
an amplifier circuit at AC condition
such as:
– Zi = input impedance
– Zo= output impedance
– Av = voltage gain
– Ai = current gain
Small signal Amplifier
Designed to operate at small AC input
signals and at power level less than
1watt.
The Small Signal AC Equivalent
Circuit can be constructed by:
– Considering the capacitor in the
amplifier circuit a short circuit
– Ground all DC supplies in the
amplifier circuit
Two Models of Small Signal
Analysis for BJT:

a. HYBRID MODEL
b. Re MODEL
A. HYBRID MODEL
SMALL SIGNAL ANALYSIS BJT

Io
Iin
BJT Vo
Vi

The following set of equations relates the 4


variables to each other:
Eqn 1: Vi = h11 I in + h 12 Vo
Eqn 2: Io = h21 I in + h22 Vo
From Equation 1:
VO = 0

Vi ==
Vi h I
h11 Iinin
11 + h 12 Vo

h11 – short circuit iinput impedance


h
From Equation 1 again:
Iin = 0

Vi
Vi = h11 I in + h1212 V
Voo

h12 – open circuit rreverse transfer


voltage ratio
h
From Eqn 2:
VO = 0

IIo0 = hh21
21 Iinin + h 22 Vo

h21 – short circuit fforward transfer


current ratio parameter
h
From Eqn 2:
Iin = 0

IV
o i =
= h21 I in + hh2222 V
vo

h22 – open circuit o


output conductance
h
Hybrid

Iin
hi
+
hrVo - hfIin ho
Vo
hybrid
COMMON EMITTER

IIinB
B C
hhiei
+
hreVhrCE
Vo - hfehIfIBin hoeo
VVCE
o

E
hybrid
COMMON EMITTER
BASE

IIinBE
B C
hhieibi
+
h rerb VhrCB
Vo - hIfIBEin
hfefb hob
o
oe
CE VVCE
CB
o

E
hybrid
COMMON EMITTER
COMMON COLLECTOR

IIinBB
B
hhieici C
+
h rerc VhrEC
Vo - hfefchIfIBin hoc
o
oe
CE VVCE
EC
o

E
Simplified Hybrid

SHORT CIRCUIT OPEN CIRCUIT


Iin
hi
+
hrVo - hfIin ho
Vo

hr = 0 hO = 0
Simplified Hybrid

Iin
hi
hfIin Vo
h-parameters Typical Values
CE CB CC
hi 1 k 20  1 k
hr 2.5 X 10-4 3 X 10-4 1
hf 50 - 0.98 -50
ho 25 s 0.5 s 25s
Comparison between three
transistor configuration
CB CE CC

Zi low moderate high


Zo high moderate low
Ai low 1 high moderate
Av high high low 1
Ap moderate high low
Shift none 180o none
The Re model

Iin

re Ie=Ic Vo

COMMON BASE
The Re model

Iin

 re  IB Vo

COMMON EMITTER
LARGE SIGNAL AMPLFIERS
ARE DESIGNED FOR HIGHER
INPUT CURRENT LEVELS AND
OUTPUT POWER LEVEL ( SUCH
AS AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER
SYSTEM)
Classes of Large Signal Amplifier
Operation:
1. Class A
– Ic flows at all times or during 360 of the
input cycle
– Q point is halfway between cut-off &
saturation
2. Class B
– Ic flows at 180 degrees
– When Q point is set at cut-off
3. Class C
– Ic flows for approximately 120 degrees of the
input signal cycle
– When Q point is set below cut-off
Advantages of transistor over
vacuum tubes
smaller and light weight
had no heater requirement
more efficient since less power is
absorbed by the device
instantly available for use requiring no
warm – up period
low operating voltages
POSSIBLE BOARD EXAM
ECE Board Exam November
1996
1. The arrow in the symbol of a
transistor
indicates the direction of
A. electron current in the collector
B. donor ion current
C. electron current in the base
D. hole current in the emitter
ECE Board Exam November
2001
2. What is the greatest danger to a
transistor?

A. Excessive power
B. Excessive resistance
C. Cold
D. static electricity
ECE Board Exam April 1999
3. Name of a semiconductor device that
has three or more elements.

A. Thermistor
B. Transistor
C. Resistor
D. Collector
ECE Board Exam April 1998
4. A transistor acts as __________ when
saturated.

A. open circuit
B. very low resistance
C. very high resistance
D. variable resistance
ECE Board Exam April 1998
5. In semiconductor technology the
characteristic of a transistor in cut-off
refers to a condition when _________.

A. the transistor is at its operating point


B. no current flows from emitter to collector
C. there is no base current
D. maximum current flows from emitter to
collector
6. What value of power is
considered as Small signal?
a. > 3mW
b. < 30 mW
c. < 1 watt
d. None of the choices
ECE Board Exam April 1998
7. What is the distinguishing feature of a
class C amplifier?
A. Output is present for less than 180
degrees of the input signal cycle.
B. Output is present for entire signal
cycle.
C. Output is present for exactly 180
degrees of the input signal cycle.
D. Output is present for more than 180
degrees but less than 360 degrees of the
input signal cycle
ECE Board Exam November
1995
8. The term “fully saturated” for a transistor
refers to

A. the collector current at its maximum value.


B. the collector current at its minimum value.
C. the transistors beta at its maximum value.
D. the transistor alpha at its maximum value.
ECE Board Exam November
1997
9. Which are the three terminals of a
bipolar transistor?
A. Cathode
B. Base, collector and emitter
C. Input, output and ground
D. Gate, source and sink
ECE Board Exam November
2001
10. Term used to describe bias condition of
a device or circuit where no current
can flow is ______.

A. depletion
B. saturation
C. steady
D. cut-off
ECE Board Exam November
1997
11. ______ is the term used to express the
ratio of the change in dc collector
current to a change in base current in a
bipolar transistor.

A. Alpha
B. Delta
C. Gamma
D. Beta
ECE Board Exam March 1996
12. _________ for a transistor to be cut-off

A. Maximum current flows from emitter


to collector
B. The transistor is at its operating
point
C. No current flows from emitter to
collector
D. There is no base current
ECE Board Exam April 2000
13. The primary difference between the
PNP and NPN amplifier.

A. Capacity
B. Type of input
C. Type of bias
D. Polarity of source voltage
ECE Board Exam March 1996
14. Common-base (CB) amplifier has
________ compared to common-
emitter and common-collector amplifier.

A. high input resistance


B. larger current gain
C. low input resistance
D. largest voltage gain
ECE Board Exam November
1998
15. Which of the electronic transistor
configuration has the highest current
gain?

A. All are equal


B. Common emitter
C. Common collector
D. Common base
16. The term open circuit equivalent of a
transistor refers to ________.

A. the transistor is at its operating point


B. no current flow from emitter to
collector
C. maximum current flow from emitter to
collector
D. there is no base current
ECE Board Exam April 2001
17. Which transistor configuration has a
current gain of less than 1?

A. Common transmitter
B. Common collector
C. Common emitter
D. Common base
ECE Board Exam April 2000
18. Percentage of current in an NPN
transistor that reaches the collector.

A. 75 percent
B. 100 percent
C. 98 percent
D. 90 percent
ECE Board Exam November
1995
19. Solve the collector current if base
current is 200 mA and the current gain
is 20.

A. 10 A
B. 4 A
C. 1 A
D. 40 A
ECE Board Exam April 1999
20. Emitter follower is used for _______.

A. current gain
B. impedance matching
C. voltage gain
D. current regulator
ECE Board Exam April 1998

21. PNP transistor has the following arrangement?

A. P-type base, N-type emitter, P-type collector


B. P-type emitter, N-type base, P-type collector
C. P-type collector, N-type base, P-type emitter
D. P-type emitter, N-type collector, P-type base
ECE Board Exam November
1997
22. The region in an electronic transistor
that is very lightly doped and very thin
is referred to the ________.

A. collector-base
B. collector
C. base
D. emitter
ECE Board Exam April 1998

23. Solve for the base current if collector


current is 600 mA and the current gain
is 20.

A. 30 mA
B. 3 mA
C. 2 mA
D. 1.2 mA
ECE Board Exam November
1995
24. What is the most stable type of
biasing?

A. Current feedback
B. Fixed bias
C. Voltage divider
D. Voltage feedback
ECE Board Exam April 1998
25. A transistor in which n-type and p-
type materials are used is called
______.

A. unijunction
B. TTL
C. bipolar
D. FET
26. ______ is term used to express the
ratio of change in the dc collector current
to a change in emitter current in a bipolar
transistor.

A. Gamma
B. Beta
C. Alpha
D. Delta
ECE Board Exam March 1996
27. ______ is the region in a transistor that
is heavily doped.

A. Collector
B. Ground
C. Base
D. Emitter
28. Reverse saturation current doubles in
value for every what increase in
temperature?
A. 10º C
B. 20 º C
C. 5 º C
D. 15 º C
29. What h is define as the short circuit input
impedance parameter for common base
amplifier.
A. hi
B. hob
C. hie
D. hib
30. The name of the term used to describe the
condition in a transistor when the emitter-
base junction has zero bias or is reversed bias
and there is no collector current.
A. Saturation
B. Cut off
C. Over driven
D. Over load
THE END

THANKS