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Introduction

Digital cinema encompasses every aspect of the movie making process, from production and post-production to distribution and projection. A digitally produced or digitally converted movie can be distributed to theaters via satellite, physical media, or fiber optic networks. The digitized movie is stored by a computer/server which "serves" it to a digital projector for each screening of the movie. Projectors based on DLP Cinema® technology are currently installed in over 1,195 theaters in 30 countries worldwide - and remain the first and only commercially available digital cinema projectors.

When you see a movie digitally, you see that movie the way its creators intended you to see it: with incredible clarity and detail. In a range of up to 35 trillion colors. And whether you're catching that movie on opening night or months after, it will always look its best, because digital movies are immune to the scratches, fading, pops and jitter that film is prone to with repeated screenings.Main advantage of digital movies are that, expensive film rolls and postprocessing expenses could be done away. Movie would be transmitted to computers in movie theatres, hence the movie could be released in a larger number of theatres.

Digital technology has already taken over much of the home entertainment market. It seems strange, then, that the vast majority of theatrical motion pictures are shot and distributed on celluloid film,just like they were more than a century ago. Of course, the technology has improved over the years, but it's still based on the same basic principles. The reason is simple: Up until recently, nothing could come close to the image quality of projected film. Digital cinema is simply a new approach to making and showing movies. The basic idea is to use bits and bytes (strings of 1s and 0s) to record, transmit and replay images, rather than using chemicals on film.

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The main advantage of digital technology (such as a HYPERLINK "http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/cd.htm" CD ) is that it can store, transmit and retrieve a huge amount of information exactly as it was originally recorded. Analog technology (such as an audio tape) loses information in transmission, and generally degrades with each viewing. Digital information is also a lot more flexible than analog information. A computer can manipulate bytes of data very easily, but it can't do much with a streaming analog signal. It's a completely different language.

Digital cinema affects three major areas of movie-making:

Production - how the movie is actually made Distribution - how the movie gets from the production company to movie theaters Projection - how the theatre presents the movie.

With an $800 consumer digital camcorder, a stack of tapes, a computer and some video-editing software, you could make a digital movie. But there are a couple of problems with this approach. First, your image resolution won't be that great on a big movie screen. Second, your movie will look like news footage, not a normal theatrical film. Conventional video has a completely different look from film, and just about anybody can tell the difference in a second. Film and video differ a lot in image clarity, depth of focus and color range, but the biggest contrast is frame rate. Film cameras normally shoot at 24 frames per second, while most U.S. television video cameras shoot at 30 frames per second (29.97 per second, to be exact).

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2.

Why digital cinema technology come ?

2.1 Piracy & Cost Hurts Everyone
• Today piracy is hurting everyone– Films, Music, Software, Pharmaceuticals, Print, Merchandising– any area involving branding and IPR • The Indian Film Industry with USD 1.75 Billion in revenues loses up to 50% of its revenues to pirates i.e. roughly USD 875 million to piracy.

2.2 Indian Cinema – The Present Scenario
• Cinema distribution and exhibition business in India carried out almost entirely on celluloid format which leaves it vulnerable to piracy. • Advancement in duplication technology has made piracy easy, cost effective, speedy and difficult to prevent. • The only present safeguard against piracy is to physically guard the prints and stringent legal enforcement. Both measures, due to logistical reasons, are difficult to implement. • However, piracy is essentially a technology problem which has to be combated with technology.

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2.3 We Cannot Fight the Pirates

Piracy the world over has become an industry, technology is allowing it to flourish. Film and Music Industry are hit the hardest. Not much headway has been made in filmed entertainment to combat piracy, despite huge efforts.

The music industry is fighting by policing as well as by market strategies of reducing the rates, in films this is not possible since the cost of tickets and prints is more or less fixed.

Today the only way to beat pirates is to kill their business model

3. How do we achieve this?
The only answer is Digital Cinema • Digital Cinema means the transmission and delivery of films to theatres electronically where the image is stored in a computer server and beamed onto the theatre screens. • It uses Digital Media (fibre optics, satellite transmission, hard disks) instead of analogue media (Prints ). • • Digital Cinema uses digital projectors instead of analogue projectors. Hence Digital Cinema by eliminating all physical formats checks Piracy at its roots.

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Fig: UFO Digital cinema configuration

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4. Digital Cinema – The Only Solution
• Digital Cinema curbs piracy in three ways

Digital transmission of films to theatres eliminates “en route” content leakage Elimination of print cost provides an opportunity for a much wider release, thus taking the content to the viewers before the pirates can do so

Encrypting the content to protect the copyrights of the producers and distributors

Wide and economical release of movies through digital cinema is the only option to block the pirates. Widespread release will divert the funds from the pirates back into the cinema value chain

Fig: UFO ANTI PIRACY LOGO

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5. UFO-Anti Piracy at every stage

The following anti piracy features of UFO Movies ensures that the content is protected end to end. – Firstly, conversion into D5 tapes take place at a dedicated media centre with bio-metric access control.

Secondly , a 192 bit AES encryption system encrypts the film, frame by frame. Thirdly, license to play the film is given via Digital Video Broadband Link onto the smart cards installed in the UFO servers.

Fourthly, transfer of content from server to projector is secured by means of a HDCP cable.

Lastly, a unique identification code ensures that the source of the movies copied from the UFO theater screen can be easily identified.

6. Difference between analogue and digital: 6.1 What is analogue video?
Analogue video transmits or stores video data in a continuous wave of red green and blue (RGB). The signal is varied using different frequencies of each colour’s wave to display changing images at the receiver’s end. Since this format involves an unbroken transmission of wave data. It is prone to noise (distribution). However , since this continuous stream of data is very similar to the way we humans perceive the world our eyes receive a continuous stream of light waves, which our brain perceives as moving images (video)-analogue video data represents reality better. Celluloid film onto which pictures and sound are recorded (partially digital) Highly mechanical projectors, many moving parts Tried and tested method used for decades

 

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6.2 Analog’s Disadvantages:
Distribution - expensive, slow Film Preparation - labor intensive, error-prone Inflexible Changing venues requires physically moving print Large lead-time for ordering prints, limited selection of low-risk films

  

Fig: analogue video real & projector

6.3 What is digital video?
Digital vedio is nothing more than a series of images ,all stored in digital format(ones and zero) that is displayed in quick succession on a screen(such as a compputer monitor). A digital vedio recorder ,for example, takes analogue signals (light waves )and records them into a digital representation of the analogue dat. So almost all digital video is nothing but a computer’s understanding of analogue video. There are exceptions such as in the case of , say ,games,where there is no anologue data tobegin with ,and all the data is created and displayed digitally.

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6.4 Advantages of digital:
  Picture and sound represented digitally Stored temporarily at theater on computer hard drive or streamed directly from distributor   Screened with high-res digital projector Relatively very efficient

Fig:digital projector

6.5 Which is better?(ANALOGUE ~DIGITAL)
Though there is no perceivable difference between analogue and digital video to the human eye, digital video is preferred because of the ease with which it can be manipulated. In order to, say, edit a video, or to store it easily digital format offers a great advantage .you can just open up a soft ware and start editng up your digital video, or store hundred of movies, movie clips, on your hard drive, are even make copies of your personal videos and share them easily with your friends and family. With computers our lives doing all this has become a no –brainer, for most.

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With analogue video , you would need to store each video on video cassette, and making copies of the cassette would involve two video cassette recorders-one playing back the cassette and another recording the video in real-time on to another cassette which is a very tedious task. With digital video the same task become as easy as coping the video file to another computer are device, are even e-mailing it to hundreds of friends and family members. This is where digital video has the definite upper hand.

ANALOGUE   Distribution - expensive, slow Film Preparation - labor intensive, error-prone  Inflexible Changing venues requires physically moving print Large lead-time for ordering prints, limited selection of low-risk films     Picture digitally

DIGITAL and sound represented

Stored temporarily at theater on computer hard drive or streamed directly from distributor Screened projector Relatively very efficient with high-res digital

7. Minimum Requirements for Digital Cinema Projection
Resolution is the most visible standard. For motion picture purposes, resolution is measured in horizontal pixel count.
• • •

High-definition video resolution is 1,920 pixels per frame, or 2K. Resolution for high-speed film is 4,850 pixels per frame or 5K by comparison. It appears that the studios will force a 2K standard for the United States. The American Society for Cinematographers (ASC), told us that a group called the

International Telecommunications Union (ITU) associated with the United Nations is pushing

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for 1K as an international standard. The ASC is fighting this. We encountered mixed views on whether 2K would be a fixed standard or the bar would be raised as the technology improves. Given the cost of the equipment, it may be impossible to change the standard even on a phased basis post facto. The market is likely to play a greater role.

Some basic requirements of the digital cinema:
Theater, Studio: Its is used to displaying the cinema to audiens.

Network: for connect to the theater projector to server system Server: it having the cinema to respond the authorized client request

Camera, Display(Projector, LCD/Plasma), Audio: these are the basic hard ware requirements of the cinema.

8. Developing an End-to-End Digital Cinema System
Digital cinema is more than just a projection system; it requires a change in technology throughout the process. The key elements are as follows. Telecine. The vast majority of movies are shot on origination film , although digital special effects may be inserted throughout. The master film print is generally digitized to create videos using a telecine. In order to produce the quality required for projection on a wide screen, digital cinema will require some changes at the telecine process. First, high-definition telecine must be used. Second, the telecine equipment has to be optimized for the projection technology used. Accordingly, if two types of projection technologies were adopted, a separate telecine system would be required for each process.

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Preparation. When a film is digitized, it creates an enormous file that must be compressed. For example, a typical two-hour movie would result in a 1,000-gigabyte file, or 1-terabyte file, uncompressed. Even compressed, a feature length movie could result in a 60-80 gigabyte file resulting in significant storage requirements at the cinema. In addition to the cost of torage, the transmission limitations must be considered. To transmit a full-length movie uncompressed using a satellite system would take approximately 110 hours. A variety of compression technologies are possible including MPEG-2, layered MPEG, and wavelet. Once the file is compressed, it must also be encrypted. This step is critical to prevent a digital file from being intercepted and distributed via the Internet and other means. There are multiple encryption technologies that have been proposed. To limit piracy, a file would need to be encrypted at every stage until it reached the projector. Distribution. There are several options for delivering the digital file to the cinema. Although there are no major technological barriers to multiple delivery channels, there are scale dvantages in consistency. From our discussions with industry players, there seemed to be a general consensus that fixed media should be used in the beginning. Essentially, DVDs would be delivered to theaters using the existing delivery system. Fixed media has the advantage of being a relatively low-cost approach, which does not require a significant change in behavior. At a later point, the system could evolve to one in which files are transferred using T1 lines, fiber optic networks, etc. The most interesting approach involves satellite transmission, which has benefits particularly in emerging markets. The advantage of transmitting files whether using a secure network or satellite technology versus fixed media is that live events could conceivably be presented using the same infrastructure. As a result, there are incremental revenue opportunities available with this type of distribution. According to Boeing, it would take six to eight hours to send a feature film by satellite. As this is point-tomultipoint technology, the distribution cost would be relatively low. We were told a ballpark figure per distribution would be $1,000, resulting in a breakeven point of 10-15 theaters. (Of course this ignores the cost of the projectors.)

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Fig: end to end digital cinema system
Projection. Regardless of the delivery method, exhibitors will have to install storage and other back-end technology to support digital projection. Of course, the critical technology is the projector. A 35mm projector currently costs about $35,000 and lasts for many years.A digital projection system includes the projector and one or more servers. It also requires more powerful lighting, which results in higher operating costs. Digital projectors and the related hardware cost approximately $150,000-$200,000. In our report two years ago, we assumed that the cost by this time would have come down significantly. In fact, there has been no meaningful cost reduction. The normal benefits from Moore’s law do not fully translate to display technologies, as optics that do not scale at the same rate are involved. Furthermore, for cinema quality projection, there is no scale. If the global screen count is only 108,000, the maximum annual shipments are 36,000. Relative to other semiconductor applications, that is tiny.

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What type of projects are eligible for Video on Demand and Digital Cinema Distribution funding?
2 types of services are eligible: "Video on Demand" and "Digital Cinema Distribution". • Video on Demand (VoD): Service enabling individuals to select audiovisual works from a central server for viewing on a remote screen by streaming and/or downloading.

Digital Cinema Distribution (DCD): Digital delivery (to an acceptable commercial standard) of content to cinemas for theatrical exploitation (via hard disc, satellite, online…).

9. DLP(digital light processing):
In the digital cinema system the DLP can perform main role .now we discuss about the DLP(digital light processing). And how it can be used with in the digital cinema. The images projected onto the screen from the projector, are formed from the projection source using a reflective technology called Digital Light Processing (DLP). The DLP processing board uses a digital micro-mirror device or DMD; which acts as a light switch. Inside each DMD chip are many tiny mirrors, which correspond to 1 pixel of light in the projected image. The tiny mirrors tilt towards or away from the light source thousands of times a second to produce up to 1024 shades of grey. In a 3-chip DLP system, white light is passed through a prism that divides the light into red, green and blue. Each chip is dedicated to a primary color. The red, green and blue reflections from the 3 chips are combined and passed through the lens to project an image made up of more than 35 trillion colors.

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Fig: three chip DLP system

10. HOW DOES DLP CINEMA® TECHNOLOGY WORK?
1. A digital projector based on DLP Cinema® technology transfers the digitized image file onto three separate optical semiconductors known as DMD chips. Each of these chips is dedicated to one primary color – red, green, or blue. A DLP Cinema chip contains a rectangular array of over one million microscopic mirrors. 2. 2. Light from the projector's lamp is reflected off the mirrors and is combined in different proportions of red, green and blue, as controlled by the image file, to create an array of different colored pixels that make up the projected image. Think of the DMD’s as the colored cards held up by an audience in a sports arena to create a giant image. Each person holds up a single colored card, yet when combined, these thousands of cards create a picture. If the card colors are changed, the picture changes too. 3. 3. Each micromirror tilts either toward or away from the light source thousands of times per second to reflect the movie onto the screen. These images are sequentially projected onto the screen, recreating the movie in front of you with perfect clarity and a range of more than 35 trillion colors.

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Fig: MULTIPROJECTOR EDGE-BALANCED SYSTEM

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11. HOW ARE DIGITAL COPIES OF MOVIES DELIVERED TO A THEATRE?

A digital copy of a movie can be delivered to a theatre on an external hard drive, using a fibre network or via satellite delivery.

12. DIGITAL CINEMA STANDARDS
In July 2005, after years of evaluating and testing different technologies, the studio members of Digital Cinema Initiatives, LLC (DCI), a joint venture of Disney, Fox, MGM, Paramount, Sony Pictures Entertainment, Universal and Warner Brothers Studios, published and released to the industry voluntary technical specifications for Digital Cinema. These specifications Provide a guideline for technology providers ensuring the system’s components are Interoperable and provide a high level of security for the content.

13. THE BUSINESS OF DIGITAL CINEMA

In the Fall of 2005, Access Integrated Technologies, Inc. (“AccessIT”) (NASDAQ: AIXD), after successfully negotiating with major Hollywood Studios, contracted Christie Digital Systems for the supply of an integrated DCI-compliant Digital Cinema system. AccessIT created their wholly owned subsidiary, Christie/AIX, an entity responsible for executing an innovative business plan and administrator for the first practical Digital Cinema rollout in the world. The plan satisfies the diverse concerns of movie studios and exhibitors by standardizing with DCI compliant content format, delivery and presentation. Christie/AIX serves as the intermediary between content owners (major studios and independent distributors) who pay the virtual print fees (VPF) for each movie projected on a Christie/AIX Digital Cinema system, and exhibitors, who are responsible for the installation costs, software licensing fees and 10-year maintenance contract. Christie/AIX provides exhibitors with a full range of DCI compliant hardware and software including Christie’s latest generation 2K resolution 3-Chip DLP Cinema® projector and all hardware, media players and central server equipment.
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fig:Access Integrated Technologies,

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14. WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF DIGITAL CINEMA? – – Enhanced, pristine razor sharp image quality Image does not degrade with repeat viewings – 2K resolution (2048 x 1080) at every screening – – – – Movies can be shown on more screens and at higher frequency Lower cost and more convenient distribution Reduced shipping costs Economic savings free up resources to afford more digital movie copies, increasing variety of cinema programming – – – More efficient management of theatre operations Ability to play alternative content (i.e. live sports broadcasts, a Broadway show) Ability to use cinema downtime for alternative purposes (i.e. events, seminars, conference venues)

Digital Cinema offers real advantages for movie patrons who expect a superior entertainment experience. With Digital Cinema, the viewing experience is significantly enhanced with the projection of pristine, razor-sharp, 2K resolution images at every screening. With digital content, the risk of film scratches and image distortion is a thing of the past. In addition, with DLP Cinema projection and distribution, movies can be shown on more screens and at higher frequency providing movie-goers ample opportunity to watch movies of their choice. From the exhibition stand-point, Digital Cinema offers a high-quality image, unaffected by repeated showings. The digital copy at the 1000th viewing is as good as the movie’s premiere – as digital files do not get scratched or degrade with each viewing. In terms of cost, Digital Cinema offers significant savings in distribution with the elimination of the need to make, copy, and ship bulky reels of 35mm film. The cost savings in distribution frees up resources to afford more digital movie copies increasing the variety of cinema programming.

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15. Conclusion

Digital cinema the transmission and delivery of films to theaters electronically where the images stored in a computer severs and beamed on to the theater screens. It uses digital media like fiber optics, satellite transmission, hard disks instead of analogue media like prints. Digital cinema uses digital projectors instead of analogue projectors. Hence digital cinema eliminating all physical formats checks piracy at its roots that will help to the cinema producers and distributors and also it will reduce the cost of film making. So the digital cinema is one of the best transmission for getting more profits to the developer also users. It mainly says that “technology made piracy - technology will kill piracy”.

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References
www.dcinema.fhg.de www. wikipedia.com [1] http://www.allthingsmike.homestead.com/files/filmstrip.jpg [2] http://www.boxoffice.com/boxoffice_scr/movie_business_list.asp? NID=8174 [3] “Digital Cinema – A Slow Revolution”. Dettmer, R. IEEE Review. [4] http://www.castify.net/solutions/digitalcinema.htm [6] http://www.thomsongrassvalley.com/wp/Clark/D-Cinema_ Distribution/2AW8109.pdf [7] http://www.geocities.com/jonesjohn2000/filmstrip1.jpg [8] http://www.coralcliffscinema8.com/images/aboutus_projector.jpg [9] http://www.dlp.com [10] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/film/4724335.stm [11] http://cinemaprojectors.co.uk

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