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You are on page 1of 14

1.1 Standards of Length, Mass, and

Time

1.2 Matter and Model-Building

* An asterisk indicates an item new to this edition.

1.3 Dimensional Analysis

1.4 Conversion of Units

1.5 Estimates and Order-of-

Q1.1 Density varies with temperature and pressure. It would

Magnitude Calculations be necessary to measure both mass and volume very

1.6 Significant Figures accurately in order to use the density of water as a

standard.

(c) 7.2 kilograms

(c) 0.270 kg (d) 0.041 kg (e) 0.27 kg. Then the ranking is

c=e>d>a>b

Example: 1 chimpanzee = 2 chimpanzee is dimension-

ally correct.

Yes: If an equation is not dimensionally correct, it cannot

be correct.

*Q1.5 The answer is yes for (a), (c), and (f ). You cannot add or subtract a number of apples and a

number of jokes. The answer is no for (b), (d), and (e). Consider the gauge of a sausage, 4 kgⲐ2 m,

or the volume of a cube, (2 m)3. Thus we have (a) yes (b) no (c) yes (d) no (e) no (f ) yes

*Q1.6 41 € ≈ 41 € (1 LⲐ1.3 €)(1 qtⲐ1 L)(1 galⲐ4 qt) ≈ (10Ⲑ1.3) gal ≈ 8 gallons, answer (c)

*Q1.7 The meterstick measurement, (a), and (b) can all be 4.31 cm. The meterstick measurement and

(c) can both be 4.24 cm. Only (d) does not overlap. Thus (a) (b) and (c) all agree with the

meterstick measurement.

*Q1.8 0.02(1.365) = 0.03. The result is (1.37 ± 0.03) × 107 kg. So (d) 3 digits are signiﬁcant.

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS

4 4 3

P1.1

3 3

m 5.98 × 10 24 kg

Its density is then ρ = = = 5.52 × 10 3 kg m 3 . This value is intermediate

V 1.08 × 10 m 21 3

between the tabulated densities of aluminum and iron. Typical rocks have densities around 2 000

to 3 000 kgⲐm3. The average density of the Earth is signiﬁcantly higher, so higher-density material

must be down below the surface.

2 Chapter 1

m

P1.2 With V = ( base area ) ( height ) V = (π r 2 ) h and ρ = , we have

V

m 1 kg ⎛ 10 9 mm 3 ⎞

ρ= =

π r h π (19.5 mm ) ( 39.0 mm ) ⎜⎝ 1 m 3 ⎟⎠

2 2

ρ = 2.15 × 10 4 kg m 3 .

m

P1.3 Let V represent the volume of the model, the same in ρ = for both. Then ρiron = 9.35 kg V

V

mgold ρgold mgold ⎛ 19.3 × 10 3 kg/m 3 ⎞

and ρgold = . Next, = and mgold = 9.35 kg ⎜ = 23.0 kg .

V ρiron 9.35 kg ⎝ 7.86 × 10 3 kg/m 3 ⎟⎠

6(1.67 × 10 −27 kg)

Then ρ = 6 m / π d 3 = = 2.3 × 1017 kg/m 3

π (2.4 × 10 −15 m)3

2.3 × 1017 kg/m 3 /(11.3 × 10 3 kg/m 3 ) = it is 20 × 1012 times the density of lead .

4 3 4

P1.5 For either sphere the volume is V = π r and the mass is m = ρV = ρ π r 3. We divide

3 3

this equation for the larger sphere by the same equation for the smaller:

mᐉ ρ 4π rᐉ3 3 rᐉ3

= = = 5.

ms ρ 4π rs3 3 rs3

P1.6 From the ﬁgure, we may see that the spacing between diagonal planes is half the distance

between diagonally adjacent atoms on a ﬂat plane. This diagonal distance may be obtained from

the Pythagorean theorem, Ldiag = L2 + L2 . Thus, since the atoms are separated by a distance

1 2

L = 0.200 nm, the diagonal planes are separated by L + L2 = 0.141 nm .

2

P1.7 (a) This is incorrect since the units of [ ax ] are m 2 s 2 , while the units of [ v ] are m s .

−1

(b)

Expression (i) has dimension L ( L2 )

1/ 2

= L2 , so this must be area (c).

Expression (ii) has dimension L, so it is (a).

Expression (iii) has dimension L ( L2 ) = L3, so it is (b). Thus, (a) = ii; (b) = iii;(c) = i .

Physics and Measurement 3

⎡ kg m ⎤ = G [ kg ] .

2

⎢⎣ s 2 ⎥⎦ [ m ]2

Multiply both sides by [ m ]2 and divide by [ kg ] ; the units of G are

2 m3 .

kg ⋅ s 2

1 in = 2.54 cm, 1 d = 86 400 s, 100 cm = 1 m, and 10 9 nm = 1 m

−2 9

⎝ 32 ⎠ 86 400 s day

This means the proteins are assembled at a rate of many layers of atoms each second!

P1.11 Conceptualize: We must calculate the area and convert units. Since a meter is about 3 feet, we

( )( )

should expect the area to be about A ≈ 30 m 50 m = 1500 m 2 .

Categorize: We model the lot as a perfect rectangle to use Area = Length × Width. Use the

conversion:1 m = 3.281 ft.

1m ⎞ 1m ⎞

= 1 390 m 2 = 1.39 × 10 3 m 2 .

⎝ 3.281 ft ⎠ ⎝ 3.281 ft ⎠

Finalize: Our calculated result agrees reasonably well with our initial estimate and has the proper

units of m 2. Unit conversion is a common technique that is applied to many problems.

3

Converting to pounds,

*P1.13 The area of the four walls is (3.6 + 3.8 + 3.6 + 3.8)m (2.5 m) = 37 m2. Each sheet in the book

has area (0.21 m) (0.28 m) = 0.059 m2. The number of sheets required for wallpaper is

37 m2Ⲑ0.059 m2 = 629 sheets = 629 sheets(2 pagesⲐ1 sheet) = 1260 pages.

The pages from volume one are inadequate, but the full version has enough pages.

4 Chapter 1

30.0 gal

r= = 7.14 × 10 −2 gal s .

420 s

(b) Converting gallons ﬁrst to liters, then to m 3,

⎛ 3.786 L ⎞ ⎛ 10 −3 m 3 ⎞

r = ( 7.14 × 10 −2 gal s ) ⎜

⎝ 1 gal ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 1 L ⎟⎠

r = 2.70 × 10 −4 m 3 s .

(c) At that rate, to ﬁll a 1-m 3 tank would take

⎛ 1 m3 ⎞⎛ 1h ⎞

t=⎜ = 1.03 h .

⎝ 2.70 × 10 m s ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 3 600 ⎟⎠

−4 3

P1.15 From Table 14.1, the density of lead is 1.13 × 10 4 kg m 3 , so we should expect our calculated

value to be close to this number. This density value tells us that lead is about 11 times denser than

water, which agrees with our experience that lead sinks.

m

Density is deﬁned as mass per volume, in ρ = . We must convert to SI units in the calculation.

V

3

23.94 g ⎛ 1 kg ⎞ ⎛ 100 cm ⎞ 23.94 g ⎛ 1 kg ⎞ ⎛ 1 000 000 cm 3 ⎞

ρ= 3⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 3⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 1.14 × 10 4 kg m 3

2.10 cm ⎝ 1000 g ⎠⎝ 1 m ⎠ 2.10 cm ⎝ 1000 g ⎠⎝ 1m 3

⎠

At one step in the calculation, we note that one million cubic centimeters make one cubic meter.

Our result is indeed close to the expected value. Since the last reported signiﬁcant digit is not

certain, the difference in the two values is probably due to measurement uncertainty and should

not be a concern. One important common-sense check on density values is that objects which sink

in water must have a density greater than 1 g cm 3, and objects that ﬂoat must be less dense than

water.

P1.16 The weight ﬂow rate is 1 200 = 667 lb s .

h ⎝ ton ⎠ ⎝ 60 min ⎠ ⎝ 60 s ⎠

⎜⎝ 1 000 $ s ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 3 600 s ⎟⎠ ⎝ 24 h ⎠ ⎜⎝ 365 days ⎟⎠ = 250 years

(b) The circumference of the Earth at the equator is 2π ( 6.378 × 10 3 m ) = 4.01 × 10 7 m. The

length of one dollar bill is 0.155 m so that the length of 8 trillion bills is 1.24 × 1012 m.

Thus, the 8 trillion dollars would encircle the Earth

1.24 × 1012 m

= 3.09 × 10 4 times .

4.01 × 10 7 m

Bh = ⎣

1

P1.18 V= ( 481 ft ) h

3 3

= 9.08 × 10 7 ft 3 ,

B

or

⎛ 2.83 × 10 −2 m 3 ⎞

V = ( 9.08 × 10 7 ft 3 ) ⎜ ⎟⎠

FIG. P1.18

⎝ 1 ft 3

= 2.57 × 10 6 m 3

Physics and Measurement 5

P1.19 Fg = ( 2.50 tons block ) ( 2.00 × 10 6 blocks ) ( 2 000 lb ton ) = 1.00 × 1010 lbs

⎛d ⎞

dnucleus, scale = dnucleus, real ⎜ atom, scale ⎟ = ( 2.40 × 10 −15 m ) ⎛ ⎞ = 6.79 × 10 −3 ft , or

300 ft

P1.20 (a)

⎝ datom, real ⎠ ⎝ 1.06 × 10 −10 m ⎠

3 3 3

(b) Vatom 4π ratom

3

/ 3 ⎛ ratom ⎞ ⎛ datom ⎞ ⎛ 1.06 × 10 −10 m ⎞

= =⎜ = = ⎜⎝ 2.40 × 10 −15 m ⎟⎠

Vnucleus 4π rnucleus / 3 ⎝ rnucleus ⎟⎠

3 ⎜⎝ d ⎟

nucleus ⎠

V 3.78 × 10 −3 m 3

P1.21 V = At so t = = = 1.51 × 10 −4 m ( or 151 µ m )

A 25.0 m 2

⎛ ( 6.37 × 10 6 m ) (100 cm m ) ⎞

2 2

2

⎛r ⎞

= = ⎜ Earth ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = 13.4

AMoon 4π rMoon ⎝ rMoon ⎠

2

⎝ 1.74 × 108 cm ⎠

⎛ ( 6.37 × 10 6 m ) (100 cm m ) ⎞

3 3

3

/ 3 ⎛ rEarth ⎞

= =⎜ = ⎜ ⎟ = 49.1

VMoon 4π rMoon / 3 ⎝ rMoon ⎟⎠

3

⎝ 1.74 × 108 cm ⎠

⎛ 4⎞

ρFe ⎜ ⎟ π rFe 3 = ρAl ⎛ ⎞ π rAl 3

4

⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠

1/ 3

⎛ρ ⎞ 1/ 3

= ( 2.00 cm ) ⎛

7.86 ⎞

rAl = rFe ⎜ Fe ⎟ = 2.86 cm .

⎝ ρAl ⎠ ⎝ 2.70 ⎠

4π ρAl rAl 3

mAl = ρAlVAl =

3

and

4π ρFe rFe 3

mFe = ρFeVFe = .

3

Setting these masses equal,

4π ρAl rAl 3 4π ρFe rFe 3 and r = r 3 ρFe .

=

3 3

Al Fe

ρAl

The resulting expression shows that the radius of the aluminum sphere is directly proportional to

the radius of the balancing iron sphere. The sphere of lower density has larger radius. The

ρ

fraction Fe is the factor of change between the densities, a number greater than 1. Its cube root

ρAl

is a number much closer to 1. The relatively small change in radius implies a change in volume

sufﬁcient to compensate for the change in density.

6 Chapter 1

P1.25 Model the room as a rectangular solid with dimensions 4 m by 4 m by 3 m, and each ping-pong ball as a

sphere of diameter 0.038 m. The volume of the room is 4 × 4 × 3 = 48 m 3, while the volume of one ball is

4π ⎛ 0.038 m ⎞

3

= 2.87 × 10 −5 m 3.

3 ⎝ 2 ⎠

48

Therefore, one can ﬁt about ~ 10 6 ping-pong balls in the room.

2.87 × 10 −5

As an aside, the actual number is smaller than this because there will be a lot of space in the

room that cannot be covered by balls. In fact, even in the best arrangement, the so-called “best

packing fraction” is 1 π 2 = 0.74 so that at least 26% of the space will be empty. Therefore, the

6

above estimate reduces to 1.67 × 10 6 × 0.740 ~ 10 6 .

P1.26 A reasonable guess for the diameter of a tire might be 2.5 ft, with a circumference of about 8 ft.

( )( )( )

Thus, the tire would make 50 000 mi 5 280 ft mi 1 rev 8 ft = 3 × 10 7 rev ~ 10 7 rev .

P1.27 Assume the tub measures 1.3 m by 0.5 m by 0.3 m. One-half of its volume is then

mwater = ρwaterV = (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 0.10 m 3 ) = 100 kg ~ 10 2 kg .

Pennies are now mostly zinc, but consider copper pennies ﬁlling 50% of the volume of the tub.

The mass of copper required is

mcopper = ρcopperV = (8 920 kg m 3 ) ( 0.10 m 3 ) = 892 kg ~ 10 3 kg .

⎛ 1 s ⎞ 1 h ⎞ ⎛ 1 working day ⎞ ⎛ ⎞

10 9 $ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛

1 bad yr

⎜ = 58 yr

⎝ 1 $ ⎠ ⎝ 3600 s ⎠ ⎝ 16 h ⎠ ⎝ 300 working days ⎟⎠

Since you are already around 20 years old, you would have a miserable life and likely die

before accomplishing the task. You have better things to do. Say no.

P1.29 Assume: Total population = 10 7; one out of every 100 people has a piano; one tuner can serve about

1 000 pianos (about 4 per day for 250 weekdays, assuming each piano is tuned once per year). Therefore,

⎛ 1 tuner ⎞ ⎛ 1 piano ⎞

# tuners ~ ⎜ (10 7 people ) = 100 tuners .

⎝ 1 000 pianos ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 100 people ⎟⎠

We treat the best value with its uncertainty as a binomial ( 21.3 ± 0.2 ) cm ( 9.8 ± 0.1) cm,

A = [ 21.3 ( 9.8 ) ± 21.3 ( 0.1) ± 0.2 ( 9.8 ) ± ( 0.2 ) ( 0.1)] cm 2 .

The ﬁrst term gives the best value of the area. The cross terms add together to give the

uncertainty and the fourth term is negligible.

A = 209 cm 2 ± 4 cm 2 .

METHOD TWO

We add the fractional uncertainties in the data.

A = ( 21.3 cm ) ( 9.8 cm ) ± ⎛

0.2 0.1 ⎞

+ = 209 cm 2 ± 2% = 209 cm 2 ± 4 cm 2

⎝ 21.3 9.8 ⎠

Physics and Measurement 7

m = (1.85 ± 0.02 ) kg

m

ρ=

( 4

3 )π r3

also, δ ρ = δ m + 3δ r .

ρ m r

In other words, the percentages of uncertainty are cumulative. Therefore,

δ ρ 0.02 3 ( 0.20 )

= + = 0.103,

ρ 1.85 6.50

1.85

ρ= = 1.61 × 10 3 kg m 3

( ) π ( 6.5 × 10 m)

−2 3

4

3

and

ρ ± δ ρ = (1.61 ± 0.17 ) × 10 3 kg m 3 = (1.6 ± 0.2 ) × 10 3 kg m 3.

37.2?

0.83

+ 2.5?

796. / 5 / 3 = 797

1 yr = 1 yr ⎜ ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1 d ⎠ ⎝ 1 h ⎠ ⎝ 1 min ⎠ = 31 556 926.0 s .

⎝ 1 yr

*P1.35 The tax amount is $1.36 − $1.25 = $0.11. The tax rate is $0.11Ⲑ$1.25 = 0.088 0 = 8.80%

*P1.36 (a) We read from the graph a vertical separation of 0.3 spaces = 0.015 g .

(c) Because the graph line goes through the origin, the same percentage describes the vertical

and the horizontal scatter: 30 cm2Ⲑ380 cm2 = 8% .

(d) Choose a grid point on the line far from the origin: slope = 0.31 g Ⲑ600 cm2 = 0.000 52 gⲐcm2 =

(0.000 52 gⲐcm2)(10 000 cm2Ⲑ1 m2) = 5.2 g/m2 .

(e) For any and all shapes cut from this copy paper, the mass of the cutout is proportional to

its area. The proportionality constant is 5.2 g/m2 ± 8%, where the uncertainty is estimated.

(f ) This result should be expected if the paper has thickness and density that are uniform

within the experimental uncertainty. The slope is the areal density of the paper, its mass

per unit area.

8 Chapter 1

*P1.38 Let o represent the number of ordinary cars and s the number of trucks. We have

o = s + 0.947s = 1.947s, and o = s + 18. We eliminate o by substitution: s + 18 = 1.947s

0.947s = 18 and s = 180.947 = 19 .

*P1.39 Let s represent the number of sparrows and m the number of more interesting birds.

We have sm = 2.25 and s + m = 91. We eliminate m by substitution: m = s2.25

s + s2.25 = 91 1.444s = 91 s = 911.444 = 63 .

*P1.40 For those who are not familiar with solving equations numerically, we provide a detailed solution.

It goes beyond proving that the suggested answer works.

ﬁnd how many real solutions the equation has and to estimate them, we graph the expression:

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4

We see that the equation y = 0 has two roots, one around x = −2.2

and the other near x = +2.7. To home in on the ﬁrst of these solutions y

we compute in sequence: When x = −2.2, y = −2.20. The root must be

between x = −2.2 and x = −3. When x = −2.3, y = 11.0 . The root is

between x = −2.2 and x = −2.3. When x = −2.23, y = 1.58 . The root x

is between x = −2.20 and x = −2.23. When x = −2.22, y = 0.301. The

root is between x = −2.20 and −2.22. When x = −2.215, y = −0.331.

The root is between x = −2.215 and −2.22. We could next try FIG. P1.40

x = −2.218, but we already know to three-digit precision that the root

is x = −2.22.

cos θ

For tan −1 ( −3) = arc tan ( −3) , your calculator may return −71.6°,

but this angle is not between 0° and 360° as the problem θ

requires. The tangent function is negative in the second quad- 0 360°

rant (between 90° and 180°) and in the fourth quadrant (from

270° to 360°). The solutions to the equation are then

360° − 71.6° = 288° and 180° − 71.6° = 108° .

FIG. P1.41

Physics and Measurement 9

*P1.42 We draw the radius to the initial point and the radius to the ﬁnal point. i

The angle θ between these two radii has its sides perpendicular, right side

to right side and left side to left side, to the 35° angle between the original 35.0°

and ﬁnal tangential directions of travel. A most useful theorem from R f

geometry then identiﬁes these angles as equal: θ = 35°. The whole N

θ

circumference of a 360° circle of the same radius is 2π R. By proportion, W E

then 2π R = 840 m .

S

360° 35° FIG. P1.42

360° 840 m 840 m

R= = = 1.38 × 10 3 m

2π 35° 0.611

We could equally well say that the measure of the angle in radians is

2π radians ⎞

θ = 35° = 35° ⎛

840 m

= 0.611 rad = .

⎝ 360 ° ⎠ R

Solving yields R = 1.38 km.

Length changes by 15.8%: ᐉf = ᐉi + 0.158 ᐉi = 1.158 ᐉi .

Mass increase: mf = mi + 17.3 kg.

mf

Eliminate by substitution: = 1.1583 = 1.553

m f − 17.3 kg

mf = 1.553 mf − 26.9 kg 26.9 kg = 0.553 mf mf = 26.9 kg Ⲑ0.553 = 48. 6 kg .

*P1.44 We use substitution, as the most generally applicable method for solving simultaneous equations.

We substitute p = 3q into each of the other two equations to eliminate p:

⎧3qr = qs

⎪

⎨1 1 2 1 2.

⎪⎩ 2 3qr + 2 qs = 2 qt

2

⎧3r = s 3r 2 + ( 3r ) = t 2

2

These simplify to ⎨ 2 2 2 . We substitute to eliminate s: . We solve for the

⎩3r + s = t 12r 2 = t 2

combination t :

r

t2

= 12 .

r2

t

= either 3.46 or − 3.46

r

*P1.45 Solve the given equation for ∆t: ∆t = 4QLⲐkπd 2(Th − Tc) = [4QLⲐkπ (Th − Tc)] [1Ⲑ d 2].

(a) Making d three times larger with d 2 in the bottom of the fraction makes

∆t nine times smaller .

(c) Plot ∆t on the vertical axis and 1/d 2 on the horizontal axis.

(d) From the last version of the equation, the slope is 4QL/kπ(Th − Tc) . Note that this quantity

is constant as both ∆t and d vary.

10 Chapter 1

Additional Problems

x 1 000 m

=

100 m x

(i.e., such that x is the same multiple of 100 m as the multiple that 1 000 m is of x). Thus, it is seen that

and therefore

x = 1.00 × 10 5 m 2 = 316 m .

*P1.47 (a) The mass is equal to the mass of a sphere of radius 2.6 cm and density 4.7 gcm3, minus the

mass of a sphere of radius a and density 4.7 gcm3 plus the mass of a sphere of radius a and

density 1.23 gcm3.

(b) For a = 0 the mass is a maximum, (c) 346 g . (d) Yes . This is the mass of the

uniform sphere we considered in the ﬁrst term of the calculation.

(e) For a = 2.60 cm the mass is a minimum, (f ) 346 − 14.5(2.6)3 = 90.6 g . (g) Yes . This

is the mass of a uniform sphere of density 1.23 gcm3.

(h) (346 g + 90.6 g)2 = 218 g (i) No . The result of part (a) gives 346 g − (14.5 gcm3)

(1.3 cm)3 = 314 g, not the same as 218 g.

( j) We should expect agreement in parts b-c-d, because those parts are about a uniform

sphere of density 4.7 g/cm3. We should expect agreement in parts e-f-g, because those

parts are about a uniform liquid drop of density 1.23 g/cm3. The function m(a) is not a

linear function, so a halfway between 0 and 2.6 cm does not give a value for m halfway

between the minimum and maximum values. The graph of m versus a starts at a = 0 with

a horizontal tangent. Then it curves down more and more steeply as a increases. The

liquid drop of radius 1.30 cm has only one eighth the volume of the whole sphere, so its

presence brings down the mass by only a small amount, from 346 g to 314 g.

*P1.48 (a) We have B + C(0) = 2.70 gcm3 and B + C(14 cm) = 19.3 gcm3. We know B = 2.70 g/cm3

and we solve for C by subtracting: C(14 cm) = 16.6 gcm3 so C = 1.19 g/cm4 .

14 cm

(b) m= ∫0

(2.70 g/cm 3 + 1.19 g/cm 4 x )(9 cm 2 )dx

14 cm 14 cm

= 24.3 g/cm ∫ dx + 10.7 g/cm 2 ∫ xdx

0 0

= 340 g + 1046 g = 1.39 kg

Physics and Measurement 11

0.25 m

S= = 2.5 × 10 −6 m lightyeears.

1.0 × 10 5 lightyears

The distance to Andromeda in the scale model will be

dV d 4 3 4 dr dr

= π r = π 3r 2 = 4π r 2 .

dt dt 3 3 dt dt

(a) dVdt = 4 π(6.5 cm)2(0.9 cms) = 478 cm3/s

dr dV / dt 478 cm 3 / s

(b) = = = 0.225 cm 3 / s

dt 4π r 2 4π (13 cm)2

(c) When the balloon radius is twice as large, its surface area is four times larger. The new

volume added in one second in the inﬂation process is equal to this larger area times an

extra radial thickness that is one-fourth as large as it was when the balloon was smaller.

Since 1 Mft 3 = 10 6 ft 3 ,

1.50 × 10 6 ft 3 mo 0.008 00 × 10 6 ft 3 mo2 2

V= t + t .

2.592 × 10 6 s mo ( 2.592 × 106 s mo)2

Thus, V [ft 3 ] = ( 0.579 ft 3 s ) t + (1.19 × 10 −9 ft 3 s 2 ) t 2 .

*P1.52

α ′(deg) α (rad) tan (α ) sin (α ) difference between α and tan α

15.0 0.262 0.268 0.259 2.30%

20.0 0.349 0.364 0.342 4.09%

30.0 0.524 0.577 0.500 9.32%

33.0 0.576 0.649 0.545 11.3%

31.0 0.541 0.601 0.515 9.95%

31.1 0.543 0.603 0.516 10.02%

We see that in radians, tan() and sin() start out together from zero and diverge only slightly

in value for small angles. Thus 31.0 º is the largest angle for which tan α − α < 0.1.

tan α

12 Chapter 1

P1.53 2π r = 15.0 m

r = 2.39 m

h

= tan 55.0 °

r

h

h = ( 2.39 m ) tan (55.0° ) = 3.41 m

P1.54 Let d represent the diameter of the coin and h its thickness. 55°

The mass of the gold is r

⎛ 2π d 2 ⎞

m = ρV = ρ At = ρ ⎜ + π dh⎟ t

⎝ 4 ⎠

FIG. P1.53

where t is the thickness of the plating.

⎡ ( 2.41)2 ⎤

m = 19.3 ⎢ 2π + π ( 2.41) ( 0.178 ) ⎥ ( 0.18 × 10 −4 )

⎣ 4 ⎦

= 0.003 64 grams

cost = 0.003 64 grams × $10 grram = $0.036 4 = 3.64 cents

(π × 10 7

s yr ) − ( 31 557 600 s yr )

× 100% = 0.449% .

31 557 600 s yr

P1.56 v = ⎜ 5.00 = 8.32 × 10 −4 m s

⎝ fortnight ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 1 furlongg ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 1 yd ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 14 days ⎟⎠ ⎝ 24 hrs ⎠ ⎜⎝ 3 600 s ⎟⎠

This speed is almost 1 mms; so we might guess the creature was a snail, or perhaps a sloth.

( Vol rate of flow ) 16.5 cm 3 s

v= = = 0.529 cm s .

(Area: π D 2 / 4) π ( 6.30 cm )2 / 4

(b) Likewise, at a 1.35 cm diameter,

16.5 cm 3 s

v= = 11.5 cm s .

π (1.35 cm )2 / 4

Physics and Measurement 13

m m 4m

P1.58 The density of each material is ρ = = = .

V π r 2h π D2h

4 ( 51.5 g )

The tabulated value ⎛ 2.70

g g ⎞

Al: ρ = = 2.75 3 is 2% smaller.

π ( 2.52 cm ) ( 3.75 cm )

2

cm ⎝ cm 3 ⎠

4 ( 56.3 g )

The tabulated value ⎛ 8.92 3 ⎞ is 5% smaller.

g g

Cu: ρ = = 9.36 3

π (1.23 cm )2 ( 5.06 cm ) cm ⎝ cm ⎠

4 ( 94.4 g ) g

Brass: ρ = = 8.91 3

π (1.54 cm ) ( 5.69 cm )

2

cm

4 ( 69.1 g ) g

Sn: ρ = = 7.68 3

π (1.75 cm ) ( 3.74 cm )

2

cm

4 ( 216.1 g )

The tabulated value ⎛ 7.86 3 ⎞ is 0.3% smaller.

g g

Fe: ρ = = 7.88 3

π (1.89 cm )2 ( 9.77 cm ) cm ⎝ cm ⎠

(108 cars)(10 4 mi yr )

P1.59 V20 mpg = = 5.0 × 1010 gal yr

20 mi gal

(108 cars)(10 4 mi yr )

V25 mpg = = 4.0 × 1010 gal yr

25 mi gal

π r 2t = π (10 21 m ) (1019 m ) ~ 10 61 m 3.

2

If the distance between stars is 4 × 1016 m, then there is one star in a volume on the order of

( 4 × 10 m ) ~ 10 50 m 3 .

16 3

~ 1011 stars .

10 50 m 3 star

P1.4 2.3 × 1017 kgm3 is twenty trillion times larger than the density of lead.

P1.6 0.141 nm

P1.10 9.19 nm s

P1.14 (a) 0.071 4 gal s (b) 2.70 × 10−4 m3s (c) 1.03 h

14 Chapter 1

P1.18 2.57 × 10 6 m 3

13

⎛ρ ⎞

P1.24 rAl = rFe ⎜ Fe ⎟

⎝ ρAl ⎠

P1.26 ~10 7 rev

P1.28 No. There is a strong possibility that you would die before ﬁnishing the task, and you have much

more productive things to do.

P1.30 ( 209 ± 4 ) cm 2

P1.36 (a) 0.015 g (b) 30 cm2 (c) 8% (d) 5.2 gm2 (e) For any and all shapes cut from this copy paper,

the mass of the cutout is proportional to its area. The proportionality constant is 5.2 gm2 ± 8%,

where the uncertainty is estimated. (f) This result is to be expected if the paper has thickness

and density that are uniform within the experimental uncertainty. The slope is the areal density of

the paper, its mass per unit area.

P1.38 19

P1.42 1.38 km

P1.46 316 m

P1.50 (a) 478 cm3s (b) 0.225 cm s (c) When the balloon radius is twice as large, its surface area is

four times larger. The new volume added in one increment of time in the inﬂation process is equal

to this larger area times an extra radial thickness that is one-fourth as large as it was when the bal-

loon was smaller.

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