UDK: 634.1.

22
Originalan nau~ni rad – Original scientific paper

Growth and fruit-bearing performance of the plum cultivar ^a~anska lepotica grown in the region of the Central Balkan mountains
Kalin Dragoyski, Hristina Dinkova, Teodora Spasova, Ivan Minev
Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, Troyan, Bulgaria E-mail:inst@instroyan.com
Content: The plum cultivar ^a~anska lepotica has been tested in collection orchards of the Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, Troyan, since 1979. In April 1977 a production orchard with this cultivar was established. The cultivar shows very good commercial properties, short juvenile stage, high tolerance to PPV, and regular and abundant fruit-bearing (even in the absence of irrigation measures). Its fruits are large and attractive, with taste that is close to the taste of cv Kyustendilska plum. With denser planting cv ^a~anska lepotica is suitable for orchards with elevated intensification level. Key words: Plum, cv ^a~anska lepotica, growth and reproduction, sharka susceptibility.

Introduction
There has been growing interest in the Serbian plum cultivar ^a~anska lepotica over the last decade (Dragoyski et al., 2003). The reasons for this are comprehensive and include its tolerance to sharka disease, early entering into fruit-bearing, high cropping potential of attractive fruits, self fertility, early ripening time that extends the term for market supply with fresh fruit, which renders it particularly suitable for inclusion in the plum assortment in Bulgaria (Rankovi}, 1986; Petrushke, 1989; Oga{anovi} and Plazini}, 1986; Nikoli}, 2003). The cultivar has been grown in a collection plantation at RIMSA, Troyan, situated in a region severely infested with sharka disease (Mondeshka et al., 2002). Preliminary researches have shown satisfactory tolerance to the disease, good cropping potential and high quality of fruit (Dragoyski, 2000). These results, as well as the good reports on the cultivar from tests in European countries (Petrushke, 1989), encouraged us to conduct a more comprehensive proVo}arstvo, Vol. 39. br. 151 (2005, 3), 271–277

271

.Total length of annual growth (cm).Relative percentage of useful fruit sets (%). . The active growing season starts in the middle of March when the daily average air temperature reaches 5°C. with annual rainfall sum 650 – 700 l/m2. 40 cm above soil surface.78 ha. The inter-row alleys were grassed down. .Number of annual branches. or 416 trees in a hectare. Polystigma rubrum (Persoon) De Candolle. grey forest soil with pH 5. br.Mean length per 1 branch (cm). 151 (2005. at 450 m a.Crown height (cm). The orchard is sited in the lands of RIMSA. 39. .Trunk girth. while the row strips. cool spring and dry summer (August and September). 271–277 .Degree of infection and infestation with the economically important viral diseases. The following traits were measured: . Coryneum carpophilum Jauch. 3). using predictions or alarms for appearance of some of the more dangerous causing agents of diseases or pests: Tranzschelia pruni-spinosae (Persoon) Dietel. planted within 6 x 4 m distance. such as the Troyan region. Material and methods The observations were made in a production and experimental orchard with the cultivar ^a~anska lepotica. in 1997/1998. Vol. . fructigena Persoon. Hoplocampa minuta Christ. The trees were grafted on yellow Myrobalan rootstock.Chemical composition of fruits and suitability for drying. Results and discussion The beginning of flower formation and fruit-bearing of cv ^a~anska lepotica were recorded in the second year following planting. with severe gleization. in cm. from the first skeleton bough to the top.. . including sharka (both by symptoms and DAS ELISA).duction trials on the cultivar’s commercial performance together with the parameters of technologies for its growing under the conditions of a typical plum production region in Bulgaria. Monilia laxa Ehrenberg.l. facing east. poor fertility soil. . The trees were planted in trenches filled with farm manure. on slightly sloped ground. M.Crown volume (m3). Xanthomonas pruni Dowson. . Plant protection was performed after standard scheme.. were kept in black fallow by tillage with rototiller and soil herbicide application. rather cold winter. This is a typical fore mountain micro climate region.. 1 m wide.Fruit yield in kg/tree and kg/ha. Laspeyresia funebrana Tr. The growing technology did not include irrigation. while flowering is moderately 272 Vo}arstvo. . . . established on an area of 0. aphids and acars . Under the Troyan region conditions the growing season for cv ^a~anska lepotica sets in about 10 days earlier than for cv Stanley. .s.Phenological times of flowering and ripening stages.Development of the economically important fungal and bacterial diseases (by symptoms). Troyan – the Central Balkan Mountains region..2..

2).2%. godini ____________________________________________________________________ Swelling of buds Bubrenje pupoljaka Bursting open of buds Pucanje pupoljaka Beginning of flowering Po~etak cvetanja End of flowering Kraj cvetanja Cultivar Sorta ____________________________________________________________________ ^a~anska lepotica 05. 04.63 g. The trees of cv ^a~anska lepotica form denser crowns.13 mm (height) x 38. on average. which in the initial 5 years was much higher for cv ^a~anska lepotica (up to 208% in 2000) than for cv Stanley. a year with dry spring and wet summer.6 g). while in cv Stanley the measured value was 1.3%. and dimensions 22. 39.44 mm (width along the ventral suture) x 34. while in 2003 it occurred on 8 August . and also in regions of shorter growing season. the mean yield per tree was 26. 03. 05. 04. on the one side. 3). In 2004. Stanley 15. Vol. with larger and attractive fruits (42. 08. Harvesting was performed on 2 August for fresh consumption. 03. the fruit yields were high. br. 14. The early ripening times provide opportunities for longer-lasting market supply with fresh plum fruit. 07. on the other. Having reached consumer ripeness. 04.05 x 9. 04. and the growth is more intensive than in cv Stanley (Tab. We noted a continuous process of falling off of non-fertilized fruits after having reached the size of grain up to hazelnut. 25–30. 07. In the initial 4 – 5 years their crowns are more gathered. 03. 2 – 5 kg/tree. In 2004. Thus in 2003 the total growth was 909 cm. the useful fruit sets percentage was 21. 18. there was considerable drop in the mean length of 1 branch. at average mass of 1 fruit . 09. This is presumably due to partial self-fertility.7 kg. 04.for drying. In 2004 (6th year upon planting). On entering into full fruit-bearing. This renders the cultivar suitable for growing in the vicinity of resort centres. 4 – 5 days ahead of cv Stanley. 04. Despite of the rather early flowering. 1. on account of the nearly twice greater number of annual branches of greater length. and therefore additional pollination is necessary. The bending of the skeletal boughs of the 1st storey enhanced the setting of fruit buds and harvesting of greater fruit yields as early as the 3rd year upon planting. Vo}arstvo.980 kg. The fruits ripen early and reach consumer-readiness in late July. The stone had a mass of 1. This is confirmed by the values of the total annual increment. 20.early.82 mm (thickness). 25–30. or 3. ____________________________________________________________________ The trees of cv ^a~anska lepotica had very vigorous growth (with Myrobalan rootstock). 03. Times of phenological stages in 2004 Datumi fenoloških stadijuma u 2004. the fruits are fully suitable for technological processing. while for the cv Stanley (control) it was 31.06 mm. 04. Tab. up to now we have not witnessed any great damages from recurrent spring frosts. 22. 14. with uniform distribution of rainfall during the growing season. 08. 271–277 Ripening stage Zrenje Full flowering Puno cvetanje White bud Beli pupoljak 273 . 04.37. The fruits had uniform shape and sizes of 42.75 x 14. which affected the total growth as well. 151 (2005. 03.6 g.300 cm. 1). and technological ripeness – by 8 – 10 August (Tab.

00 Stanley 2003. The first sharka symptoms on leaves were noted by the seventh year upon planting.6 470. The prunes had shiny black colour.0 417. The lower value in 2004 was due to the prolonged wet weather in summer.0 25. 151 (2005.20 300 48. 3). 39. 19. – – – – – 25. was 1 : 3.5.32 Stanley 1999.6 12. grown in an assortment orchard.80 420 45.22 383 42.0 1. – – – – – 0.81 Stanley 2001. The fruit skin was very thin and tended to melt when processed with hot water.0 64.0 19.8 15.00 ^a~anska lepotica 2003. 11. – – – – – 26.0 85. Tree growth Rast stabla ____________________________________________________________________ Total length of annual growth Ukupna du`ina jednogodišnjeg prirasta (cm) Number of annual branches Broj jednogodišnjih gran~ica Crown height Visina krošnje (cm) Trunk girth Obim stabla (cm) ____________________________________________________________________ ^a~anska lepotica 1999.1%.0 3. 24.00 ^a~anska lepotica 2004. 17. 23.9 909.0 298.9%.3 21.0 97.0 82.78 ^a~anska lepotica 2001. br.70 Stanley 2004. – – – – – 0. 17.0 52. sited in the centre of a region with severe infection sources. was 15.98 Stanley 2000. while in those picked in technological ripeness in 2003 it was 21.00 389 25. 11.59 343 36.0 3.0 20.40 190 20. up to 2003 sharka-like symptoms were observed on the leaves of 30 274 Vo}arstvo.Tab. After drying in a production type of tunnel drying installation the ratio dry vs fresh fruits of cv ^a~anska lepotica. 2000).0 72.0 230. Vol.17 ^a~anska lepotica 2000. 271–277 Year Godina Cultivar Sorta Mean length of 1 branch Srednja du`ina 1 gran~ice (cm) Yield Prinos (kg/stablu) .00 Stanley 2002. In an orchard established in 1998 for production and experimental purposes.300.90 205 43.0 393.40 290 55.30 ^a~anska lepotica 2002.00 ____________________________________________________________________ The contents of dry matter in the fruits harvested in consumer ripeness in 2004. while by the twelfth year the rest of the trees also got infected (Dragoyski.0 15. The initial observations for sharka under our growing conditions were conducted on six trees.0 99. while for cv Stanley it was 1 : 4. 21. red flesh and characteristic more sour taste than dried fruits of cv Stanley.0 200. 2. in 2003.

78 1.40 1. Vo}arstvo. while those on fruits were hardly noticeable.6 ____________________________________________________________________ trees.9 healthy/zdrava 2003.60% and 16.1 healthy/zdrava 2004. fructigena).78 8. Symptoms appeared on single leaves and were very slight. the plum cultivar ^a~anska lepotica grafted on Myrobalan seedling.36 3. 271–277 275 . Concerning red leaf spots (P.69 0.93 1. 3).37 0. Due to its satisfactory sharka tolerance. In the years 2001 and 2002 no infection was registered. laxa and M. cv ^a~anska lepotica had medium to strong susceptibility. The fruits ripen early (end of July . which corresponded to 5% of the total number of trees. planted in a moist site and under standard plant protection scheme. 39. There was no evidence of infection with other fungal and bacterial diseases. About 38. Unlike cv Stanley. with separable stone and taste that is preferred by Bulgarian consumers. with gathered and rather compact crown.1 with PPV/zara`ena ____________________________________________________________________ Stanley (in 2003) 12. Conclusion Under the conditions of the Central Balkan Mountains.3% (2001).early August). ^a~anska lepotica 10. which enables denser orchard planting. This complies with the report by Nikoli} (2003) of the cultivar’s susceptibility to this disease. manifested slight to medium susceptibility to plum rust (T.119 15.278 24.25 0. however.06 0. In the Troyan region the cultivar ^a~anska lepotica.89%. 10.5% of the fruits on sharka infected trees ripen 3 – 4 days earlier and during the height of harvesting season they are overripe. 3. ^a~anska lepotica 10. The cultivar starts fruit-bearing at an early age. it is a regular and abundant cropper. with a mass of 7.90 1. cv ^a~anska lepotica proved very slightly susceptible to early and late brown rot (M. while in 2003 and 2004 that were favourable for disease development the disease index (DI) recorded was medium. The flesh and stone. The ELISA test applied proved the presence of PPV in 12 of them. pruni-spinosae).25 9.17 0. quality fruits and the possibility for production intensification.02% (2004) to 53. even without irrigation. Vol. they are attractive. br. accordingly. had satisfactory growing.7 9. were flecked with red spots.119 14. 151 (2005. rubrum). and from 2001 to 2004 the DI ranged from 10.83 0.71% less than that of healthy trees’ fruits.23 10.03 0.131 21. Chemical composition of fruits Hemijski sastav plodova u % ____________________________________________________________________ Cultivar Sorta Total Invert sugars sugars Sucrose Acids Tannins Dry matter Ukupni Invertni Saharoza Kiseline Tanini Suva šeceri šeceri materija ____________________________________________________________________ ^a~anska lepotica 11. the cultivar ^a~anska lepotica is particularly suitable for enriching the plum assortment in our country.Tab.

151 (2005. pp. Dinkova. Vol. pp. H. Plazini}. Minev. 3: 134-138. Dinkova. Oga{anovi}. br.. Collection. ’120 Years Agricultural Science in Sadovo‘. ^a~ak. (1986): Ispitvanje otpornosti nekih novijih sorti šljiva prema virusu šarke. D. M. B. Obst und Garten.. 05. (2003): Promising cultivars for structure formation of mountain plum production. Jugoslovensko vo}arstvo.. Dragoyski. Petruschke. P. Zbornik sa Jugoslovenskog simpozijuma o selekciji i oplemenjivanju vo}aka. 2004. (1986): Oplemenjivanje {ljiva i ososbine novostvorenih sorti i hibrida. K.References Dragoyski. ^a~ak. 29: 601-606. Journal of Mountain Agriculture on the Balkans.. Grafika Jure{. K. 7: 402-404 Rankovi}.. (2000): Investigation of plum pox and possibilities for its control. 3). 90-100. R. Primljeno: 01. (1989): Scharkatolerante Zwetschensorten fur den wirtschaftlihen Anbau. Prihva}eno: 10. (2002): Description of the fruits of some plum cultivars grown in the collection orchards of RIMSA.. 45-55. 12. M. Troyan. K. Stefanova. Mondeshka. (2003): Tehnologija proizvodne {live. RIMSA. Nikoli}. 271–277 . Anniversary Scientific Session. 39. 2005. Dragoyski. H. Troyan. PhD Thesis. I. 276 Vo}arstvo. 6: 617-629. M..

Hristina Dinkova. Kod gu{}e sadnje. sorta ^a~anska lepotica. 151 (2005. br. U aprilu 1977. sa ukusom sli~nim sorti {ljive Kyustendilska. godine zasnovan je komercijalni zasad sa ovom sortom. Trojan. Bugarska E-mail: inst@instroyan. godine. od 1979. 3). 271–277 277 . ^a~anska lepotica pogodna je za intenzivne zasade. u Trojanu. Klju~ne re~i: [ljiva.RAST I RODNOST SORTE [LJIVE ^A^ANSKA LEPOTICA GAJENE U CENTRALNOJ PLANINSKOJ REGIJI BALKANA Kalin Dragoyski. Vol.com Rezime Sorta {ljive ^a~anska lepotica testira se u kolekcionim zasadima Instituta za istra`ivanja u planinskom sto~arstvu i poljoprivredi. 5600 Bulgaria Vo}arstvo. Author's address: Kalin Dragoyski Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture 281. rast i rodnost. visoku otpornost na virus {arke i ra|a redovno i obilno (~ak i bez primene mera navodnjavanja). 39. Teodora Spasova. Vasil Levski Str. Plodovi su veliki i privla~nog izgleda. Ivan Minev Institut za istra`ivanja u planinskom sto~arstvu i poljoprivredi. Ova sorta pokazuje veoma dobre komercijalne osobine. osetljivost na {arku. Troyan. kratak period sazrevanja.