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CCAA T48

Guide Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements –
design, construction and specification

Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.
Printed / viewed by: [kevin.martella@jacobs.com] @ 2018-06-21

Guide Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements –
design, construction and specification

Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia

First published March 1997
Second edition May 1999
Third edition October 2009

CCAA T48

© Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia 2009

Except where the Copyright Act allows otherwise, no
part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in
a retrieval system in any form or transmitted by any
means without prior permission in writing from
Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia.

The information provided in this publication is intended
for general guidance only and in no way replaces the
services of professional consultants on particular projects.
No liability can therefore be accepted by Cement
Concrete & Aggregates Australia for its use.

Design and layout Helen Rix Design

Illustration TechMedia Publishing Pty Ltd

ISBN 978-1-877023-26-2

research and development. technical information and advisory services. and of the contribution the PREMIXED CONCRETE AND EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES OFFICE industry makes towards a better environment. and being a PERTH OFFICE: 45 Ventnor Avenue significant contributor to the preparation of Codes and West Perth WA 6005 Standards affecting building and building materials. 1 Hobson Street as Australia's foremost cement and concrete South Yarra VIC 3141 TELEPHONE: (61 3) 9825 0200 information body – taking a leading role in education FACSIMILE: (61 3) 9825 0222 and training. 504 Pacific Highway St Leonards NSW Australia 2065 POSTAL ADDRESS: Locked Bag 2010 St Leonards NSW 1590 TELEPHONE: (61 2) 9437 9711 FACSIMILE: (61 2) 9437 9470 BRISBANE OFFICE: Suite 2.martella@jacobs. MELBOURNE OFFICE: CCAA is acknowledged nationally and internationally 2nd Floor.com. concrete and aggregates by ADELAIDE OFFICE: advancing knowledge. TELEPHONE: (61 7) 3227 5200 profit organisation established in 1928 and committed FACSIMILE: (61 7) 3892 5655 to serving the Australian construction community. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. 485 Ipswich Road Annerley QLD 4103 Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia is a not-for. their energy-efficient properties and their uses.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. TELEPHONE: (61 8) 9389 4452 CCAA's principal aims are to protect and extend FACSIMILE: (61 8) 9389 4451 the uses of cement.com.au ii Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . PO Box 243 Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia Henley Beach SA 5022 ABN 34 000 020 486 TELEPHONE: (61 8) 8243 2505 FACSIMILE: (61 8) 8125 5822 TASMANIAN OFFICE: PO Box 246 Sheffield TAS 7306 TELEPHONE: (61 3) 6491 1509 FACSIMILE: (61 3) 6491 2529 WEBSITE: www.com] @ 2018-06-21 CCAA offices SYDNEY OFFICE: Level 6. skill and professionalism in PO Box 229 Australian concrete construction and by promoting Fullarton SA 5063 TELEPHONE: (61 8) 8274 3758 continual awareness of products. Level 2.ccaa. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.au EMAIL: info@ccaa.

with the number prefixed by the Chapter/Appendix number. The uninterrupted use of any Since section numbers are duplicated. such as semi-trailers should satisfy the requirements of Austroads design guidelines. n Information on joints has been extended to cover armouring of joints and shear transfer at joints.au/publicationextras/. External pavements that are subject to vehicle loadings. tables and charts are numbered in separate sequences in each Chapter and Appendix. The thickness design charts and the description of their use were prepared by Coffey Geotechnics. n sections are also numbered in separate sequences The importance of high-quality industrial floors in each Chapter but (to limit their length) the and pavements cannot be over-emphasised. construction and specification of industrial floors. both numbers are not prefixed by the Chapter number. internally and externally. under the action of forklifts or trolleys.ccaa. While this guide has been produced to give building owners and designers guidance on the design. In addition: n Relevant charts have been extended to cover 5- and 8-tonne axle loads. a spread sheet has been developed and can be downloaded from CCAA website www.martella@jacobs. n Combined wheel and post loads have been included. n More worked examples are included. n An appendix on the design of dowels has been added.com] @ 2018-06-21 Note that in the guide: Preface n a single numeric sequence is used for references. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. n To assist designers in the calculation of the required base thickness and allow sensitivity checks of variables more rapidly. cross industrial facility is dependent on the performance of references in one Chapter to material in another are the pavement.com. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 1 . n figures. The surface should not dust or abrade identified by in Chapter X after the citation. it replaces: Concrete Industrial Floor and Pavement Design (T34) published in 1985 Industrial Floors and Pavements – Construction (TN54) published in 1985 Industrial Floors and Pavements – Guide Specification (TN55) published in 1985 This third edition takes account of changes to relevant Australian Standards since the second edition was published in 1999.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. it may also be used for external pavements subject to similar loadings. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. n Concrete strengths up to 100 MPa are covered. As with the earlier editions. joints movement and condition should not restrict traffic flow.

n abattoirs. The H Effect of Various Factors on Abrasion guide covers plain and reinforced concrete pavements Resistance 109 having concrete strengths up to 100 MPa. However. joint layout and the selection of appropriate concrete properties B Background and Development of Rigorous that avoid surface deterioration. E Effect of Chemicals on Concrete Pavements Two methods of pavement thickness design (simplified and Type of Barrier Systems 105 and rigorous) are provided to assist designers with F Determination of Amount of Shrinkage projects of various sizes and functions. n dairies. Chapter 2 CONSTRUCTION 43 The content has been sequenced to encourage the Chapter 3 GUIDE SPECIFICATION 64 designer to consider serviceability requirements before base thickness is established.com] @ 2018-06-21 Contents Introduction A more-detailed contents list is provided at Scope This guide covers the design. 2 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . It is the CCAA's APPENDICES experience that the common distress modes of A Glossary of Terms 86 industrial pavements are related to joints. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. n chemical plants. including those associated with: n cool stores and freezing works. but does I Proforma for Design Quality Audit 111 not cover prestressed or post-tensioned concrete pavements.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. and the major factors in meeting design performance. n engineering workshops and garages. It has been prepared to assist engineers.martella@jacobs. architects. n piggeries. pavements subject to special loadings or conditions. specialised software design tools should be used to determine the optimum pavement thickness. The guide's goal is Thickness Design Procedure 88 to provide information on cost-effective techniques C Design of Dowelled Joints 97 for the design and construction of concrete industrial D Design Example Using Rigorous Design and commercial pavements to achieve the required Method 99 performance. construction the beginning of each Chapter. both internal floors and G Distress of Industrial Pavements 108 external pavements are referred to as pavements. and n food processing plants. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. Reinforcement 106 For the purpose of this guide. and specification of concrete industrial floors and pavements. specifiers and building contractors by INTRODUCTION 2 providing an outline of the process of design and Chapter 1 DESIGN 4 construction. For pavement thickness greater than REFERENCES 113 400 mm. and/or having special requirements for resistance to abrasion or aggressive chemicals. n manufacturing plants. and n offices and shopping complexes. BIBLIOGRAPHY 115 The principles and details provided are applicable to pavements found in a wide range of commercial and industrial buildings including: n warehouses and stores.

other concrete pavement types Design and Construction of Cold Store Floors1. Subgrade The natural or prepared formation on which the pavement is constructed.com] @ 2018-06-21 need additional consideration and are outside the Concrete Pavement Types While this guide scope of this document.1 – PERMPAVE V1. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. They have generally been Base (Slab) The main structural element of the used in external applications. the designer will need to consider construction n Steel-fibre reinforced concrete pavements will also loading. V17. Topping An applied layer used to provide appropriate abrasion (wear) resistance and/or enhance chemical resistance of the base. fatigue strength and resistance With the introduction of the AS/NZS ISO 9000 series to impact loads (refer to the Bibliography for of quality management and assurance standards. test further information). pavements subject to road and highway loadings Subbase A layer of select material between the AUSTROADS Pavement Design 3 should be used. Also. Refer to the fibre manufacturer's documentation for design Elements of a typical concrete industrial floor/pavement guidance. Refer to LOCKPAVE® concrete pavement. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 3 . airports. A 1995 (if used) ABSAC opinion4 noted that fibres added to Vapour barrier (if used) concrete under controlled conditions and for SUBBASE limited site conditions reduce the probability of SUBGRADE cracking in the plastic and hardened state. semi-trailers and forklift trucks during and after the reduce plastic shrinkage cracking. and external paving for warehouses and For this guide the key terms are defined as follows: manufacturing facilities. Wearing surface The surface which comes in contact with traffic using the pavement. and their benefits/uses are: n Prestressed concrete pavements will provide large Intended use of Pavement The designer joint-free areas and they are generally thinner should be made aware of the pavement operating pavements (refer to the Bibliography for further requirements and state these in the documentation. flexural strength. and that the pavement may be subjected to frequently give advantages in thickness design.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. subgrade and the base. Topping (if used) n Polypropylene-fibre reinforced concrete pavements BASE Reinforcement reduce the plastic shrinkage cracking. hardstands at industrial floor/pavement are shown in the figure above. refer to the fibre manufacturer's Wearing surface documentation.martella@jacobs. concrete pavements. assessed to ensure successful joint behaviour. n Segmental concrete pavements have gained Definitions The elements of a typical concrete increasing use in large port facilities. Vapour barrier The membrane placed beneath the base to control water vapour rising through the subgrade to the pavement surface. and improve the completion of the building. For design guidance. information). and the Bibliography for further design information. The thermal effects of the methods that could be adopted to measure the design pavement are unchanged when using fibres in performance requirements should be covered in the concrete and the spacing of joints needs to be project specification. For example. Additional terms used in this guide and common for industrial pavements are defined in Appendix A. for guidance provides information about only plain and reinforced on cool stores refer to Guidelines for the Specification. Panel A unit of concrete pavement laid in one piece and bounded on all sides by free edges or joints.25. Reinforcement Reinforcing bars or reinforcing mesh complying with AS/NZS 4671 Steel reinforcing Related Documents For the design of external materials2. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.

7.3.3.5.3 Load transfer at joints 9 conditions 27 2.3.7.3.7.2.5 Base thickening near edges and 2.4.1 Assessment of equivalent uniform soil 2.1 Jointed unreinforced pavements 39 2.5 Resistance to chemical attack 18 joints 38 2.4 Stress ratio 25 2 Design for Serviceability 6 3. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.3.8.4 RPD (Rigid Pavement Design) 41 3.4 Surface treatments and coatings 20 distributed loading 39 2.3 pcaMats 41 3.2 Surface drainage 22 3.1 Site Conditions 6 3.1 General 18 3.2 Design charts for post loading 32 2.7.3.4.3 Wheel loading 25 contents 3.3 Number of repetitions 25 3.7.1 General 6 of concrete 26 2.4.3.3.1 Basis of charts 25 3.4 Armouring of joint edges (or arrises) 11 3.4 Site investigation 31 soils 15 3.2.5 Surface Finishes 18 3.3.4 Bound subbase 16 thickness 31 2.3.3.2 Joint types 6 3.2.2 Magnitude of wheel load 25 1 Procedure 5 3.2 Joints and Joint Layout 6 3.6 Assessment of design tensile strength 2.5 Distributed loading 26 2.5.5.2 Assessment of loading 25 Chapter 1 3.3.3.2 Abrasion resistance 16 loading 32 2.3.4 Reinforcement 39 2.2.3 Corrosion resistance 17 3.1 Design charts for wheel loading 31 2.4 Combined loading 33 2.3.4 Designing Concrete for Durability 16 3.1 Gradients 22 3.3.martella@jacobs.3 Surface finish 19 3.8.5 FEAR4 41 4 Pavement operation 42 4 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .3.com] @ 2018-06-21 3 Design for Strength 23 Chapter 1 Design 3.2 Assessment of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio 28 2. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.5 Joint layout 12 layer 27 2.4.3.8.3.3.6 Surface Tolerance 20 3.2 Toppings 19 posts 38 2.1 Basis of design method 23 3.4.3.7.3 Contribution of subbase to subgrade 2.3.2 Jointed reinforced pavements 39 2.3.1 Objectives 23 3.4.3 Rigorous Thickness Design Method 23 3.4.3.7 Gradients and Surface Drainage 22 3.3.2.5.3 Continuously reinforced pavements 40 3.2 Strand7 40 3.4 Location of steel reinforcement 40 3.3.4.6 Punching shear resistance 38 2.3.5 Computer Design Software 40 3.3 Unbound granular subbase 15 3.2 Simplified Thickness Design 23 3.1 General 40 3.1 General 15 strength 30 2.6 Joint sealants 14 3.3 Subbases 15 3.8 Computation of required base 2.5.7 Concrete bearing stress under 2.5 Laboratory testing 31 2.5.2 Prevention of pumping of fine-grained 3.3.8.2.4 Freeze-thaw resistance 17 3.7 Assessment of subgrade and soil 2.5.3.5.4.4 Post loading 26 2.8.9 Long-term deflection under uniformly- 2.5 Subbase thickness 16 3.7.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.3.3.8.3 Design charts for uniformly-distributed 2.3.3.1 General 16 3.8.5.3.

2 (page 23) n rigorous design method – Section 3.8.martella@jacobs.1 provides a concise guide for the design procedure of industrial pavements.5 (page 18) STEP 11 Select minimum concrete characteristic strength – (based on steps 7–10) STEP 12 Select pavement surface finish for internal and external areas – Section 2.com] @ 2018-06-21 Chapter 1 Design Chapter 1 Procedure This Chapter has been sequenced to ensure that designers address the serviceability requirements first. Table 1.3 (page 23) STEP 16 Assess punching shear and bearing stress under post loads – Sections 3.7 (page 38) STEP 17 Assess long-term deflection under uniformly distributed loading – Section 3.4 (page 39) Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 5 . steel bar/mesh reinforced – covered in this Chapter n fibre reinforced – use supplier design guide n post-tensioned – refer to Bibliography n segmental concrete pavers – refer to Lockpave/Permpave software and/or Bibliography STEP 3 Assess site conditions – Section 2.4.3 (page 17) STEP 9 Assess freeze-thaw resistance of pavement – Section 2.3 (page 15) STEP 7 Determine minimum concrete strength based on required abrasion resistance – Section 2.5 (page 18) STEP 13 Establish pavement surface tolerances – Section 2.5 (page 12) STEP 6 Determine subbase requirements – Section 2.4. Table 1. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.3.6 and 3.3.1 Design procedure for concrete industrial pavements STEP 1 Determine intended use of pavement STEP 2 Select pavement type and location n plain.4.4 (page 17) STEP 10 Assess resistance of pavement to chemical attack – Section 2.2 (page 16) STEP 8 Assess corrosion resistance of pavement – Section 2.3.1 (page 6) STEP 4 Select joint types – Section 2.6 (page 20) STEP 14 Determine surface drainage requirements – Section 2. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. 1 followed by the base thickness requirements.9 (page 39) STEP 18 Determine reinforcement requirements (if selected) – Section 3.8.7 (page 22) STEP 15 Design base thickness using: n simplified design table – Section 3.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.2.4.2 (page 6) STEP 5 Design internal and external joint layout – Section 2.

The type of joint.3.com] @ 2018-06-21 2 Design for Serviceability situations should be installed or the base thickness 2. and to avoid conflict with other structures and/or and at junctions between internal and external penetrations. (eg self-expanding cork) over the full depth of the increasing the amount of reinforcement will permit joint to provide a complete separation. to prevent the development of stresses of joints as these not only affect the evenness of the that may result from differential movements. n Isolation joints. pits.8. preformed filler material used in the panels are inter-related. also be required in areas subject to large temperature Load transfer in contraction joints may be provided fluctuations. in the panel than those occurring at free edges with Expansion joints Expansion joints are used in no effective load transfer.5). They also serve to prevent pavements to provide for thermal and moisture‑induced differential vertical movements of adjacent panels and movement of the base.2. These factors thickened if loads are likely to occur close to the joint are discussed separately below and the designer is (see Section 3. the expansion 6 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . n Contraction joints n Construction joints. dowels. However. etc). in practice. these joints may so avoid stepping. Typical details of this type of joint are by: aggregate interlock across the rough crack provided in Figure 1. the sealant Isolation joints are generally formed by casting required.16 suggests that for dowels Site conditions will largely determine drainage to be fully effective the base thickness should be at requirements and establish the design pavement level. used for load transfer across joints because controlling ie cut to spoil. Note that the sealant should be faces. n those resulting from the climatic conditions in the region. If the opening is greater dirt or other incompressible material from entering the than 0. as well as rotation between abutting elements.9 mm. of reasons. cut to fill. or a combination of provided to both the top at free edges to prevent any these (refer Section 2. walls. including construction considerations. machinery bases. It is desirable to minimise the number pavements. the layout of joints.1 General vertical movement. The pavement in most instances but they also tend to be design will typically need to provide for load transfer the area most vulnerable to wear and requiring repairs.martella@jacobs.3. as may be expected when the panel joint and preventing or restricting movement. In view of the wider spacing of joints but will mean that the joints will edge loading condition at an isolation joint. Isolation joints should also be provided at the minimising the risk of unplanned shrinkage cracking. between a pavement panel and fixed parts of the concrete pavements need to be jointed for a number building (such as columns. should be provided to both the top and at free edges Load transfer mechanisms such as dowels may to prevent any dirt or other incompressible material be used to transfer loads across a joint to adjacent from entering the joint and preventing or restricting pavement panels.8. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. ACI 302. least 125 mm. borrow to fill or imported fill. between the existing pavement and the extension to it. lengths exceed about 3 m. keyed joints.2. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.1. influenced by seasonal. particularly rainfall and temperature. However.3).1 Site Conditions should be determined for a free-edge condition (see Section 3. Typical details of this type of encouraged to consider all of them in determining joint are provided in Figure 1. 2. n the groundwater level and the extent to which it is n Expansion joints.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. resulting in lower flexural stresses movement. junction when an existing pavement is being extended. For example. eg forklifts. Internally.2. allowing the elements to behave Ideally.5). the base experience greater movement and the risk of random edges adjacent to these joints may be required to be cracking within panels will increase. and the amount of reinforcement when against a compressible. It also recommends that dowels be This in turn will dictate on-site earthwork requirements.2 Joint types n the slope and general level of the existing ground Four types of joints are used in pavement construction: within and surrounding the site. load transfer by aggregate Expansion joints are generally not required in interlock or keyways cannot be relied upon and internal floors since they are not subject to large either an effective load-transfer device for these temperature fluctuations. flood or tidal conditions.2. Chapter 1 the differential vertical movement across joints will help Site conditions which may influence the pavement prevent damage to slab edges from vehicles with hard design include: wheels. 2.2 Joints and Joint Layout Isolation joints These joints permit horizontal and 2. They should be provided they abut other structures. pavements should be joint free except where independently of each other. Note that the sealant appropriate joint details and layout.

usually by the provision of dowels. pavements (see Section 2. They allow horizontal movement of the base at right t angles to the joint and act to relieve stresses which 0. AS 36007 suggests design such that the joint movement does not mean that load shrinkage values of 670 x 10–6 for 200-mm-thick slabs transfer by aggregate interlock is lost.3. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 7 .5) transfer devices.8. a sealer can be installed in formed to saturation). then or inserting a preformed crack inducer into the for a temperature rise of 30°C above the placing surface while the concrete is still in a plastic state. if the groove can be formed early enough. Assuming f 'c = 40 MPa. temperature (and the slab moisture content returns If required. As such thermal ranges concrete (Formed Joint) or by use of a saw after do not typically occur in industrial floors.5. Filler Abutting pavement or as the required joint width will necessitate special t other structure treatment (armouring of joint edges) to avoid wear from forklift vehicles and subsequent high maintenance costs.6 MPa. cracking occurs (Sawn Joint). assuming that no reservoir and bond-breaking backing tape after expansion joints are provided. than the initial shrinkage of the concrete. Further. by a suitable grooving tool or early-age saw cutting.5t Bond-breaking compound might otherwise cause random cracking. a temperature of about 30°C above the placing Contraction joints are usually constructed either by temperature would be required to give an expansion forming a groove in the top of the freshly-placed equal to the drying shrinkage. Refer to Section 2. Figures 1. Figure 1. L) Contraction joints Contraction or control joints control 40 the random drying shrinkage cracking of concrete by 30 mm cover to mesh (min) inducing the base to crack only at the joint locations.3. if the drying shrinkage is ignored and the Formed joints can be constructed by forming restraint to slab lengthening due to temperature a groove using a T-section and edging tools rise and/or moisture increase is neglected. base thickness should be designed as a free edge. Chapter 1 Edge-thickening expansion joints also require the provision of load- where appropriate e (See Section 3. load and 450 x 10–6 for 400-mm-thick slabs in interior transfer has to be provided by other methods or the environments. bars or plates.martella@jacobs. This low compressive stress development with the formed joint.5) should be selected to suit the geometry of the pavement. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. but should be In support of this. This may necessitate the supports the practice of not providing expansion joints reinforcement being terminated short of the joint in industrial floors.com] @ 2018-06-21 Designers should satisfy themselves of the need for Sealant expansion joints internally prior to specifying their use.1 Typical isolation joint Where expansion joints are not provided. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. a plane of weakness is created by forming (using compressible filler material for expansion crack-inducing tapes or formers) or cutting a groove for full depth of pavement to a depth of between one-quarter to one-third of the base thickness. the reinforcement must not interfere be 9. other joint types within the pavement should be sealed to prevent the ingress of incompressible material that may 0. Due to the separation of adjacent panels. With a coefficient of thermal expansion of 10 x 10–6 / °C. Even the thermal movement of a cold-store floor will The spacing of contraction joints in jointed unreinforced not exceed the initial shrinkage of the floor. expansion the concrete has hardened but before uncontrolled joints are not required. In order to 25 ensure that shrinkage cracking occurs at a contraction 10-mm minimum thickness Cap required joint.3 and 1. Dowel ingress of dirt (length.975 MPa and the compressive stress will pavements.2.3. some reduction in the groove depth may be possible for due to thermal movement will typically be less plain or reinforced (mesh) concrete slabs.2. the maximum compressive strain in contraction joints by providing a suitable sealant the concrete will be 300 x 10–6.5 L Suitable elastomeric sealant to prevent otherwise restrict subsequent expansion of the floor. TR 358 suggests that for pavements. Figure 1. the overall shrinkage coefficient is about 300 x 10–6. If it is. the pavement has been completed. Typical details are shown in Figure 1.2 Typical expansion joint However. In reinforced then Ec is 31.

simple keyed dowels and allow the slab to move horizontally without joints will often be satisfactory provided the pavement restraint when shrinkage opens the joint. 40 40 t 20 to 40 mm minimum be roughened for the reinforcement may be min min depending on exposure load transfer carried through the joint (see text) BUTT JOINT Propriety pressed-metal Figure 1. L) 25 0. sealant and bond-breaking backing tape for movement both across 0.25t to 0. but before shrinkage cracking normally necessitate the use of square dowels. If required. the joint can be widened later. with individual panels ambient temperature) that influence the hardening bound by either construction.5t and along joint t 0. so that joint movement sealer. Dowels should be coated with a suitable bond- and at the location of unplanned interruptions such breaker on one side of the joint and should be aligned as may be caused by adverse weather conditions or parallel to the longitudinal direction of the panel and equipment breakdowns.5L + 25 DOWELLED JOINT DOWELLED JOINT Top of joint may be sealed First-cast face may NOTE: In reinforced pavements.4t 0. They may be placed within 150 mm of Figure 1. The initial saw cut should be 3 to 5 mm joints. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. L) 0.5L 0.3 Typical contraction joints – with or without intersections whereas dowels should be placed no reinforcement closer than 300 mm.4t UNDOWELLED JOINT NOTE: Tie bars may be Chapter 1 used (see text) 0.2t Induced crack Deformed tie bar (length.5L 40 40 KEYED JOINT 20 to 40 minimum min min depending on exposure Provide sleeve to allow Formed or sawn joint. Diamond-shaped load plates can be used to replace For longitudinal construction joints. round or square dowels cropped at separate areas of concrete placed at different times. both ends should not be used as the end deformation Transverse construction joints are required at planned may interfere with the opening or closing of the locations.33t Sealant reservoir and R 0. to the surface of the base to within close tolerances. for the installation of a joint spacing of joints to about 15 m. they also is lightly loaded. For example. expansion or isolation of concrete.5t Dowel Bond-breaking (length. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.5L 0. does not become excessive and joint sealing can When dowels are used. L) compound t Dowel (length.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. they should not prevent remain effective. Note that dowels placed near intersections must be provided with expansion material Sawn joints are constructed after the concrete has to the vertical sides to allow movement of the slab hardened sufficiently that it will not be damaged both parallel and perpendicular to the joint.1t 0. contraction the many conditions (eg concrete strength and joints are generally not provided. occurs. such as at the end of each day's placing. joint.com] @ 2018-06-21 Top of joint may be sealed 0.martella@jacobs. it is desirable to limit the in width. For these pavements. The appropriate time for sawing varies with Note that in jointed reinforced pavements. not more than 150 mm thick. otherwise an Construction joints Longitudinal construction joints uncontrolled crack may occur in the vicinity of the are used to form the edges of each pour and to joint.4 Typical longitudinal construction joints – key joint to suit slab thickness with or without reinforcement KEY JOINT (PRESSED-METAL) allow some differential movement in the direction of the joint. the joint from opening or closing. and 8 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . This will by the sawing.5t 4 Formed or sealant with bond-breaking 1 t sawn recess backing tape t 0.

L) compound In continuously reinforced pavements. continuity of that the dowels or other load transfer devices are at reinforcement across the joint by the use of split or least 75% efficient. a dowelled butt joint. the joint to transfer load from the loaded slab to the Keyed longitudinal joints may be held together with unloaded slab. can be designed for the interior loading case.000/DSj mm.4.martella@jacobs. such tie bars should not joint will be 100% effective if there is no differential be used in panels with a total width of more than 15 m vertical movement between the loaded and unloaded unless dowelled longitudinal contraction joints are also slabs. this poses The provision of subgrade/subbase material having construction difficulties in forming and stripping the higher modulus of subgrade reaction (k) values. which will allow horizontal movement and perform all the Chapter 1 TIED JOINT (NOT USED AT A CONTRACTION JOINT LOCATION) functions of a contraction joint. transfer device if the joint opens up more than about 1 mm. L) 0. that is. Both slotted and split Figure 1. Butt joints with dowels (possibly also with expansion material) are recommended since there is 0. vertical movement at the joints.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.5 Typical transverse construction joints header boards are used. In terms of slab edge deflections. recent research suggests that the slab thickness base (mm) and Sj is the joint spacing (m). The reinforcement must be designed for the particularly bound subbases and subgrade beams will total pavement length rather than the panel length. or over a bound subbase or stabilised subgrade.5% of the applied load. Unplanned construction shrinkage crack is induced below the saw cut or Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 9 . but the slotted type is more satisfactory because it can be removed with minimum disturbance to the previously-cast concrete.com] @ 2018-06-21 30 mm minimum depending on exposure joints should be located within the middle third of a panel. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. and totally ineffective if adjacent slabs are provided at a spacing not exceeding 15 m. n Aggregate interlock n Keyways A keyed joint will not function properly as a load- n Dowels (shear reinforcement). (length. planned construction bond-breaking backing tape 75 75 30 mm minimum joints are usually installed at normal contraction joint depending on exposure locations. constructed over a firm. Dowel t sizes. provided In reinforced pavement construction. Typical details are provided in Figure 1. The header is removed prior to the resumption of concrete placing.5L would normally occur. longitudinal construction joints from the loaded to the unloaded slab and control of should be provided with some form of load-transfer differential vertical movement between adjacent slabs. unyielding subgrade not 2. formwork. improve the effectiveness of load transfer at joints.3 Load transfer at joints subject to volume changes. designed to allow the reinforcing steel JOINT LOCATION) reinforced and unreinforced pavements to pass through. allowed to move independently (ie no load transfer Where provided. Transverse construction joints in jointed unreinforced Aggregate interlock is commonly used at sawn pavements should be located at the position of a and some formed contraction joints where a drying planned contraction joint.5. is recommended reinforced and unreinforced pavements Figure 1. Typical There are three methods of load transfer at joints: details of this type of joint are provided in Figure 1.5. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. the deformed tie bars.2. capable of transferring slotted formwork can provide positive control against 37. tie bars should be 800-mm-long across the joint). However. a transverse 0. If the pavement is thicker or Load transfer refers to transfering loads across a joint more heavily loaded. Formed joint with sealant and In jointed reinforced pavements. It is therefore important when using this type of The effectiveness of a joint measures the ability of joint for load transfer to limit the extent of joint opening. 0.5t no aggregate interlock to provide load transfer. N12 bars at the spacing of the lesser of 800 mm and If shear reinforcement is provided in the slab at the 650. spacing and debonding are as for a transverse Dowel Bond-breaking contraction joint.5t Where a transverse construction joint is planned to t coincide with the position in which a contraction joint Dowel (length. device such as dowels or diamond load plates.5L construction joint is formed by placing a special 25 DOWELLED BUTT JOINT (SUITABLE FOR USE AT A CONTRACTION header board. However. where D is the thickness of the joint.

Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.
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groove formed in the surface of the slab. It relies on the risk of unplanned cracking rather than providing
the irregular face of the cracked concrete and its adequate load transfer at joints.
effectiveness depends mainly on the width of the With the use of sand layers and polyethylene films
crack that develops, but also on the slab thickness, under slabs to reduce the friction and hence risk
subgrade support, load magnitude and number of of unplanned cracking, a shrinkage crack may not
repetitions, and the angularity of the aggregate. develop at all contraction joints, particularly in thicker Chapter

1
Research by the PCA9 has determined that the slabs, fibre reinforced slabs and/or slabs incorporating
following factors influence the effectiveness of joints higher strength concrete. The opening at joints where
relying on aggregate interlock for load transfer: cracking does develop may be wider than anticipated,
n Joint width/opening. For 230-mm-thick slabs a joint thus reducing the effectiveness of aggregate interlock.
with an opening of 0.6 mm is almost 100% effective. It will also be reduced if saw cutting to a greater depth
At 0.9 mm opening good load transfer is expected is specified (to induce cracking at all joints). In each
with an effectiveness of 60%. The effectiveness of case, alternative load transfer devices such as dowels
aggregate interlock is minimal at an opening width should be considered. Note also that curling may
of 2 mm. TR 3410 suggests a design value of 15% reduce the effectiveness of aggregate interlock.
load transfer at a width of 1.5 mm. Keyways are formed either with timber moulds
n Slab thickness. The joints in thinner slabs attached to the formwork or pressed metal profiles.
(175‑mm‑thick) are only 60% effective for an They provide load transfer and allow for concrete
opening width of 0.6 mm. shrinkage and rotation at the joint. They are not
recommended for concrete slabs thinner than
n Subgrade support. The provision of a bound 150 mm due to inadequate load transfer and the risk
(cement treated) subbase keeps aggregate of damage. As a guide, the overall depth of the key
interlock effectiveness at high percentages should be one quarter of the slab thickness, the width
through one million load cycles. Silts and clays should be one tenth of the slab thickness and the top
(offering little support) generally cause loss of and bottom faces should have a maximum taper of
joint effectiveness after only a few load repetitions. 1 vertical to 4 horizontal (and preferably shallower) to
Sandy soils (providing moderate support) maintain limit differential vertical movement with shrinkage of
about 50% effectiveness after one million cycles. the concrete. The dimensions and hence load transfer
n Load magnitude. Loads less than 2,200 kg typically capacity of the key should be confirmed for the loads
cause little deterioration of joint effectiveness. to be carried.
Repetitive heavier loads cause a significant Both ACI 302.1 and ACI 360 do not recommend key
decrease in joint effectiveness. joints as load transfer devices because the keyways
n Aggregate shape. Crushed gravels and stone do not retain contact when the concrete shrinks. This
provide better joint effectiveness than natural can eventually cause a breakdown of the concrete joint
gravels due to the angularity of the crushed edges and failure of the section of concrete above
particles. the key.
From the above, it can be seen that load transfer may Key joints should thus be used only where wide joint
be improved by limiting the joint spacing, increasing openings are not anticipated and for light loads where
the slab thickness, providing a stronger subgrade/ reduced joint effectiveness will not cause deterioration
subbase layer (typically a stabilised subgrade or of the slab edges due to, say, the impact from small
bound subbase layer), using an angular aggregate or forklift wheels.
incorporating other load transfer devices. Dowels are mechanical load transfer devices that
Using an overall shrinkage coefficient of 300 x10–6 are designed to allow the joint to open and close but
(refer to Expansion joints above), joint spacings of hold the slabs on each side of the joint, as nearly as
3 m would limit joint openings to 0.9 mm. Thus for possible, at the same level. They transfer load from
joint spacings greater than 3 m subject to repetitive adjacent slabs across the joint, thereby reducing
heavy loads, alternative load transfer devices are critical corner and edge loading stresses, and
recommended. ACI 36011 cautions that 'if the designer permitting thinner slabs to be used.
can not be sure of positive long-term shear transfer at Dowels are recommended by ACI 360 when effective
the joints through aggregate interlock, then positive load transfer is required and should be used at
load transfer devices should be used at all joints contraction and expansion joints where large joint
subject to wheeled traffic.' Note that recommended openings or movements are expected, and at joints
joint spacings are generally based on minimising subjected to heavy and/or repetitive loading.

10 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements

Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.
Printed / viewed by: [kevin.martella@jacobs.com] @ 2018-06-21

While no more than half the design load will be applied Table 1.2 Recommended dimensions (Grade 250R
to the dowels, and TN 4712 suggests that dowels be bars) for round dowels placed at 300-mm centres
designed so that they will be capable of transferring
40 to 45% of the design axle load to an adjacent slab Base thickness Dowel diameter Dowel length
when the axle is close to the joint, it is recommended (mm) (mm) (mm)
that they be designed to transfer at least 50% of
150–190 20 400 Chapter

1
the design load. TN 47 also notes that the dowels
200–240 24 450
directly under wheel loads are most effective, while
250–270 30 450
effectiveness diminishes to zero at a distance of 280–340 33 450
about 1.8 m from the point of application of the load. 350 36 500
To overcome the difficulties of assessing the gradual
decrease in load carried by the dowels further away
from the wheel location, TR 3410 recommends that
the load transfer is determined from the capacity of Table 1.3 Recommended dowel size and spacing for
all dowels within a distance of 0.9l mm either side of square dowels (after ACI 302.16)
the load centreline, where l is the radius of relative
stiffness. Refer to Appendix C for the calculation of Base Dowel dimensions
thickness (size x length) Dowel spacing
the radius of relative stiffness and worked example of
(mm) (mm) (mm)
individual dowel capacity.
The simplified round dowel size and spacing 125–150 20 x 350 350
recommendations in Table 1.2 will provide adequate 175–200 25 x 400 350
load transfer at joints. The dowel recommendations 225–275 32 x 450 300
in Tables 1.3 and 1.4 should also provide adequate
load transfer. However, as the recommendations in Note: Values based on maximum joint opening of 5 mm.
Tables 1.3 and 1.4 are from ACI 302 and are based
on highway type loading, their adequacy should
be checked for individual situations. If adequacy of Table 1.4 Dowel size and spacing for diamond‑shaped
load plates (after ACI 302.16)
dowels needs to be checked refer to Appendix C.

2.2.4 Armouring of joint edges (or arrises) Diamond load
Base Diamond load plate spacing
Where wider joints are incorporated into floors subject
thickness plate dimensions centre-to-centre
to heavy repetitive loads from forklift traffic having
(mm) (mm) (mm)
small wheels, the corners of slab edges are often
provided with some form of armouring to minimise the 125–150 6 x 115 x 115 450
damage from the impact of the wheels as they move 175–200 10 x 115 x 115 450
over the joint. Note that only those areas subject to 225–275 20 x 115 x 115 500
wheeled traffic may need to be armoured.
Note: Values based on maximum joint opening of 5 mm.
There are a number of ways to protect the edges of
joints:
n Fill the joint to restore surface continuity
n Use steel angles or plates back steel angles can be provided along the joints
n Provide an epoxy-filled recess to slab edges. Figure 1.7. These can be spot welded together in
order to maintain an exact level match at the joint. One
Filling the joint is applicable only for those joints
angle is cast into the first slab, and when the attached
designed not to allow for movement. According to
angle is cast into the adjacent slab and the concrete
ACI 360, semi-rigid epoxy or polyurea materials having
has hardened, the spot welds securing the two angles
a minimum Shore A hardness of 80 when measured in
are cut, usually within 24 hours. Angles are held into
accordance with ASTM D 2240 will provide sufficient
the edges using lugs or tie bars. Compaction of the
shoulder support to the edges of the concrete and
concrete is critical to ensure concrete completely fills
prevent joint breakdown Figure 1.6.
the space under the top horizontal leg of the angle and
Steel angles are used where wider joint movements the concrete securing the lugs/tie bars has sufficient
are expected or at expansion or isolation joints. strength and bond. The concrete surface level must
For jointed reinforced floors where larger crack widths also exactly match that of the angles to avoid impact
are expected (joint spacings of 10 to 15 m) back-to- loads as wheels move over the concrete/steel interface.

Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 11

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Printed / viewed by: [kevin.martella@jacobs.com] @ 2018-06-21

Note that proprietary steel joint armouring systems
are available that require no welding for connection
of adjacent steel sections and also incorporate edge
formwork.
Epoxy protection of joint edges can be achieved
by creating a rebate in the concrete on both sides of Chapter

1
the joint, filling the rebate (ie bridging the joint) with
a high‑strength epoxy material and then providing
a narrow saw cut through the epoxy along the joint
centreline Figure 1.8. The saw cut should be made
within 24 hours before further concrete shrinkage
Figure 1.6 Epoxy filling of contraction joint damages the bond between the epoxy and the
surfaces of the rebate. The area required for bond
between the concrete and epoxy, and hence rebate
size required, is a function of the joint width to be
bridged and the adhesion characteristics of the epoxy.
Depending on the expected opening of the joint,
replacement of the epoxy after a given time may be
considered to restore the narrow joint width (ie the
width of the saw cut).

2.2.5 Joint layout
The joint layout will generally be controlled by two
factors: construction method and pavement type. It
will also need to take into account the desirability of
Figure 1.7 Armouring of joint edges with steel angles uniform paving runs, continuity of joints, construction
crew size, and the constraining effects of columns and
penetrations through the pavement. Where known,
in-service factors such as the position of rack systems
and machinery should also be taken into account.
Construction method The base width will be
influenced by the method of pavement construction,
taking into account the constraints imposed by
Recess is filled equipment dimensions, maximum placing rates, etc.
and narrow saw cut
There are two preferred methods of placing concrete
provided to separate
adjacent slabs for pavements Figure 1.9.
n Long-strip. The method of placing in long
continuous panels between forms maximises
placing efficiency and generally provides more
stringent surface tolerance.
n Continuous-pour. This method may require the use
of temporary forms or wet screeds (screed rails) to
achieve surface level control.
The chequerboard method of casting alternate
Figure 1.8 Armouring of joint edges with epoxy square or rectangular panels was a popular form
of construction for many years, but is no longer
recommended due to the wider joint openings that
result, requirement for armouring of joint edges and
mechanical load transfer devices. Generally, the
long‑strip method is used, as it simplifies construction
and generally allows more stringent control of
pavement surface tolerance. Long panels of concrete
have only two sides which have to be matched in level,
whereas square or rectangular panels constructed

12 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements

n Jointed unreinforced.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.com] @ 2018-06-21 NOTE: Joint details and reinforcement Direction W. CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED In the long-strip method.9 Pavement construction methods JOINTED REINFORCED No contraction joints required independently in chequerboard fashion have levels on all four sides to be matched. so that steel reinforcement is not required. in the range of 25 to 30 times the base thickness. but accurate level control may be difficult to achieve with long vibrating. jointed-reinforced or continuously-reinforced Figure 1.10 Joint requirements for various and construction equipment.martella@jacobs. Panel widths greater pavement types than 5 m require special vibrating equipment which make the construction operations more difficult.5:1 max. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 13 . This method is generally not recommended when more stringent tolerances have to be achieved unless good quality control procedures and/or specialist equipment such as laser screeds are used. to suit paving equipment W Direction have been omitted for clarity of placing and/or pavement geometry of placing L = 5 m maximum L L:W = 1. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. Figure 1. It is recommended that the panels are parallel sided and that careful construction planning is undertaken. Transverse contraction joints (dowelled or undowelled) Chapter 1 Longtudinal construction joints LONG-STRIP METHOD JOINTED UNREINFORCED W. transverse contraction joints are closely spaced. ie jointed-unreinforced.10. The continuous-pour method is the most efficient in placing concrete over large areas. The close spacing controls cracking by relieving shrinkage and thermal stresses. In this type of pavement. Direction truss screeds supported on temporary forms or screed of placing rails. to suit paving equipment W Direction and/or pavement geometry of placing L = 10 to 15 m recommended L Dowelled transverse Direction contraction joints of placing Longtudinal construction Dowels joints CONTINUOUS-POUR METHOD Figure 1. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. Pavement type The joint spacing will be influenced by the pavement type selected. the width of the panel (typically 5 m) is generally governed by practical considerations.

6. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. A joint layout for a typical jointed.5 :1 can be used to fill (or seal) internal joints that are not subject to significant movement Figure 1. or where small solid-wheeled vehicles Column External wall are used.11 Joint layout for a typical jointed. A much higher reinforcement content is used (in the range of 0. access holes. structures such as drainage pits.6 to 0.9% refer Appendix F) to limit the width of the fine cracks which are designed to occur at a spacing of around 1 to 2 m. and especially after most of the shrinkage has occurred in the concrete pavement. In this type of pavement. They should be bonded to only one side of the Figure 1. into Isolation joint Longitudinal construction joints either the plastic concrete (eg self-expanding cork) around services or a recess sawn in the hardened concrete (eg Transverse contraction joints and blockouts cellular neoprene).12. unreinforced concrete panels tend to crack into smaller panels of approximately square dimensions. If filled immediately after construction of unreinforced internal pavement the pavement the joint may require refilling as shrinkage takes place and the joint opens. and reinforcement is provided to hold tightly closed any cracks which may occur within the length of individual panels. where there are special hygiene or dust-control requirements. it is essential durable under the passage of wheel loads) adequate. dowelled contraction joints are generally spaced Chapter 1 in the range of 10 to 15 m but can be further apart. sealing is reinforcement details. and Isolation Edge strips n Epoxy-filled joint systems. Figure 1. 4m typical of placing There are several categories of joint sealants: n Field-moulded sealants which are poured or Joint spacing to suit paving Isolation gunned into the joint. and For most industrial pavements. joint. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.5:1. joint layout becomes a matter of finding the most suitable pattern of may wish to 'chevron' the joint layout in traffic aisles rectangular or square panels to fit the geometry of the to reduce the load across the joint Figure 1.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. solid sealants may Direction 5m typical be specified for internal pavements.11. and separated from the pavement by properly designed concrete pavement are generally an isolation joint. equipment and pavement joint around geometry n Factory-moulded sealants which are preformed and columns inserted. Construction of pavements without properly unreinforced pavement is shown in Figure 1. joint sealing is essential. Whenever possible. While not a sealant (due joint around reinforced if to the rigid nature of the material). Joints may be detailed to have recommended to prevent dirt or other incompressible an orthogonal or skewed layout. no contraction joints are provided. n Continuously reinforced. The length: width ratio should therefore not exceed 1.12 The designer should give careful attention Other considerations With the joint spacing to the joint layout determined by the above factors. that the plans show joint locations and types. making narrow joints (which are more Irrespective of the pavement type. service pits. In this type of pavement. 14 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .6 Joint sealants footings. established joint locations and details is likely to result in uncontrolled cracking of the concrete. generally in a compressed condition.2. particular pavement. very small. narrow. n Jointed reinforced. or the designer materials from entering the joints. In some instances. machine 2.martella@jacobs. epoxy materials perimeter L:W > 1. In wet conditions.com] @ 2018-06-21 Long. etc should be located in the corners or at the The movements which occur at contraction joints in a edges of panels. column bases.

thus ensuring effective crushed or granulated slag.3. Problems caused by pumping of fine-grained soils can 2.13. A backing rod is used the soil is well drained.3. the water will not remain. well-graded. that it be appropriate to the type of loading pumping to occur13: and environmental factors (with special attention being paid to chemical-resistance requirements).3. pumping. subgrade or subbase. 'gun grade' material will be found more convenient Once the void is created.com] @ 2018-06-21 2. Under most conditions. or a mixture of these long-term load transfer across joints by aggregate materials.3 Subbases be prevented by: 2. 2. Pumping can occur when a concrete pavement is placed directly on a fine-grained plastic soil. and/or the following reasons: n provision of adequate drainage of the subgrade. If for use in narrow grooves. water is able to infiltrate.3. 15% maximum by mass of dry material Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 15 .4. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. n Warping due to temperature or moisture changes urethane and epoxy-based materials. composed of sand. sand-gravels. The use of a within the concrete. The tendency of a soil to It is important that the sealant type be selected pump will generally vary with its plasticity. Two factors contribute to this: Field-moulded sealants range from the cheaper n Loads of sufficient magnitude to cause plastic elastomeric and rubber bituminous products to the deformation of the subgrade more expensive and durable polysulphide.3 and 2. Figure 1. or subgrade saturation.2 Prevention of pumping of fine-grained soils Pumping is defined as the ejection of water and subgrade or subbase material through joints and cracks. subsequent pavement (ie width-to-depth ratio) meets the manufacturer's deflections will cause a mixture of water and fine- recommendations. n reduce deflection at joints. specifically for the expected service conditions of the All three of the following conditions must be present for pavement. grained soil to be ejected. and the pavement is subjected to repetitive heavy loads over an extended period. and for sections of pavement to be left unsupported. n assist in the control of excessive shrinking and stable material conforming with the following: swelling of expansive subgrade soils. a subbase interlock (especially if no other load-transfer 100 to 150 mm thick will be adequate to control devices are provided). Continued and uncontrolled pumping eventually leads to the displacement of enough soil for uniformity of support to be lost.1 General n provision of a suitable bound or unbound subbase Subbases are recommended under concrete slabs for as specified in Sections 2. silicone. Regular inspection and maintenance greater than 100 passes per day) of joint sealants is essential to ensure continued n Free water between the concrete pavement and performance of the joint. A range of n A subgrade soil that will go into suspension – colours is also available to match the concrete colour pumping will generally not occur on natural or finish if appearance is an important consideration. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. provided that it is a dense. But in the joint to ensure that the size of the sealant if the soil is poorly drained. free water is present in the Chapter 1 subgrade or subbase. plasticity index of 6 or less Sealants tend to fail at the interface with the concrete n Frequent passage of heavy axle loads (typically Figure 1.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.3 Unbound granular subbase n facilitate the provision of a uniform bearing surface Granular materials for use as a subbase may be under the concrete base.13 Failure of sealant at interface with the The initial reason for the onset of pumping is the concrete creation of a void under the base where water can accumulate.martella@jacobs. and n Amount by weight passing 75-micron sieve: n prevent pumping at joints and pavement edges. or at pavement edges. n give a stable 'working platform' on which to operate construction equipment.3. crushed rock. subgrades with less than about 45% of the soil The manufacturer's recommendations regarding passing a 75-micron sieve and which have a selection and application should be carefully followed.

3. finishing and curing. see Chapter 1 2.4 Bound subbase Table 2. Subbases of 75-mm thicknesses have been shown The material should be suitably graded to permit to prevent pumping under heavy traffic.martella@jacobs. The relative effect of the various factors on abrasion resistance is discussed in Appendix H. Depending on the quality of the subgrade material ('poor'. It must be emphasised that these are minimum strengths and serve as a guide only.5 Recommended nominal subbase thickness cement. making the material more erosion resistant.com] @ 2018-06-21 n Plasticity index: 6 maximum 2. or lean-mix concrete. n Provision of a firm and uniform support for the concrete base The general properties of concrete in its plastic and n Reducing pavement stresses and deflections due hardened state are well documented in Guide to to vehicle loadings Concrete Construction14. aggregate particles are fully coated with Table 1. AS 36007 sets out the requirements for the minimum f 'c depending on the member and type of traffic. Good 10 or more 100 Lean-mix concretes are typically specified with characteristic 28-day compressive strengths (f 'c ) of 5 to 8 MPa. compaction to a density which will minimise any thicker subbases are often provided to satisfy various consolidation when the pavement is in service.5. This must be conditions complimented by proper construction practices. Cement contents are commonly about 6%.3. n Minimised subbase consolidation under traffic eg compaction. and chemical attack may not have all the qualities required for those used also need to be considered.4. special aggregates or n Assistance in controlling expansive soils dry shake may be needed. 'medium' or 'good'. the 2. depending n on the location of the pavement.2 Abrasion resistance and/or forms Abrasion (wear) resistance is achieved by controlling n Provision of a stable working platform which a whole series of factors. It is not sufficient to specify facilitates construction. If the f 'c required for particularly where high-quality materials are scarce durability is higher than that required for structural or expensive purposes. or if construction traffic on the aggregate particles in cement-treated subbases are subbase is only light. 16 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . an appropriate subbase thickness can be Bound subbases are generally cement-treated gravel.1). However. For cement-treated subbases. particularly in wet just an appropriate concrete strength.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. selected from Table 1. characteristic strength. 2. n Provision of firm support for paving equipment 2. only partially coated with cement. freeze thaw.6.1 General following benefits can be obtained from a bound The major durability consideration for an industrial subbase: pavement is abrasion resistance. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. These thicknesses may be cement-treated crushed rock. The cement content will vary Poor 2 or less 200 according to individual material properties and is best Medium 3–10 150 determined by laboratory testing. reduced when construction occurs in the dry season The main difference between the types is that or under roof cover. either added to the surface n Prevention of subgrade infiltration into the subbase or as a topping. However. a typical requirement is for the rating (%) (mm) subbase to achieve a 7-day unconfined compressive strength of 2 MPa. and where acceptable Recommended nominal Subgrade Typical CBR subbase thickness materials are available. All of these tend to be in an unbound subbase – optimum use can be controlled by specifying concrete of an appropriate made of low-cost or marginal quality materials. f 'c . it will govern the design. and the intrusion of hard granular material into joints.5 Subbase thickness n Liquid limit: 25 maximum. corrosion of Granular materials used in a bound subbase need reinforcement. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.4. Where very high n Improved load transfer at joints abrasion resistance is required. These are summarised in Table 1.4 Designing Concrete for Durability In addition to preventing subgrade pumping. whereas in lean‑mix concrete. construction requirements.

Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. the exposure classification will entrainment and f 'c given in AS 3600 and set out in Chapter 1 be either A2 or B1 depending on whether or not the Table 1. f 'c Exposure condition (MPa) 10–20 40 < 25 cycles per annum 32 8 to 4% 6 to 3% ≥ 25 cycles per annum 40 8 to 4% 6 to 3% Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 17 .com] @ 2018-06-21 2.4. curing period and resistance of the concrete be considered but that cover for these exposure classifications are set out in the implication of freezing temperatures below the Table 1. the requirements for air with an aggressive soil. f 'c Member and type of traffic (MPa) Commercial and industrial floors subject only to pedestrian and/or light trolley traffic 25 Pavements or floors subject to: n Light pneumatic-tyred traffic (vehicles ≤ 3 t gross mass) 25 n Medium or heavy pneumatic-tyred traffic (> 3 t gross mass) 32 n Non-pneumatic-tyred traffic 40 n Steel-wheeled traffic ≥ 40 (to be assessed) Table 1.martella@jacobs. not only is it important that the freeze-thaw drying. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.4 Freeze-thaw resistance Minimum requirements for corrosion protection of Industrial pavements will not usually be subject to reinforcement are set out in AS 3600. other than some pavements for pavement is in an interior environment not protected cool rooms and those in very cold climatic conditions.7 AS 3600 requirements for protection of reinforcement Minimum characteristic strength. f 'c Curing period* Cover Exposure classification (MPa) (days) (mm) A2 25 3 30 B1 32 7 40 * Initial continuous curing under ambient conditions Table 1.6 Minimum concrete strength for abrasion resistance (after AS 3600) Minimum characteristic strength. by a damp-proofing membrane and not in contact Where this is the case. Table 1.8 should be followed.7. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.3 Corrosion resistance 2. The requirements for f 'c.8 Requirements for freeze-thaw resistance (after AS 3600) Entrained air for nominal aggregate size (mm) Minimum characteristic strength.4. Assuming the freeze-thaw conditions. base and on adjoining structures also be taken into account1. Note that for freezing pavement will be subjected to repeated wetting and chambers.

with pneumatic tyres Dry pavements with skid. Steel trowel (carborundum warehouses. laboratories carpet. anticipated traffic and exposure construction techniques and attention to compaction conditions.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. Chapter 1 reasonable resistance to attack by mineral and Microtexture is that part of the surface related to vegetable oils (although oils do cause some staining). The friction tester or ramp test. hygiene.5. garages resistant requirements dust or silicon carbide incorporated into concrete surface) Wet and external Broomed/tined (hessian pavement areas drag light to medium texture) or grooved Sloping pavements or ramps Broomed/tined (coarse or high-speed-traffic areas texture) or grooved Heavy industrial premises. These minimum requirements are based part of pavement design which can affect both the on specific test procedures using either a pendulum performance and overall cost-effectiveness.martella@jacobs.5 Surface Finishes typically specified by nominating an appropriate class 2.4. skid resistance and aesthetics. parquetry etc Pavements with skid. exposure to chemicals and. surface too slippery for areas also used by pedestrians in some circumstances.9 Recommended surface finishes Exposure/service Typical applications Anticipated traffic conditions Finish Office and administration Pedestrian or light trolleys Pavements to receive Steel float areas. Heavy solid-wheeled Pavements subject to Steel trowel/burnished heavy engineering works. and the microtexture and macrotexture of the surface. some power-floated surfaces reference to the type and frequency of loading. and curing will provide a pavement surface that has Skid resistance of pavements is provided by both an adequate resistance to attack by alkalis. the use of good typical applications. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. stores trolleys aggregate monolithic and warehouses toppings) 18 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . Appendix E. dust prevention.1 General from the test methods listed in the AS/NZS 458616. combined with curing compounds may make the impact. Guidance on the class required can be obtained from The selection of an appropriate finish is an essential HB 19717. with particular for ease of cleaning. tiles.com] @ 2018-06-21 2. Whilst many warehouses type of finish should be determined in relation to use forklift trucks and require a smooth surface the anticipated service conditions. while macrotexture The effects of various chemicals on concrete consists of striations or grooves formed in the plastic and protective barrier systems are discussed in concrete15. Table 1. Minimum requirements for the skid resistance of surfaces used by pedestrians in wet and dry areas are 2. stores. abrasion. special surface treatments or coatings may be required. the specification of an surface finish/finishing techniques on the basis of appropriate concrete strength (f 'c). Printed / viewed by: [kevin. vehicles or steel-wheeled severe abrasion finish (use of special repair workshops. Wooden float or broomed/ resistant requirements tined (light texture) Light to medium industrial Light to heavy forklift trucks Smooth pavements Steel trowel premises.9 provides general recommendations on For most industrial operations. the sand content in the mortar. light engineering or other industrial vehicles workshops.5 Resistance to chemical attack Table 1. When the pavement is exposed to some forms of aggressive agents. other factors such as (eg weather exposed loading docks).

since they commonly suffer from one or more of the following problems: n lack of bond to the base (in bonded toppings).15 Typical broom finish finish requires a concrete strength grade of at least 32 MPa Figure 1.14.14 Burnished finish applying toppings is a narrow one. The margin between success and failure when Figure 1. by trowelling a dry shake containing pigment. n Skid-resistant.2 Toppings Toppings should be used only where necessary. The concrete surface is to penetrate the surface. This finish is produced by a final trowelling when the concrete is almost set using a steel trowel or rotary disc compactor. The skid resistance of a smooth pavement can be increased by trowelling carborundum dust. concrete can also be coloured Flatwork. n Wear-resistant. This approach requires detailed specification and a high standard of workmanship to avoid the problems noted above. dependent on the permeability of the concrete and ability of the chemicals/pigments n Broomed or tined. be used in external pavements or where there is a need to distinguish specific areas. resulting in a very hard and glassy surface. however. while medium to fine concrete surface prior to hardening. Coarse textures.3 Surface finish Pavements are normally specified to have one of the following finishes: n Trowelled.16). The spreading. Used where the texture resulting from light brooming of the surface is not satisfactory.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.5.5. The effectiveness of these products is. Stencilling and Stamping Concrete pigment in the mix. cement and fine aggregate into the surface of the Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 19 . Refer to Colouring. 2. dry topping mixes. Refer to n Coloured. silicon carbide or other proprietary toppings into the surface of the concrete prior to hardening.16 Typical hessian-drag and tined finish eg due to a requirement for cleaning. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.15) by using a stencil or pressing a mould onto the or tined rakes (Figure 1. are produced by stiff-bristled brooms (Figure 1. resulting in a textured or tints. A patterned finish may be created suitable for steep slopes or heavily-trafficked areas. textured by dragging a broom or tine over it Stencilling and Stamping Concrete Flatwork18. and n cracking (especially reflective cracking from the base). These would textures are obtained with soft-bristled brooms. A wet hessian cloth is dragged horizontally over the surface immediately after the concrete prior to hardening. to provide a non-slip surface. n Patterned. n Burnished.com] @ 2018-06-21 2. This type of Figure 1. dyes before bleed water appears. Hardened concrete concrete has been finished to the final level and can be coloured using chemical stains. compacting and subsequent trowelling of specially prepared metallic aggregate into the wet concrete surface to give enhanced wear characteristics. n curling of thin toppings. While colour can be provided by using a Colouring. Suitable for trowelled or burnished surfaces. surface. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. Finishing by power or hand trowelling to provide a dense. n Hessian-drag. Chapter 1 n lower concrete strength due to lack of compaction in thin. Figure 1. hard-wearing surface.martella@jacobs.

17). The performance history of Shrinkage of the concrete. measurement of warehouse operations involve the movement of loosely the surface should be undertaken before saw cutting. safety aspect. available.5. it is possible to achieve a maximum deviation of 6 mm under a 3-m straightedge (Class B) for the majority of a pavement area. for maximum tolerance. On the other hand. In warehouses with high-racking (Figure 1. Whilst it is recognised that the 3-m straightedge technique has been used for many years.martella@jacobs. small-diameter wheels. Chapter 1 available materials. viz: efficiency. with careful level control and re‑screeding where required. their selection and application is n Minor depressions and rises. n CLASS B: Maximum deviation from a 3-m straightedge is 6 mm.17 Typical storage facility with narrow aisles and high racks in which floor flatness is critical 20 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . the need for such treatments based on anticipated The surface should also be within vertical-position in‑service conditions and through evaluation of tolerances to ensure satisfactory equipment installation. levelness and flatness. Designers should establish n The waviness of the surface in one direction. and is simple to use and inexpensive. especially is not covered by AS 3600 or AS 3610 Formwork for where vehicles have solid.4 Surface treatments and coatings The characteristics of surface flatness are: A large variety of surface treatments and coatings is n Slope and direction. the measurement of the surface 2. However. The assessment of an existing pavement providing adequate operational performance will provide guidance on reasonable tolerances for a similar new pavement. Since shrinkage and curling will vary with time. Pavement levelness and flatness has become If measurement methods such as the 'F' Meter and increasingly important in recent years. ACI 3026 and NATSPEC20. straightedge is 3 mm. curling of panel edges specific coatings under particular service conditions and pavement deflection affect both pavement often provides the most suitable means of assessment. Some guidance on appropriate tolerances is now recognised from an occupational health and can be found in Tolerances for Concrete Surfaces19. the following deficiencies are noted21: n Difficulty in testing large pavement areas n Difficultly in random sampling panels n An inability to reproduce test results Figure 1. This concrete. The surface finish tolerance of pavements unacceptable flatness or poor joint detailing. Class A should not automatically be specified for all applications. stacked items on forklift pallets. Spillages during transit resulting from pavement unevenness are costly both Surface tolerance as specified by the designer will in terms of damaged goods and loss of productivity.com] @ 2018-06-21 2. Some ARRB TR Walking Profiler are used. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. and finishing Operator performance can also be influenced by techniques. compacting. Achieving a maximum deviation of 3 mm under a 3-m straightedge is difficult and may require special construction techniques at increased cost. influence concrete placing. forklifts often have to move and lift to high n CLASS A: Maximum deviation from a 3-m reaches simultaneously. and not covered in this guide. More- stringent tolerances should be specified only if necessary for the application. NATSPEC nominates three classes of surface finish pavement flatness is essential as. n CLASS C: Maximum deviation from a 600-mm straightedge is 6 mm.6 Surface Tolerance should be carried out within 72 hours of placement.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.

This limit is referred to as the flatness F-number (FF).10 Approximate correlation between F‑numbers and straightedge tolerances (after ACI 11721) Floor surface Specified overall Specified overall Maximum deviation under classification flatness.19 The ARRB Group Limited 'Walking and 1. Generally.3 n Failure of the method to predict acceptability of irregularities or surface roughness such as steps and surface undulations (often referred to as waviness) n Inability of the unlevelled straightedge to evaluate the 'levelness' of the floor.7 Moderately flat 10 20. While there is no direct correlation between the two methods. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. The other F-number is related to the relative conformity of the pavement surface to a horizontal plane as measured over a 3-m length.7–64. FL a 3-m straightedge (mm) Conventional 20 15 7–16 Moderately flat 25 20 6–15 Chapter 1 Flat 35 25 4–9 Very flat 45 35 4–7 Super flat 60 40 3–6 Table 1.3–34.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. ACI 11721 includes a method of specifying pavement flatness and levelness that consists of two Face floor-profile numbers.com] @ 2018-06-21 Table 1. nor those pavements that are required to be within the specified design level.18 The F-Meter very flat and superflat pavements. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 21 . called F-numbers.3 Super flat 3 37.4–27.martella@jacobs.10 Figure 1. FF levelness.9 Very flat 5 31. As there is considerable variation between Profiler G2' the two methods of measurement..9 Flat 6 24.11.0–45. This limit is referred to as the levelness F-number (FL). the two F-numbers are expressed as FF  / FL. The first F-number is related to the maximum allowable floor curvature over 600 mm computed on the basis of successive 300-mm elevation differentials22. It has also been recognised21 that the straightedge technique may not be sufficiently precise to evaluate Figure 1.some limitations to the measuring system are suggested in ACI 3026. the approximate correlation between F-numbers and straightedge tolerances are given in Tables 1. specification and measurement should be by the same method.7–109.11 Approximate correlation between straightedge tolerances and F-numbers (ACI 117) 3-m straightedge tolerance Floor surface classification maximum deviation (mm) Specified overall flatness FF Conventional 13 17. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.

0 times the therefore be balanced. 1.0 times the forklift's wheelbase.12 The minimum and maximum surface connected to a custom data acquisition module which gradients for parking (AS 2890. Maximum 1:20 (5%) Parallel to angle of parking Where forklift trucks are used. Inadequate provision for drainage may give rise to the following problems: A 0. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. Other factors relating to potential aquaplaning are high tyre pressure. when these surfaces become wet.01 mm and is therefore suitable for determining Limit Gradient Remarks the elevation of industrial pavements. forklift's wheelbase (after Ytterberg 23) Aquaplaning is generally the result of vehicles losing control at high speeds on very wet surfaces having some level of ponding. grades 22 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .2 Surface drainage travels over pavement wavelengths (ie the distance between either two adjacent peaks or valleys) from Surface drainage is important for external pavements 0.20.7.0. they may become slippery. The maximum grade is typically 1:1425. and of reflectivity n Water entering the building and the subgrade below the internal pavements. It may also result from smooth tyres on very smooth surfaces at low speeds with thin water films on the surface. Associated software is capable of straight edge simulation Minimum 1:100 (1%) Outdoor areas measurements and with the use of third-party analysis Assess potential for ponding software. However.124 are Chapter 1 in Figure 1.5 and 2.5. The device was produced for the road pavement industry to measure the longitudinal summarised in Table 1.18) and floor profilograph.12.5 x wheelbase n Ponding of water on the surface leading to excessive spray and splash generation n Loss of friction n Potential aquaplaning of moving vehicles B 1 x wheelbase n Loss of visibility of lane/route markings. liquids and.com] @ 2018-06-21 The techniques for measuring the surface vary from 2. The Figure 1.7. 1.5 to 2. It has a height resolution of ±0.5%) Covered areas F-numbers. as shown stormwater. It is always more economical to construct a pavement with the required slopes than to use a topping to create the necessary falls to drains. device is pushed along the pavement surface and Table 1.19. For disabled access the profile of both new and existing road pavements.5 x wheelbase Designers should understand that a few millimetres of water on a concrete pavement will be seen by a building owner as a 'pool of water'.7 Gradients and Surface Drainage using an optical level to more refined methods using 2. Forklift trucks usually travel at less than 25 km/h and their vertical acceleration is greatest when the forklift 2.20 Forklift behaviour on pavements with conflicting requirements for drainage and safety must wavelengths equal to 0.1) electronically stores the data.25%) Any other direction pavement can be a critical parameter Figure 1.1 Gradients devices such as the F-Meter (Figure 1. The maximum and minimum gradients for external pavements given in AS 2890. ARRB Group Limited (formerly Surface gradients are essential for the drainage of the Australian Road Research Board) has a height. the waviness of the 1:16 (6.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. The grade for internal and external runoff will depend on the surface texture. drainage of measuring device. for external pavements. C 1.martella@jacobs. Internal pavements are generally smooth D 2 x wheelbase to ensure ease of cleaning. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. the collected data can be used to generate 1:200 (0. the Walking Profiler G2. and in areas where vehicles traverse from external to internal pavements.

Excessive pressures due to heavy distributed loads may cause stepping at joints due to differential settlement of the subgrade. 3. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. including subgrade strength and the thickness and strength of the concrete base. Vehicle wheels Storage areas n differential deflections at joints. resulting in cracking of Concentrated Distributed the concrete.21. such as in stacked storage areas. Excessive water in the subgrade may lead to pumping of joints and a risk The objective of thickness design is to ensure of stepping at the undowelled joints. by preventing the occurrence of: TYPE OF LOAD n excessive flexural stresses. satisfactory performance of the pavement under all the applied loads.21 provides an approximate guide only. all areas should be types of loading ranging from dynamic wheel loads graded away from the building to reduce the risk through post loads to distributed loading from stacked of water entering the subgrade near the internal Chapter 1 material. Without With (eg rolls or coils) n excessive punching shear stresses due to base base plates plates concentrated loads. The controlling design consideration varies according to CONTROLLING DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS the load types/contact areas. If a base plate Flexural stress under load of adequate size is not provided under the leg or post of a storage rack carrying heavy loads. flexural tensile stresses Figure 1.com] @ 2018-06-21 and vehicle loading. or result in unacceptable total settlements in some situations.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. Boundaries between different controlling design-considerations are not exact and will vary depending on many factors.3 Rigorous Thickness Design Method 3. Forklift manufacturers and 3 Design for strength operators can provide guidance on when a surface is likely to cause aquaplaning.1 Basis of design method The design procedure for base thickness involves four broad stages as shown in Table 1. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 23 . LOAD CONTACT AREA (for each tyre.14. minimum thicknesses based on previous satisfactory performance may be selected Table 1.2 Simplified Thickness Design For lightly-loaded commercial and industrial pavements. 3. 3.3.21 Controlling design considerations for under the loads may not be as critical as stresses various load types/contact-areas due to the negative moments in the aisles between stacks. excessive 1 2 4 10 20 40 100 200 400 1 2 4 10 20 40 (mm2 x 104) (m2) bearing stresses or punching shear may occur. It should be noted that the data in Figure 1. n excessive bearing stresses on the concrete Posts of storage racks Special loads surface.13.1 Objectives An industrial pavement may be subjected to various At the perimeter of the building. as shown in Figure 1. the governing design Punching shear (in unloaded area) Joint stepping consideration will be the flexural tensile stress induced Deflection in the concrete by wheel or post loads. pavement and other foundations. post or single load) For distributed loads extending over large areas. and Solid Pneumatic Special n excessive deflections due to settlement of the tyres tyres tyres subgrade.martella@jacobs. Concrete bearing Negative moment For most pavements.

8) n Stress factor for appropriate loading type and condition (interior or edge loading). modify base thickness near edges and joints. soil modulus and soil thickness n Required base thickness from appropriate design chart n If necessary.7) n Thickness of each soil layer n Young’s modulus of each layer n Thickness and Young’s modulus of equivalent uniform layer 4 Computation of required base thickness (Section 3.3. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.5 and Table 2. warehouses with live loading between 5 and 20 kPa Poor Medium to Good 200 180 1 * Refer to Table 1. garages mainly for private cars.martella@jacobs. using assessed design tensile strength and correction factors for loading.3.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.13 Minimum base thicknesses for lightly‑loaded commercial and industrial pavements Typical application Rating of subgrade* Minimum thickness of base (mm) Shops.2 to 3.3.3. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.15 Total number of load repetitions Design life (years) Estimated daily repetitions 20 30 40 50 1 5 200 7 800 10 400 13 000 5 26 000 39 000 52 000 65 000 10 52 000 78 000 104 000 130 000 20 104 000 156 000 208 000 260 000 50 260 000 390 000 520 000 650 000 100 520 000 780 000 1 040 000 1 300 000 150 780 000 1 170 000 1 560 000 1 950 000 24 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . industrial premises.6) n Material factor n Type of loading (eg load repetitions) n Concrete flexural strength 3 Assessment of subgrade and soil conditions (Section 3.3.com] @ 2018-06-21 Table 1.5) n Type and configuration of loads n Magnitude of loads n Number of repetitions 2 Assessment of design tensile strength of concrete (Section 3.14 Summary of rigorous base thickness design procedure Stage Detailed assessments required 1 Assessment of loading (Sections 3.1 for subgrade ratings Table 1. Poor 150 light industrial premises with live loading up to 5 kPa Medium to Good 130 Chapter Garages mainly for commercial vehicles. Table 1.

rise and fall in stress. n tandem axle with dual wheels. and the designer should consider the following: 3. that the contact area is roughly the heavy-load traffic is likely to be channelised.3. strip loads). The tyre pressure used for development of the charts and manufacturer's data.3. over a five-day Commercial vehicles using the public road system week and a 52-week year. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. configurations which are identified as: Where the traffic frequency or loads are expected n single axle with single wheels. an assessment of the deflections may be used in the facility. tyre sizes and wheel/axle configurations. loading docks and doorways.1429 m2 n Front and rear axle load distribution (maximum front wheel or post configurations.5). the designer should refer to the bibliography.5. departments. Traffic and load data for past and future of a single axle with single wheels. this representation of loading will be slightly sources. the designer should take n single axle with dual wheels. Reference should be made to is 700 kPa. Chapter 1 also be required.1 Basis of charts loading for the heaviest vehicles that will use the The design charts in this manual are for the case pavement. n Load contact areas assumed per tyre = wheel n Post loading. planning and operations departments. viz: n Tyre inflation pressure range n Wheel loading. to increase in the future.com] @ 2018-06-21 This procedure has been developed by Coffey Industrial vehicles other than trucks.or pneumatic-tyred vehicles Three types of loading have been considered. or vibrating loads.3. appropriate action. and frequency of 3. point.2 Magnitude of wheel load the estimated daily load repetitions. Note that the number of are subject to statutory load limits.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. Refer to Section 3. failure generally will occur due to fatigue. very large wheel contact areas. data sheets. eg cushioned rubber Special consideration should be given to areas where (solid) wheels.3.3.3. The background material and the saddle-carriers. do not have to conform to these development is described in Appendix B and statutory limits and are made with a wide range of axle Development of New Design Charts for Concrete loads. see Preface. eg area = n Distributed loading. 100 kN wheel load / 700 kPa (pressure used for In the case of special load configurations (eg unusual development of charts) = 0. wheel configuration. and load divided by inflation pressure. It is therefore necessary to estimate the traffic The thickness design charts in the guide are based on on the pavement over the design life and the number typical Australian conditions and the sensitivity of the of repetitions each of the loads will make over a given input parameters is detailed in Appendix B Section B7.3 times the four wheels per axle. 3. such equivalent to that used for the development of the as aisles.3. eg assume higher axle loads. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 25 . The Industrial Slabs26. Axle and wheel loads/spacing for these types of Note: To assist designers a spread sheet for the vehicles can best be obtained from the manufacturer's calculation of base thickness is available. such as those induced 3.3. tensile stress in the concrete due to one application of the load to the 90-day design flexural tensile strength of the concrete.3. designer should ascertain what vehicles are likely to In some cases. vehicles with closely-spaced axles or with more than axle load for most forklifts is equal to 2. charts. eg forklifts and Geotechnics. For a given axle operating conditions can be gathered from several load.3 Number of repetitions by heavy generators or compressors. and n triple axle with dual wheels.15 gives values of the total load repetitions for design lives from 20 to 50 years. and include axle repetitions in bold type will result in a stress ratio of 0. eg for long-term distributed loading.2 Assessment of loading n Solid.3. or use computer Because wheel loads move over the base causing a software tools (see Section 3. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. tracked vehicles. particular wheel type used. The designer should confirm that for the data supplied or obtained from the client's operations.3 Wheel loading The required information includes the axle load magnitude. or rated capacity). 3. including plant maintenance and engineering conservative for dual-wheeled vehicles.martella@jacobs. Table 1.2 for the contact area.4 Stress ratio A guide to axle loads for these vehicles is provided in The stress ratio is defined as the ratio of the flexural AUSTROADS Pavement Design3.3.3. These are based on 3.

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Research into the effects of flexural fatigue in concrete The magnitude of storage loads will depend on the
has shown that as stress ratios decrease, the number material being stored and the height to which it is
of stress repetitions to failure increases, and that: stacked. AS/NZS 1170.127 provides data on the
n when the stress ratio does not exceed 0.55, density of some common materials and minimum
concrete will withstand virtually unlimites stress distributed design loads for warehousing and storage
repetitions, ie in excess of 400,000, without areas. Detailed information on particular products and
Chapter

1
any reduction in load-carrying capacity (hence the anticipated storage height should be obtained from
concrete has a flexural fatigue endurance limit at a the client.
stress ratio of about 0.55); Where the storage layout, ie the areas to be loaded
n repetitions of loads with stress ratios below the and width of aisles, is unknown or may change
endurance limit increase the pavement's ability to during the life of the project, the most conservative
carry loads with stress ratios above the endurance value for aisle or load width should be adopted for
limit; design purposes. Note the interior case is critical for
n rest periods between load repetitions increase the distributed loading.
flexural fatigue resistance of concrete.
3.3.6 Assessment of design tensile strength
For thickness design purposes, the stress ratio for of concrete
the endurance limit is reduced from 0.55 to a more The design tensile strength of the concrete fall (MPa), is
conservative 0.50. The flexural fatigue of concrete is calculated from:
taken into account when assessing the design tensile
strength of concrete by adopting a stress ratio or load f all = k1 k2 f 'cf Equation 1
repetition factor, k2, as given in Table 1.17. where:
k1 = material factor, Table 1.16
3.3.4 Post loading k2 = load repetition factor, Table 1.17
Modern warehouses using mechanical, computer- f 'cf = characteristic flexural tensile strength of
controlled handling equipment for product storage often concrete (MPa), Equation 2.
utilise permanent storage racks up to 20 metres high.
The design charts for pavement thickness have been
The post loads and spacings for these racks should
based on unfactored loads and working stress limits.
be obtained from the manufacturer of the particular
The factor k1 is used to account for variations in the
rack system to be used. Joint locations should be
design model, material properties, laboratory tests
determined to ensure that they occur away from the
compared to insitu, and the actual performance of
posts (ie so that posts do not load panel edges).
pavements under loading types.
Note that the edge case is critical for post loading.
No research has been carried out to determine
The thickness design charts are based on equal post appropriate values for k1 for different load types,
loads, rather than a 40/60 or 25/75 distribution rule materials and site conditions. It is therefore suggested
(ie front to middle post load percentage of total loads that k1 be chosen from within the range given in
from both posts). Table 1.16 for the particular load type. Circumstances
An appropriate size of base plate under each post in which the higher end of the range may be
should be selected to ensure that concrete bearing appropriate include where:
and shear stresses are kept within the limits for the n concrete and geotechnical parameters are
specified concrete strength. assessed conservatively;
n site-specific correlations are used for design
3.3.5 Distributed loading
parameters;
Distributed loads are defined as loads covering a large n careful construction control will be applied.
area due to material placed directly on the pavement,
such as in storage areas. The stresses from distributed
Table 1.16 Material factor k1 for various loading types
loads depend upon:
n the aisle width between stacks; Loading type Material factor k1
n the width of the loaded areas; and
Wheel 0.85–0.95
n the location of joints/edges relative to the loaded
Post 0.75–0.85
areas.
Distributed 0.75–0.85

26 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements

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The factor k2 is to account for load repetitions or assumed. If, however, substantial heavy loading of the
the effects of fatigue on the concrete. Research pavement is expected early in its life, the 28-day or
has shown that when flexural stresses in excess lower strength value as appropriate should be used.
of 50% of the ultimate flexural tensile strength of Note that fall is further modified by a factor k4 (refer to
the concrete (modulus of rupture) are repeated, Table 1.22) for wheel loads only in Equation 6. This
the pavement becomes fatigued in tension, while is to equate the value of f 'cf derived from Equation 2 Chapter

1
compressive stresses remain too low to cause with the values that were calculated in the previous
fatigue in compression. As the number of repetitions design guide (T34) from the expression ft = 0.438 fc2/3
increases, the value of k2 decreases as a result of the which is based on work done by Raphael30. Refer to
accumulated effects of loading. The values of k2 are Appendix B Section B9 for derivation of the k4 factors.
shown in Table 1.17 (the equation is 0.73 – 0.0846
(log(N) – 3) for N = 50 to 400,000). Note that for As the original expression ft = 0.438 fc2/3 is only
permanent loads, ie no load repetitions, k2 = 1. Also, applicable for concrete strengths up to 50 Mpa, for
higher strength concrete, Equation 2 should be used
while this factor is generally applicable to wheel loads,
to calculate the value of f 'ct and the k4 factor taken as
post and distributed loading conditions may also be
repetitive (refer to design example in Appendix D). equal to 1.0. For such concrete, consideration may be
given to using the 0.74 coefficient suggested by the
PCA, or even 0.8 if the aggregate to be used is known
Table 1.17 Load repetition factor, k2
to be a good quality crushed aggregate.
Load repetitions Load repetition factor, k2
3.3.7 Assessment of subgrade and soil
conditions
Unlimited 0.50
400 000 0.51 The thickness design approach detailed in this guide
300 000 0.52 assumes knowledge of:
200 000 0.54 n the stratigraphy of the natural soil, sand and rocks
100 000 0.56
at the site;
50 000 0.59
n the strength and stiffness characteristics of the soil
30 000 0.61
(including rocks); and
10 000 0.65
n the characteristics of any fill to be placed at the site.
2 000 0.70
1 000 0.73 The approach relies on the development of an
equivalent uniform soil layer whose behaviour
represents that of the actual soil profile. A linear
Unless otherwise calculated, a value of k2 = 0.75 is analysis utilising elastic soil behaviour has been
suggested for distributed loads. incorporated in the design model for which the key
The equation to derive the characteristic flexural tensile parameter that must be assessed for each soil layer is
strength, f 'cf, of concrete in AS 3600 uses a coefficient the Young's modulus (Es) of the soil. An assessment
of 0.6 (ie 0.6√f 'c) to predict the value of f 'cf. Using test of the Poisson's ratio (n) for each soil layer is also
results of the concrete flexural tensile strength from necessary if settlements are to be calculated. Refer to
the RTA28 suggests a coefficient of 0.7. This agrees Section 3.3.7.2 for detailed notes on Young's modulus
with the Commentary to AS 360029 where it is shown and Poisson's ratio.
that 0.6√f 'c is conservative. Also, the PCA9 suggest It is recommended that site investigation
that the coefficient is in the range of 0.7 (for rounded (Section 3.3.7.4) and laboratory testing be undertaken
aggregate) to 0.8 (for crushed aggregate) and that in (Section 3.3.7.5) to provide the above soil parameters,
the absence of more accurate data, a design value ie layered soil profile, Young's modulus and Poisson's
of 0.74 should be considered. When specifying the ratio values. Depending on the loading conditions,
characteristic compressive strength of the concrete, f 'c, both the long-term and short-term values may be
the characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete required (refer to Section 3.3.7.2).
may therefore be calculated as follows:
3.3.7.1 Assessment of equivalent uniform soil layer
f 'cf = 0.7√f 'c (MPa) Equation 2
The design charts are based on the simplified case
For pavement design, 90-day values of f 'cf are often
of a homogenous soil layer supporting the base. In
used as being representative of the long-term concrete
reality, soil profiles are almost invariably layered and
strength in service. In the absence of a relationship
non-uniform. The process for converting a layered soil
being established for a particular mix, a 10% increase
profile to an equivalent uniform soil layer is shown in
in flexural strength between 28 and 90 days is frequently
Figure 1.22.

Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 27

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Soil surface Soil surface
The Young's modulus of the equivalent uniform layer
zi Ese, is computed as follows:
n
Layer i Hi Esi
∑ Wfi Hi
i = 1
Ese = Equation 3
H H Ese n
∑ Wfi Hi / Esi Chapter

1
i = 1s
where:
Layer n Hn Esn Hi = thickness of layer i (m)
Esi = Young's modulus of layer i (MPa)
Wfi = weighting factor for layer i
ACTUAL LAYERED EQUIVALENT UNIFORM n = total number of layers in layered profile
SOIL PROFILE SOIL LAYER
The weighting factor Wfi depends on the depth of layer
Figure 1.22 Assessment of equivalent uniform soil i below the surface, zi, and the type of loading. Values
layer from the actual layered soil profile of Wfi are plotted in Figure 1.23 as a function of the
type of loading, and the relative depth of the centre of
the layer below the ground surface. The normalising
Weighting factor (Wfi)
dimension X also depends on the loading type, and is
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
0 defined as follows:
Relative depth (z/X)

wheel loading: X = S (wheel spacing (m))
1
post loading: X = f(x,y) (average post spacing (m))
2 distributed loading: X = W (aisle or loading width
(m)).
3
3.3.7.2 Assessment of Young's modulus and
Wheel loading (X = S)
Poisson's ratio
4
Post loading (X = f(x,y)) It is important to recognise that different values of
5 Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio will be applicable
Distributedl loading (X = W) to short-term (or rapid) loading conditions and to
6 long‑term (or sustained) loading conditions.
For sandy or gravelly soils, there is little difference
7
between the values for short-term and long-term
8 loading. However, for clays and silty soils there may
be a significant difference, with Young's modulus
9 for long‑term loading being less than for short-term
loading.
10
In the case of design for wheel loading where the
loads are 'transient', short-term values of Young's
11
modulus and Poisson's ratio are likely to be relevant
and should be used, while for distributed or post
12
loading, long-term values should be used.
Figure 1.23 Weighting factor, Wfi, for the estimation of
Typical values of Es for various soil types are given in
Young's modulus for an equivalent layer
Table 1.18. However, it is recommended that, where
possible, actual values based on soil data for the site
be used for design, particularly where fill material is
used, as generic soil descriptions can not cover such
soil types or the possible mixture of materials in fill.
The relationship between short-term and long-term
values of Es can be expressed as:
Ess (short-term) = Esl (long-term) / b Equation 4

Typical values of b are shown in Table 1.19.

28 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements

19 Correlation Factor.30 Table 1. silty clays 0. for various soil Soft clay 0. b. a. qc.24 can be Sand loose 5 converted to short-term values using Equation 4 medium dense 8 provided the soil type is listed in Table 1. dense 10 long-term values may still be used.30 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 29 .20 for various soil types.8 conducted in the field) are typically used. the long-term Young's modulus values obtained from Figure 1.35 0.6 ratio is normally determined from a list of established Soft clays 0. is given by: Soil type Short-term loading Long-term loading Ess = a qc Equation 5 Gravel 0.45 0.50 0.30 The recommended values for a are shown in Sand 0.4 values for particular soil types.21 Typical values of Poisson’s ratio.25 typical values of Poisson's ratio.com] @ 2018-06-21 Table 1. but the result Silt 12 will be more conservative. Note Soil type Correlation factor. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. b modulus and Poisson's ratio values for the soil.martella@jacobs. Compacted clay 0. silty clay 0.9 more-economical CBR or SPT tests (which can be Sands 0.–SP) both 44–46 35–37 Table 1.18 Typical values of Young’s modulus.3.19.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.20 Correlation factor. For long-term loading conditions.45 0. n. the Clay highly plastic 20 short-term Young's modulus values obtained from Figure 1. once Silts. Es (MPa) Description of subgrade Short-term Long-term Clay. a that for transient loads. for various soil types geotechnical data can be obtained from: n California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Figure 1. Also. highly plastic (CH) well-drained 52 21 Chapter 1 poorly-drained 9–15 Silt (ML) well-drained 30 21 poorly-drained 13–21 9–15 Silty clay (CL) well-drained 33–36 23–25 Sandy clay (SC) poorly-drained 26–30 18–21 Sand (SW. n.30 0. n Static cone penetration test (CPT) data. Table 1. Es for various subgrades Typical Young’s modulus. n modulus and the static cone penetration resistance.24.7 the soil type onsite has been identified. The for various soil types correlation between the short-term Young's Poisson’s ratio. Also. n Standard penetration test (SPT) data Figure 1. The correlation of Young's modulus with the following Table 1.25. Silt. the Poisson's Stiff clays 0.35 For the calculation of deflections (Section 3. Silty clay 15 Note that this figure should not be used for very soft clays. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.25 should be converted to long-term values.21. relationships between the Young's modulus and Gravels 0. again using Equation 4.9). for various soil types To reduce the cost of obtaining undisturbed soil samples and testing to determine the actual Young's Soil type Correlation factor.40 types are shown in Table 1. Stiff clay 0.45 0.

Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. For a single soil layer under the pavement having a 2.martella@jacobs. the 1.7. For sands. CBR (%) sand-gravels. even a 100-mm-thick bound subbase will add considerably 2. The CBR can then be adjusted using Figure 1.24 used to convert this to a CBR value.0 in the range of 100 to 150 mm thick Figure 1.3 Contribution of subbase to subgrade strength Long-term Young's modulus Esl (MPa) For concrete pavements. it is recommended that the soil parameters be obtained directly from the geotechnical 80 engineer undertaking the site soil investigation because 70 the generic soil descriptions included in Tables 1. 30 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . 0 1 2 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 80 100 When using unbound granular subbases such as sand.0 subbase will have a greater influence on the effective CBR value and the lines in Figure 1. When a bound subbase such as cement-treated 4. Plasticity index (%) For layered soil profiles. Esl.5 influence on the results.7.26. the assessed subgrade strength 3. or a mixture of these materials.25 Correlation between short-term Young's equivalent uniform soil layer modulus of elasticity modulus.0 known CBR value.21 may not allow the design values for 60 specific soil types such as fill to be determined.5 to the subgrade strength of the soil for design purposes. The effect of the soil depth does not have a significant 1.19.5 ie the equivalent stiffnesses become higher. Chapter 1 1. crushed or granulated slag. This 30 is because increasing the thickness of an unbound subbase layer results in only minor increases in 20 subgrade support values for the pavement. cement-treated crushed rock or lean-mix concrete is provided. and CBR design purposes. it is recommended that the Figure 1. the effective CBR value of the entire soil layer is increased. gravels and other indicated in Figure 1.1) and and plasticity index Figure 1.26 will move up Ess /N (MPa) 0. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.5 may be increased for thickness design purposes as NOTE: Not to be used for soft clays.0 gravel. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. N from Standard penetration test (SPT) be calculated (Equation 3 in Section 3. but it will yield progressively more 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 conservative results as the layer becomes thinner. Ess. Note that for settlement calculation the thickness of the bound subbase is ignored.3.26.26 and the increased value used for the equivalent soil layer.com] @ 2018-06-21 100 Note that while the above correlations and information can be used to determine the Young's modulus 90 and Poisson's ratio. Thus Figure 1. Bound subbases are typically cohesionless soils use PI = 0% 3.26 can still be used for soil layers less than 0 about 2 m in depth.20 and 1.3. and hence 10 only minor reductions in pavement thickness for given loading conditions. it is seldom necessary or 40 economical to build up the supporting capacity of the subgrade with a thick unbound subbase layer. For thinner layers. crushed rock.24 Correlation between long-term Young's the subgrade strength value should be assumed for modulus. no adjustment to Figure 1. if a bound subbase is provided. 50 3. as long as the soil layer is greater than about 2 m in depth.

Combined with to determine from Equation 4 and Table 1. Field testing for CBR and SPT values may also be If results are given in terms of the CBR and/or SPT undertaken. Using long-term values layer to be calculated. the subgrade (soil profile and type.3. Charts 1.3.1. if any. and 10 n Duration of sample soaking. Most loads.3. fall = design tensile strength of concrete (MPa) – see Section 3. the Young's modulus using short-term values for long-term loads may is normally established from relationships to other provide inadequate base thicknesses. ie in a similar state (of equivalent uniform layer of soil) of density. CBR testing should be carried out FE1 = factor for short-term Young's modulus. test results. S Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 31 .8. 'N' values. with the use of bound subbase n a surcharge loading of 6. details or construction procedures. based on single-wheel laboratory testing usually involves the determination axles. (taken at or just below the design subgrade level). No further reproduction or distribution permitted.6 As far as possible.1 and 1.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. t.2 (pages 34.6. n a moisture content equal to the Optimum Moisture Figure 1. and n four days soaking prior to testing.19 the the soil profile established from the site investigation. F1. at the interior and at the edge of a pavement of the CBR of samples of either the existing subgrade respectively.3. CBR (%) as determined by Standard Compaction. may specify No subbase sample preparation to include: 1 1 10 100 n a dry density ratio of 100% of maximum dry density Assessed subgrade strength.231). typically the California Bearing Ratio and Standard Penetration Tests. for a range of values of axle of material proposed for use as compacted fill. or against a stress factor.75 kg. moisture content.martella@jacobs.132) is An investigation of the soil conditions on the site therefore usually accompanied by laboratory Standard should be conducted to determine the properties of Compaction (refer to AS 1289). an insitu dynamic cone are adverse soil conditions which will require special penetrometer test is used and calibrated for the known pavement design.8 Computation of required base thickness selected from a list of established values for particular 3.com] @ 2018-06-21 100 n Sample density n Sample moisture content concrete thickness design. Hence.3.1 Design charts for wheel loading soil types. requests for laboratory CBR testing FH1 = factor for depth of equivalent uniform layer of require the following aspects of sample preparation to soil. the CBR testing of a clay material 100 mm bound subbase proposed for use as compacted fill.7. charts for axle loadings.7. prior to testing (to model adverse ground moisture conditions).25 to determine the 3. on samples that are representative.5 Laboratory testing short-term Young's modulus.7. 3.4 Site investigation Laboratory CBR testing (refer to AS 1289.6. nature of the insitu material and layer thicknesses) and whether there In some instances. Depending on the type The soil parameters required for design are the of soil (in each of the soil layers) it may be difficult Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio.2. the plasticity index of the soil will also be required in order to use Figure 1. F1 is computed as follows: CBR testing is carried out on bulk samples of material F1 = fall FE1 FH1 FS1 k3 k4 Equation 6 that are re-compacted prior to testing (testing can also be carried out on undisturbed samples.3. soil type to give an estimate of the CBR. The primary curve plots base thickness.1. CBR (%) n Surcharge loading applied to the sample (to model Equivalent subgrade strength for the weight of the overlying pavement). 35) present design As SPT 'N' values are normally determined onsite. corresponding long-term and short-term values that this allows the properties of the equivalent uniform soil may be required in the design.26 Effective increase in subgrade strength Content as determined by Standard Compaction. while the Poisson's ratio is 3. for transient loads will give conservative results and As mentioned in Section 3. Ess. Chapter 1 150 mm bound subbase 125 mm bound subbase For example. H be specified: FS1 = factor for centre-to-centre spacing of wheels. etc as the material in its final state. refer to where: AS 1289. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.

Whilst the Design Charts 1. appropriate.3. refer to Section 3. The design Chart 1.2 as value of F3 and post load. When designing for a combination of post values. t.6 strengths FE3 = factor for long-term Young's modulus. 2 Determine FE3.3.2) forklift trucks. F3 = 1000 (fall / P) FE3 FH3 FS3 Equation 7 The subscript 1 is used for interior loading and 2 for edge loading. 50 1. A design example for wheel loading is provided in 3. 3 Determine FE1.22 Correction factor.3. The steps to determine required base thickness for 3 Calculate F3 from Equation 7 using these input wheel loads are: values.1 to 1.1 (or 1.8. and FS1 from Chart 1.1) and exterior loading (Chart 1.3.8. for standard concrete see Section 3.8. Only the curve for interior loading is from loaded racks. FH3.05 for edge loading loading. Note that Section 3.3 using this appropriate case and choose Chart 1.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.1 and 1. A design example for post loading is provided in Appendix D. using this value of F1 and the axle load.3.8. FH1.20 Note: Correction Factor k4 is not included in the calculation of fall for post loads.4.com] @ 2018-06-21 k3 = calibration factor for geotechnical behaviour 3.22 and Section 3.3 Design chart for uniformly-distributed loading Appendix D.07 FS3 = factor for post spacing S (average in x and y 32 1. Chart 1.8.4 (page 37) presents the design chart for uniformly-distributed loading. F4.1 or 1.3 (page 36) presents the design chart for post = 1.2 for internal loading Chart 1. given as this loading case is generally more critical than edge loading.4 show base The steps to determine required base thickness for thickness for 0 to 600 mm.2). loading from loaded racks and wheel loading from 5 Calculate base thickness from Chart 1. it is suggested the designer post loads are: uses computer techniques to refine the base thickness 1 Calculate fall as set out in Section 3. (of equivalent uniform layer of soil) f 'c k4 FH3 = factor for depth of equivalent uniform layer of 20 1. against a of wheel loading from forklift trucks and post loading stress factor. 2 Calculate fall as set out in Section 3. if it is in the range of 400 to 600 mm.1 (or 1. k4 = calibration factor for concrete strength The primary curve plots base thickness.4. against a (see Table 1.6. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. for interior and edge loading.03 soil.11 directions) 40 1.3.16 P = magnitude of load on each post (kN).2). (of equivalent uniform layer of soil) 32 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . where: fall = design tensile strength of concrete (MPa) – Table 1. The design Charts 1. Esl.6 FE4 = factor for long-term Young's modulus. F3 is Note that Equation 6 is applicable to both interior computed as follows: Chapter 1 loading (Chart 1. 1 Determine whether interior or edge loading is the 4 Calculate base thickness from Chart 1. When designing for a combination The primary curve plots base thickness. k4. F3.3.3 only takes into consideration post 4 Calculate F1 from Equation 6 using these input loading. refer to Section 3.2 take into consideration wheel loading only.3. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. F4 is computed as follows: F4 = 1000 (fall / P) FE4 FH4 FS4 Equation 8 where: fall = design tensile strength of concrete (MPa) – see Section 3.6). Esl.martella@jacobs. and FS3 from Chart 1.6.3.2 Design charts for post loading = 1. H 25 1.3. stress factor. t.3.5 does not require an edge thickening near edges for distributed loading.

Equation 10 4 Calculate base thickness from Chart 1. Figure 1.20 to determine the value of Q2 from S/t2 and Chart 1. To assess the effect of a wheel load on the thickness required for post loading. 0. FH4.com] @ 2018-06-21 FH4 = factor for depth of equivalent uniform layer of Q1 = from Figure 1.1. H S = centre to centre distance between the interior FW4 = factor for width.40 computation of base thickness for wheel loading and 1.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.martella@jacobs.8. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.28 the most conservative value of the aisle or load width S = centre to centre distance between the interior should be adopted for design purposes. post loads respectively.1. only the loading combinations that generally 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 S/t1 or S/t2 have a cumulative effect on pavement stresses (post loads and wheel loads) have been included.3.00 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 FC1 = S/t3 1 + Q1 (PPost / PAxle) Figure 1.28 Combined loading effect of wheel loading on post loading location Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 33 .3.00 base thickness for post loading should be considered 0. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. 0.40 Q1 or Q2 Section B6 notes that the effects of the two loadings 0.29 P = magnitude of applied distributed load (kPa).2 and 1. FC2 or FC3 that allows for the combination 1. 1 2 Determine FE4.30 for use with Chart 1.05 Q3 where: 0. 1 FC3 = A design example for uniformly-distributed loading is 1 + Q3 (PAxle / PPost) provided in Appendix D.20 are likely to be compensating rather than additive.4 Combined loading t3 = thickness of slab assessed from post loading To assess the base thickness required for combined alone wheel and post loads.6.60 For combined distributed and wheel loads. Equation 10 is used to calculate the modified stress factor F3combined for use with Chart 1.3.29 3. of aisle or loaded area post and wheel Figure 1.80 when determining the design base thickness. Both the influence of a nearby post on the 1. For exterior loading.00 Therefore. post and wheel Figure 1. 0. Figure 1. Appendix B 0. FC1. 1.20 the influence of a nearby wheel on the computation of 1.15 F1combined = fall FE1 FH1 FS1 FC1 k3 k4 (or F1 x FC1) 0.80 factor.27 is used 0.4. For variable storage layouts Q3 = from Figure 1. t1 = thickness of slab assessed from wheel loading Note: Correction Factor k4 is not included in the alone calculation of fall for distributed loads. F2combined and F3combined include a combined loading 1.27 soil. a modified stress factor Other factors as per Equation 7 (F1combined.3 for wheel and Appendix D. W. and FW4 from Chart 1. Equation 9 is used to calculate the modified stress factor F1combined 0.27 Combined loading effect of post loading To assess the effect of a post load on the interior on wheel loading location thickness required for wheel loading.4 using this where: value of F4. 3 Calculate F4 from Equation 8 using these input F3combined = 1000 (fall / P) FE3 FH3 FS3 FC3 (or F3 x FC3) values and the applied loading.25 subscript 2 is used in Equation 9. the 0. F2combined or F3combined) can be used with A design example for combined loading is provided in the existing Charts 1. Other factors as per Equation 6 Chapter The steps to determine required base thickness for uniformly-distributed loads are: 1 Calculate fall as set out in Section 3.10 Equation 9 0.2 is used to determine the base thickness required.60 of loads. The equations for F1combined.

8 2.8 3.2 1.2 2.20 1.15 1.5 4.10 1. P (kN) 800 400 600 300 400 200 200 100 Slab thickness.8 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 Short-term Young's modulus for soil. t (mm) 80 100 50 0 0 0. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. S (m) Depth of soil layer.05 1.4 1.3 Ess = Short-term Young's modulus for soil H 1.1 Axle loads – interior loading 34 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .0 1.25 1.5 3.0 F1 or F1combined Chart 1.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.95 1. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.5 2.1 1.0 2.9 FE1 fall = Design tensile strength (MPa) 0.4 2.10 1.2 Chapter 1 1.6 1. H (m) 600 Use computer analysis if in shaded area 500 Axle load. Ess (MPa) 1.0 F1 = fall ⋅ FE1 ⋅ FH1 ⋅ FS1 ⋅ k3 ⋅ k4 0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Wheel spacing.00 1.7 P 1.0 1.0 2.20 1.95 1.martella@jacobs.5 pressure = 700 kPa t 1.6 Assumed tyre 1.com] @ 2018-06-21 S 1.90 0.0 4.6 2.05 0.5 1.4 1.5 5.30 1.00 FH1 FS1 0.15 1.0 3.

P (kN) 500 600 Use computer analysis if in shaded area 400 400 300 200 200 100 80 Slab thickness.95 1.2 Axle loads – edge loading Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 35 .35 1. S (m) Depth of soil layer.15 1.05 1. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.8 Assumed tyre 1.4 1.90 0.10 1.9 P 1. Ess (MPa) 1.0 2.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.com] @ 2018-06-21 S 1.6 2.5 4.3 Chapter 1 1.25 1.0 0.0 1.05 0.5 1.1 F2 = fall ⋅ FE2 ⋅ FH2 ⋅ FS2 ⋅ k3 ⋅ k4 1.2 1.0 4.8 2. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.martella@jacobs.00 1.4 H 1. t (mm) 100 50 0 0 0.20 1. H (m) 600 Axle load.15 1.6 1.5 5.0 F2 or F2combined Chart 1.8 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 Short-term Young's modulus for soil.5 Ess = Short-term Young's modulus for soil 1.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Wheel spacing.9 fall = Design tensile strength (MPa) FE2 0.2 2.95 1.2 1.8 3.6 1.5 3.5 2.0 3.10 1.4 2.00 FH2 FS2 0.7 pressure = 700 kPa t 1.30 1.0 2.0 1.

3 1.5 Edge Assumed base plate.1 1.4 1.0 0.7 P FE3 fall = Design tensile strength (MPa) 0.20 0.3 1.5 1. S (m) Depth of soil layer.7 Interior x and y direction 1.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Average post spacing.4 25 000 mm2 t 1.2 1.0 1.80 1. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.2 Esl = Long-term Young's modulus for soil H 1.6 P P P P = Post loads (MN) 1.8 3.2 2. t (mm) 100 Interior 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 F3 or F3combined Chart 1.10 0.3 Post loads – interior/edge loading 36 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .4 1.6 2.8 F3 = ⋅ FE3 ⋅ FH3 ⋅ FS3 0.9 1. Esl (MPa) 1. H (m) 600 Use computer analysis if in shaded area 500 400 300 200 Edge Slab thickness.60 1.8 1.30 1.6 0 20 40 60 80 100 Long-term Young's modulus for soil.50 1.0 2.90 1.9 1000 fall 0.0 1.4 2. 1.1 Chapter 1 1. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.7 0.90 1.70 1.com] @ 2018-06-21 x x S = Average spacing in 1.martella@jacobs.8 2.00 FH3 FS3 0.40 1.2 1.6 1.

Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.0 P = Distributed P load (kPa) t 3.9 1.1 1. t (mm) 100 0 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 F4 Chart 1.0 FH4 FS4 0.2 1. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.5 2.5 Chapter 1 2.3 1.8 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Width of loaded area OR aisle.2 1.0 1.0 FE4 fall = Design tensile strength (MPa) 0.4 1.com] @ 2018-06-21 W = Width of loaded area 4.4 1.4 2.2 0.0 1. W (m) Depth of soil layer.7 2.5 1000 fall F4 = ⋅ FE4 ⋅ FH4 ⋅ FS4 P 1.5 W Aisle or aisle width 4.martella@jacobs.0 1.6 1.5 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 Long-term Young's modulus for soil.5 3.4 Distributed loads – interior loading Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 37 .0 Esl = Long-term Young's modulus for soil H 2.8 1. Esl (MPa) 1. H (m) 600 Use computer analysis if in shaded area 500 400 300 200 Slab thickness. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.6 1.6 2.8 0.

For wheel and post loading. With M*v = 0.85 f 'c √(A2/A1) or Φ 2 f 'c (whichever is Weak 5 15t* less).8.9 t (mm) the base thickness can be designed for the interior loading case. e. The design equations for this model are given in AS 36007. the depth at which the extended supporting area for bearing stresses is calculated is 50 mm below the surface of the base for a 150-mm-square base plate.3. if adequate shear where: reinforcement (resulting in 75% joint effectiveness 2 and ability to transfer at least 37. Punching shear capacity in this design model is satisfied when the factored concentrated working load is less than Φ Vuo. Typically. Refer to example in Appendix D Section D2. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. thickness required for edge loading will be greater The equation given in AS 3600 Clause 9. the * t = thickness of base required for interior loading design bearing strength may be calculated using the area under the base plate and Φ 0. Refer to example in Table 1. a second assessment is suggested whereby a proportion of the post load is directly 3. used.2. Es Edge The concrete bearing stress under the base plate of a supporting soil (MPa) distance. A2.8.23 Distance. This bearing strength equation has been based Medium 15 10t* on test results34. such as columns loading location loading location S supporting mezzanine floors or posts supporting Equation 10 Equation 9 high-storage racks. Where inadequate load transfer is u = 4 (d + base plate width) (mm) – for interior provided at a joint it should be treated as a free edge loading and an edge thickening may be necessary.3.5% of the applied fcv = 0. Stiff 30 8t* Very stiff 80 6t* The post loads should be factored to the ultimate limit state when assessing this criterion.34 √f 'c bh load – refer to Section 2.29 Distance between post and wheel If the calculations indicate that the pavement thickness loading.6. As a first trial.3. Wheel Load Using this model. A guide to the punching shear resistance is at the ultimate limit state distance from the edge of the panel at which such and the appropriate factored applied loads should be thickening should commence is given in Table 1.17 (1 + ) √f 'c ≤ 0. edge thickening is not prestress load: necessary.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. e post should be assessed against allowable stresses. Figure 1.6 Punching shear resistance under consideration under consideration for effect of wheel for effect of post Punching shear failure is possible when the pavement loading on post loading on wheel is subjected to concentrated loads.3 for than that required for interior loading. an even bottom surface of the base is beneficial. the base of the pavement thickness and subgrade stiffness33.8. In a jointed base. t as the base thickness and no For distributed loading.8. S is insufficient. where Φ = 0. edge effective loaded area to the shortest dimension thickening is not necessary. Vuo = fcv ud (N) Equation 11 Near joints. will generally increase the design bearing strength. AS 3600 notes that the design bearing stress shall not Very weak 2 20t* exceed Φ 0. An approach to the assessment of punching shear resistance may be carried out using an Chapter 1 Post Load analogy of a column supporting a suspended slab. For design bh = the ratio of the longest overall dimension of the loads beyond the edge distances in Table 1. the first approach would be to assume that the post load is evenly transferred to the subgrade.5 Base thickening near edges and joints transferred to the subgrade. 38 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . Using the extended supporting area.23. Assume d = 0. 3. from edge of base at which base thickening should commence Appendix D Section D2.martella@jacobs. This proportion is a function Near edges.com] @ 2018-06-21 Pavement location Pavement location 3.23.85 f 'c. where Φ = 0.7 Concrete bearing stress under posts General Typical average description of Young’s modulus.2. measured perpendicular to the longest dimension and taken at the soffit of the post It should be noted that to minimise restraint and base or post base plate development of shrinkage cracking.3) is provided at the joint.

2 (r)1. and panels containing layer is known. if the Poisson's ratio for each the joints in adjacent panels. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.7).7 W The deflection of the base at the centre of the t p 1.9 Long-term deflection under uniformly. effects of cracking.1 (r)1.33 Equation 13 Es(1 – ns2) 0.1.4. panels in which the joints cannot be aligned with For multiple soil layers.7. the Poisson's ratio for the equivalent pits.30. ie only a small variation of 5 to 8%. The reinforcement is placed near the top of the base. footings or blockouts.4. For the calculation of settlement.7 times the soil layer depth interior of base (ie W/H ≤ 0. for ns = 0.0 ratio of soil 0. the characteristic length.2. can be calculated using the same (where re-entrant corners are introduced into the method detailed in Section 3.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. especially 'average' 0.043 √fcm) for fcm ≤ 40 MPa. if actual values are 3. nse. the panels) will always require trimmer bars.6 10 Ec 0.30.9 ws = dimensionless deflection factor calculated 0.2 (MPa) 1.1 Jointed unreinforced pavements not available.4 D = P W (1 – ns2) ws / Es Equation 12 Chapter 1 1. Lc. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.96.12) for fcm > 40 MPa ws 0 Es.4 5 where: t = base thickness (m) 0.5 Ec = Young's modulus of the concrete (MPa) 0. ns = 0. The long-term Poisson's ratio for soils (including fill) 3.martella@jacobs.3 where: P = magnitude of uniformly-distributed load 1.3 2. the steel reinforcement is used to control shrinkage rather than flexural stresses.5 following equation: H Es. or 0.3 will give In jointed unreinforced pavements it may be necessary reasonably accurate results.2 Jointed reinforced pavements In the design of pavements supported continuously on the ground. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 39 . except that further consideration to reinforcement location should be given when the base thickness exceeds 400 mm.3.21.2 to 0. 3. νs 1. Panels in which reinforcement For ns = 0.5 Lc = t [ ] 0.5 x (0.com] @ 2018-06-21 3.8 from Figure 1. 0.024 √fcm + 0.3. H (m) = 20 0.84.8 distributed loading 1. Figure 1. ns = long-term Young's modulus and Poisson's 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ratio of soil Characteristic length. Lc (m) H = depth of equivalent uniform layer of soil (m).3 this gives 0. This is because the to reinforce certain panels to control or minimise the equation for settlement is related to (1 – ns2). Alternatively.6 uniformly-distributed load can be estimated from the Er 1.4.0 W = width of loaded area (m) Es.30 Deflection factor  Ws. These latter situations soil layer.91. the use of an 'average' 0.7 To obtain ws from Figure 1. for the calculation Note that the above is applicable only where W is of the central deflection below distributed loading on not greater than about 0. 1. 0.4 Table 1. ns = long-term Young's modulus and Poisson's 1.3 value can be used bearing in mind that across re‑entrant corners (this also applies for jointed the actual settlement could vary by 5 to 8% from that reinforced pavements). calculated.5 x (0.4 Reinforcement is usually in the range of 0. is calculated from: 0. and for should be provided include irregularly-shaped panels.

40 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . In Appendix F.5 2.1 General reinforcement is discussed and the following equation may be used for 500-MPa bars or mesh and the Computer design software allows designers to verify density of the concrete base equal to 2400 kg/m3: and refine the thickness design of pavements.4 Location of steel reinforcement one-ply building paper Reinforcement should be located within the upper third (e) Similar to (b) with a thin levelling course of sheet of the pavement. For industrial pavements reinforced with fibres. steel percentages. 3.5 1.31.com] @ 2018-06-21 First movement Shrinkage reinforcement does not increase the flexural Average subsequent movement strength of the base and does not contribute to its structural capacity. about 25 m for which Equation 14 will give higher geometric and contact.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. A minimum steel percentage of software package designed for Windows.3 Continuously reinforced pavements (a) Micaceous clay loam Appendix F contains some guidance on minimum (b) Material meeting the US Bureau of Public Roads steel percentages (0.0 1.0 manufacturer's technical manual. As = the area of reinforcement per metre width of Numerous computer programs are available in base (mm2/m) Australia and overseas that can be used in the design L = base or panel length between joints (m) of industrial pavements.31 Values of the coefficient of friction for a to allow saw cutting of contraction joints.5. the base thickness and (to the longitudinal reinforcement should not be located in a certain degree) the environment to which the the vicinity of transverse construction joints. Polythene sheeting (e) the design should be in accordance with the 0 0. the thickness of a Plastic soil (a) jointed reinforced pavement base should not be less Blended washed sand than that of an unreinforced base under the same and gravel (b) loading conditions.14% (for jointed reinforced) pavements should be nonlinear analyses. lap splices in spacing of the joints. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.0358 x μ t L Equation 14 is always required to ensure the model assumptions where: are valid for the particular pavement.5 Computer Design Software the determination of the amount of shrinkage 3. The 0. μ = coefficient of friction between the base and the subbase Figure 1. µ Notes: 3. 125-mm-thick base on different bases and subbases 35 Under no circumstances should reinforcement be permitted to cross any joint which has been designed In jointed reinforced pavements. as close as possible to the top of the asphalt covered by a double layer of polyethylene base to control the crack width at the surface.5% of the cross-sectional area of the base.10% (where required for jointed unreinforced) or package is flexible and can carry out linear and 0. The top sheeting containing a special friction-reducing of the bar or mesh should have the minimum cover additive requirements as noted in AS 3600 for the anticipated exposure conditions and may need to be slightly lower Figure 1. Nonlinearities include material. Some relevant ones are t = thickness of base (mm) described in the following sections. It may range from 0. These programs are design tools and engineering judgement As = 0.martella@jacobs. pavement is exposed.5%) and a reinforcement design grading and plasticity requirements for Federal procedure for continuously reinforced concrete highway projects pavements is provided in Steel Reinforcement for Concrete Road Pavements (TN 49)36. shrinkage reinforcement is Granular subbase (c) Chapter 1 not intended to prevent cracking.4.5. for static and dynamic problems provided Appendix F.14 to 0. these should be used. 3. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. Coefficient of friction. For slab lengths greater than and for heat transfer.2 Strand7 The coefficient of friction is usually taken as 1. (c) Blend of washed sand and gravel (d) Similar to (b) with a 25-mm sand layer covered with 3. Also. For this reason.5 for Strand737 is an Australian finite element analysis design purposes. reinforcement to be provided is dependent on the In continuously reinforced pavements. but will hold any Sand layer (d) cracks that form tightly together. the amount of to allow movement.4.

Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 41 . In is treated as an elastic continuum (although each addition. Concrete joints may be modelled changes to the design and get immediate results. This can also be made and the plots rotated so that the program is specially designed around the design deformed raft can be viewed from various angles. to behave as a set of one-way compression-only Rafts which have a shape in plan that can be made springs (Winkler foundation). the program pre-processing. with various specialised beams to allow shear. The program also performs punching shear Results from the FEAR analysis can be processed calculations around columns and piles. allows the analysis of rafts constructed on foundations The resulting deflections. during the analysis. the program computes the required area of layer may have different elastic properties) which is reinforcing steel in the base. If.3 pcaMats load repetitions. twists The mat is re-analysed without that or any other tension and displacements can be calculated in the raft. The spring. nodal springs. is required for the For pavements and subgrades.com] @ 2018-06-21 Strand7 is an integrated system comprising graphical During and after the input procedure. be analysed.0). below 100%. methodology in the AUSTROADS Pavement Design Guide3.4 RPD (Rigid Pavement Design) program. The program automatically iterates until all contact stress distribution between the raft and soil tension springs are removed and the foundation may also be calculated. an advantage over the use of spring models (Winkler pcaMats uses the plate-bending theory and the Finite springs) which do not allow interaction between one Element Method (FEM) to model the behaviour of the spring and another. piles. by FEARP6 (Version 6. An iterative export of geometry data. soil pressure (or spring that consist of several horizontal soil layers. solvers and graphical post-processing. Contour plots can RPD39 is a spreadsheet-style software package that be made either as a plan view of the raft or an isometric enables designers to determine the base thickness view of the raft. n On-screen results of the cumulative fatigue and erosion distress as a percentage of allowable axle 3.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. The soil supporting the base is assumed the soil is assumed to be smooth. Bending moments. The boundary conditions may be the formats. Isometric plots of the deformed raft for concrete pavements in a road configuration.5 FEAR4 The model is analysed under static loads that may FEAR4 (Finite Element Analysis of Rafts – Version 4. The soil reactions) and bending moments are output. underlying soil. the spring is automatically removed. rotations. stabilises. or translational and rotational nodal restraints. The program has the same pavement configurations as those noted in the AUSTROADS Pavement Design Guide. 3. tension The output of the program consists of: and compression behaviour. The designer can verify from the pcaMats38 is a computer program for the analysis of output that both estimates of the distress level are pavements.0)40 consist of uniform (surface) and concentrated loads. process. a up of rectangular areas (and which are loaded by loading or the base shape causes any uplift creating a either uniform loads or point loads or moments) can spring in tension. The base is modelled as an assemblage of rectangular n A hard copy option presented as a report in various finite elements. from various plate and brick elements to suit the The feature of this program is the ability to make Chapter 1 design refinements. This allows contour plots of moments and displacements in the raft to be made.5.martella@jacobs. The interface between the raft and mat or base. and includes twin-steer axles.5. foundation mats or combined footings.5. the user can choose determination of an appropriate design base thickness. The output of the program is the cumulative fatigue and erosion distress represented as a percentage of allowable axle load repetitions. and transverse joints with or without dowels. a Windows-based plotting 3. with user inputs. has many features to facilitate variations of the site Interfaces to CAD are included for both import and information or the design parameters. plain concrete or continuously reinforced concrete. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. ie bases with or without shoulders. The program allows for any axle spectrum that has been derived from site data.

quality of materials and quality of construction anticipated. It is based on available knowledge and the assumption that the specified quality of construction will be realised. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. whereas the use of such signs for pavements has been limited.martella@jacobs. The actual life may be shorter than the estimated design life due to the number of axle repetitions being under estimated and the anticipated total volume of traffic may be reached in 10 years rather than 25 years. should be detailed in the operational manual. The values nominated should take into consideration the service conditions. The details on the sign would vary from project to project. due to a fault in any one aspect of the design. or may even be exceeded. for instance. the client and building owner should extract from the brief the Chapter 1 maximum loading and other design details to be incorporated in a warning sign attached to the interior or exterior of the building. 42 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . fibre. reinforced. post-tensioned. etc n Slipperiness of pavement when wet. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. Other details. such as the joint-repair method and cleaning frequency. The designer. All concrete pavements are susceptible to the formation of cracks. Accordingly. inclusion of an acceptable defect level at specific ages may be included in the documentation. Inclusion of the following should be considered: n Maximum forklift and/or axle load n Design post load and spacing n Maximum uniformly distributed loading n The characteristic strength of the concrete (confirmed by construction test results) n Base thickness n Base type – plain.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. Estimated design life is a theoretical life which may or may not be achieved. detailing or construction or to a combination of faults.com] @ 2018-06-21 4 Pavement Operation The provision of warning signs on plant and equipment to notify users of the operational limitations is mandatory. The acceptance level may be specified in the form: n Age (eg 5 years) n Number of base panels with cracks (eg not greater than 5%) n Number of cracks per panel (eg not greater than 3 at crack widths of x mm). A cracked pavement panel does not necessarily indicate failure nor a reduction in design life.

4 Form Removal 49 11.1 General 53 6.1 Transverse construction joints 60 3.3 Subbase between Forms 48 11.4 Wet Coverings 57 7.2 Ponding 57 7.2 'Superflat' Pavements 63 4.3 Concreting in Cold Weather 62 4 Formwork 48 4.martella@jacobs.3 Measuring Equipment 63 5 Reinforcement 50 5.2 Subgrade uniformity 44 8.3 Sprinkling 57 7.3 Expansion Joints 59 3 Site Preparation 44 8.2 Subgrade Preparation 44 8. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.1 General 44 8.1 Placing 51 6.2 Form Setting 48 Pavement Surfaces 63 4.4 Contraction Joints 59 3.3.1 Forms 48 11 Construction Tolerances for 4.1 Purpose 57 7.2 Concreting in Hot Weather 62 10.5 Construction Joints 60 3.4 Backfilling of Service and Drainage 10 Adverse Weather Conditions 62 Trenches 47 10.2.3 Subbase Construction 46 3.5 Impermeable Coverings 58 contents 7.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.2.5 Vapour Barrier 47 10.3 Construction procedures on expansive 8.2 Compacting 51 6. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.com] @ 2018-06-21 7 Curing 57 Chapter 2 Construction 7.6 Curing Compounds 58 Chapter 2 1 Scope 44 8 Joints 59 8.5 Temporary Forms 49 11.3 Floating and trowelling 54 6.1 General 59 2 Introduction 44 8.3 Finishing 53 6.1 General 44 8.1 Typical Pavements 63 4.1 Placing Methods 50 5.2.1 Transverse contraction joints 59 3.1 General 62 3.4.5.4 Texturing 56 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 43 .2 Levelling 53 6.2 Longitudinal construction joints 61 soils 45 3.2 Preset Reinforcement on Bar Chairs 50 6 Placing. Compacting.2 Longitudinal contraction joints 60 3.2.5.4.3.2 Isolation Joints 59 8.3.4 Stabilised subgrades 46 9 Protection of Pavements 61 3. Finishing and Texturing 51 6.

concrete pavements do not necessarily require strong support from the subgrade. In order to achieve the desired uniformity.com] @ 2018-06-21 3 SITE PREPARATION Chapter 2 Construction 3. earthworks comprising either The construction procedures covered are: excavation or filling.2 in Chapter 1. The three basic construction methods (long-strip. fill construction (layers. manually-operated toppings (ie two-course construction) are discussed vibrating rollers and small tandem rollers (typical in detail in Sections 2. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. and This chapter provides a guide to the construction of Chapter 2 n Installation of vapour barrier (if required). Four to eight defined in the introduction to this guide on page 3. compacting and finishing ensure that the latter is of a constant thickness (within n Curing the specified tolerance).2. if required. all top soil should be removed. and soft areas identified and replaced. recommendations to adopt either the long-strip or Layer thicknesses should be chosen such that continuous-pour method and to avoid two-course compaction occurs over the full layer. passes of the equipment will normally be required.martella@jacobs. n Installation of services and drainage pipes and 1 SCOPE fittings. Trucks and tracked or wheeled construction vehicles that have low contact pressures with the ground are not suitable for compacting fill. or a combination of both these n Site preparation operations. will be necessary to bring the subgrade to the required shape and level. 3. including: n Preparation of the subgrade.5. however.1 General Prior to constructing the base. The examples of which are shown in Figures 2. It does not cover the construction of suspended floors or 3.2 Subgrade Preparation the provision of a wearing layer provided either as an 3. concrete industrial pavements on the ground and finished by methods such as trowelling or brooming. n Formwork erection The subgrade will generally be constructed to the n Reinforcement placing same shape as the finished surface of the base to n Concrete placing. and provides uniform support. not exceed 150 mm. placed in uniform layers and n Precautions for adverse weather compacted at or near optimum moisture content to achieve the specified density. it is essential that the upper portion of the subgrade is of uniform material and density. and should construction cannot be over-emphasised. n Jointing When imported fill is required. For most projects. The guidance given in AS 379841 concerning suitable and unsuitable material. n Construction tolerances.1 and 2.2 Subgrade uniformity The rigidity of the concrete base ensures that applied loads are distributed over large areas. Bearing pressures transmitted to the subgrade are therefore relatively low.2). a number of site activities have to be undertaken.5 and 2. Suitable equipment for compacting granular fill continuous-pour and chequerboard) and the use of includes plate type vibrators. compaction of soils.2. 44 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .2. unless heavier compaction The elements of concrete industrial pavements are equipment than that noted above is used. Thus. n Construction of the subbase.1 General integral finish or as a bonded topping.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. a selected granular n Protection material should be used. moisture control and compaction) 2 INTRODUCTION and testing requirements should be followed.

resulting in expansion with any subsequent moisture increase n Subgrades with widely varying moisture contents. It should be based on local experience.5. lack of surface drainage or a leaking water pipe Figure 2.1 Subbase being compacted with a n Surcharge effect of pavement construction above manually-operated vibrating roller an expansive soil n Subgrade condition at the time of construction. trees. the removal of surcharge may lead to delayed practices such as selective grading.1. at abrupt transitions and moisture/density control of Swelling and shrinkage can be reduced by adequate subgrade compaction.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. a Excessive differential shrinkage and swelling of cover layer of non-expansive soil should be placed expansive soils can cause concrete pavements to over the whole of the subgrade.3 Construction procedures on expansive soils Where highly-expansive subgrades occur in semi-arid areas subject to prolonged periods of dry weather.com] @ 2018-06-21 There are many other tests that can be used to classify expansive soils. Site conditions that may lead to distortion of pavement panels include: n Expansive soils that have been compacted when too dry. The amount of volume change occurring depends on several factors: n The magnitude of moisture variations which may Chapter 2 take place over a long period of time.2. combination of cement and lime. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 45 . because of wet and dry seasons.martella@jacobs. optimum for standard compaction (AS 1289. Figure 2. an approximate relationship has been established between expansion capacity (soil classification) and the percentage of swell/plasticity index characteristics.1) in moisture content and hence volume changes in the are: underlying expansive soil. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. a layer become sufficiently distorted as to impair their riding of the existing soil may be stabilised with cement. In areas involving this should be corrected by subgrade preparation cutting.2 Subbase being compacted with a tandem roller Tests indicate that soil swelling can be reduced by surcharge loads and therefore can be controlled by placing the more expansive soils at relatively lower Where subgrade conditions are not reasonably uniform. expand less and absorb less moisture. The choice of thickness for a non-expansive cover layer will depend on the site conditions at the time of construction and the expected service conditions after construction. as well as providing some n MH (inorganic silts) surcharge effect. or allowed to dry out before paving. The non-expansive cover should n CH (inorganic clays of high plasticity) have a low to moderate permeability. or a qualities. with subsequent differential swelling n Abrupt changes in soil types n At cut-and-fill transitions. A loss of uniform support after construction may occur Laboratory research has shown that expansive soils where pavements are constructed on either expansive compacted at moisture contents slightly above the soils or fine-grained soils prone to 'pumping'. moisture and density controls during compaction. Most soils warranting special consideration. levels during subgrade preparation.142). Alternatively. classified The function of the cover layer is to minimise changes by the ASTM Soil Classification System (see Table 2. 3. but using simple tests commonly applied to soils. mixing of soil swelling and this factor needs to be closely monitored. n OH (organic clays of medium to high plasticity).

solution than the provision of an imported subbase. under conditions of seasonal moisture variation. elastic silts CH Inorganic clays of high plasticity. but subgrades will also enhance their uniformity of support a subbase is frequently used as a levelling course. particularly where high moisture levels are found. rock flour. Good little or no fines Silty gravels. considerable benefits can only a small part of the total construction cost. The or as a means of providing a 'working platform'. poorly-graded gravel-sand-silt mixtures Good 2 amount of fines) GC Clayey gravels. poorly-graded sand-clay mixtures Medium FINE-GRAINED SOILS Silts and clays (liquid limit ≤ 50) ML Inorganic silts and very fine sands. gravelly sands. gravelly clays. little or no fines Good Sands with fines (appreciable SM Silty sands.martella@jacobs. it may be possible to build a its compressive strength.com] @ 2018-06-21 Table 2. eg on good quality natural (and so reducing its tendency to erode) and improves sands or gravels. lime or a combination of these materials). poorly-graded gravel-sand-clay mixtures Good Sands and sandy soils Clean sands (little or no fines) SW Well-graded sands. fat clays Medium OH Organic clays of medium to high plasticity Poor HIGHLY ORGANIC SOILS PT Peat or other highly organic soils Poor 3. lean clays OL Organic silts and organic-silt clays of low plasticity Poor Silts and clays (liquid limit > 50) MH Inorganic silts. Medium sandy clays. poorly-graded sand-silt mixtures Medium amount of fines) SC Clayey sands. silty clays. 46 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . micaceous or diatomaceous fine sandy Medium or silty soils.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. Good little or no fines Chapter GP Gravel with fines (appreciable GM Poorly-graded gravels and gravel-sand mixtures. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.4 Stabilised subgrades cost of such subgrade improvement will usually be In some circumstances. silty or Medium clayey fine sands with slight plasticity CL Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. little or no fines Good SP Poorly-graded sands. soils (the addition of small amounts of cementitious subgrade stabilisation may provide a more economical materials. Stabilising a material of this type improves its physical 3. be derived from stabilisation of expansive subgrade In some cases involving lightly-loaded pavements.1 Classification and rating of subgrade soils (after ACI 360 Table 3.2.135) Group Subgrade Major divisions symbols Typical names rating COARSE-GRAINED SOILS Gravels and gravelly soils Clean gravels (little or no fines) GW Well-graded gravels and gravel-sand mixtures. The stabilisation of clay satisfactory pavement directly on the subgrade.3 Subbase Construction properties by reducing its plasticity and permeability In some circumstances. gravelly sands.

or are to be used for any In constructing the subbase. the polyethylene sheeting should have content using appropriate equipment. –10 mm A vapour barrier placed directly under the concrete is considered desirable and achievable using typical also functions as a slip layer and reduces subbase construction methods. Furthermore. a blinding layer of fine material should vapour barrier (if used). Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 47 . crushed rock. similar response to both loading and environment as Special care should be taken to avoid damage to the the adjacent subgrade material. lean-mix concrete or the membrane are recommended to minimise the risk controlled low-strength material43). poor compaction of be sufficient to increase the vapour transmission to the backfill material is common. concrete may well be reduced Figure 1. the be checked by using a scratch template operated from extent of cracking due to volumetric changes of the the top edge of the levelled side forms (see Section 4. In order to resist deterioration in uniform layers. The vapour barrier is placed directly on the subbase eg sand. subsequent problems associated with consolidation The most common form of vapour barrier is plastic and non-uniform support. There is no need to seal these joints Trenches with adhesive tape for vapour-proofing purposes as Excavations for drainage and service trenches should vapour rises vertically.4 Backfilling of Service and Drainage of 200 mm. Use of a damp material within the trench. However. As a means of overcoming proofing membrane (polyethylene sheeting having this problem. it is important that purpose where the passage of water vapour through the specified density be achieved to avoid any the pavement is unacceptable. dependent on compaction for strength and stability. a tolerance of +0. resulting in surface the point where localised failure of moisture-sensitive depressions from subsequent consolidation of floor finishes or coatings could occur. The use of a blinding layer of fine granular material. The sheeting should be continuous under the side forms and lapped at all joints by a minimum 3. In this ground. may assist in grading to the required level.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. be provided.31. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. and any require trench excavations to be backfilled with tears or perforations should be patched immediately. granular material to subgrade level in uniform A study by Suprenant and Malish45 indicates that compacted layers not exceeding 150 mm. Subbases should be placed sheeting (polyethylene). However. impermeable floor covering. Finished subbase profiles can drag friction. generally not exceeding 150 mm and punctures from subsequent construction Chapter 2 thick and compacted at or near optimum moisture operations. Where hydrostatic groundwater pressure is possible. With less restraint to base movement. Also.3). but if the surface is rough and likely to perforate the and will reduce the risk of perforation or tearing of the plastic sheeting. which are less of damage if moisture-sensitive finishes are planned.5 Vapour Barrier underside of the membrane (and slab).com] @ 2018-06-21 Fine‑grained subgrade soils in the presence of free It is for this reason that a vapour barrier should be water may be 'pumped' through joints and cracks placed under all interior concrete pavements on the under the action of frequent heavy wheel loads. or subgrade. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. are not impermeable to the slow passage of water vapour from the soil beneath. taping can cause be backfilled in accordance with AS 3798 and in problems by not allowing the plastic to slip as the such a manner that the replaced material exhibits a concrete is placed. irrespective of their thickness. absence of specified values. Many specifications vapour barrier prior to and during concreting. high impact resistance) and a granular layer under stabilised sand. concrete bases. placing Concrete bases over 100 mm in thickness and the sheeting as late as possible will assist in avoiding constructed using good quality concrete that has damage.martella@jacobs. cemented materials (such as cement. Accuracy of subbase profile will help ensure that a The use of a vapour barrier also prevents the loss of uniform concrete layer of the specified thickness is mixing water from the concrete down into the subbase placed. a non‑pumping subbase must be provided. a minimum thickness of 0. the provision of sub-soil drainage should also be considered to reduce the risk of water reaching the 3. particularly if they are likely to receive an case. been adequately compacted and cured are resistant to the passage of water from the ground. even a 15-mm hole or puncture in the membrane may in such limited working areas. should be used. In the AS 287044.2 mm and be of medium The subbase should be finished within the required impact resistance in accordance with the provisions in tolerances to the specified grade and level.

Note: Timber top subbase areas are marked and then trimmed or filled edge used to allow fine adjustment of levels and compacted as appropriate. the forms may be seated on steel shims or other suitable packing.1 Forms The final surface accuracy of a concrete pavement depends largely on the condition and rigidity of the forms. Forms should be set sufficiently in advance of concrete b b placing to permit progressive checking of horizontal Metal edge and vertical alignment. As it travels along the forms.2). incorporates 'teeth' set to the required subbase [a] Steel form profile. However. Irrespective of the type of material used.2 Form Setting Forms should be continuously bedded on the subbase and firmly pinned to avoid vibration and movement during concrete placing. maintaining line and level at joins 48 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .4. The junction of adjacent forms should be checked to ensure continuity of surface level.3 Typical form details pours.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. Forms should be coated with oil or an approved release agent and cleaned and coated before reuse.3 Subbase between Forms Following setting of the forms.3. the side forms may have to be set even more accurately to achieve the necessary pavement surface regularity (see Section 11. In most cases Metal edge-protector it should also form a square edge with the surface to COMPOSITE comply with the joint detailing for the intended traffic loads. and the care with which they are set to level Metal edge-protector and fixed. timber forms may be used if STEEL they are undamaged and in good condition. Alternatively. the shape and level of the subbase between the forms should be checked using a scratch template or similar device. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. The forms should be set to the finished surface level a within the specified tolerances. The scratch c c template which may be operated either from the side forms or from concrete previously placed in adjacent Figure 2. A tolerance of ± 3 mm in level is deemed to be both desirable and achievable with good quality workmanship. any high or low [b] Composite steel/timber form. Concrete should not be placed protector in any area until the forms have been checked. TIMBER 4.com] @ 2018-06-21 4 FORMWORK 4. A straight edge [c] Timber form with metal edge-protector combined with a timber gauge can also be used to Note: All forms to have adequate means of ensure the shape and level of the subbase Figure 2. For special 'superflat' pavements. The subbase may be finished slightly high and then trimmed to the required level under the forms. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.martella@jacobs. compacting and finishing operations. 4. Steel forms are most suitable because of their rigidity and durability. it is essential that the top of the form is flat and level. Timber Chapter 2 forms may be given an extended life by protecting the top edge with metal angles or channels Figure 2.

Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 49 . compacted condition and In some situations. are set to level as for normal The forms should be carefully removed to avoid fixed forms and used for initial levelling and screeding damaging the concrete.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. rather than by the long-strip method. eg Temporary forms. the subbase should be 4.5. The voids left after removal of the forms. The temporary forms should lever against the concrete to assist with form stripping. temporary forms should be used.5 Temporary Forms maintained in a smooth. Bars should not be used as a purposes Figure 2. and for a longer period if conditions levelling the floor. much greater care and a higher 4. screed guides or rails. If such a method is to be employed.4 Form Removal standard of workmanship will be necessary to achieve Forms should remain in place for at least eight hours the required surface levels and tolerances. should be filled immediately with concrete as the placing continues. waste concrete and other place large areas of a pavement in a continuous pour debris at all times. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.martella@jacobs. are such that early strength gains may be slow. it may be desirable or expedient to kept free of foreign matter. Figure 2.com] @ 2018-06-21 Following checking. be well secured to the subbase and may need prior installation of fitments to facilitate their quick and easy removal during the placing and finishing of the concrete. either timber or proprietary type Chapter 2 when the ambient temperature falls below 10°C. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.5 Temporary screed rails used to support vibrating truss screeds (rails are removed and void filled as work proceeds).4 Subbase level checked using a straight edge and timber gauge. To assist in after concreting. Figure 2. if significant.

8 to1-m grid should be sufficient to support the reinforcement.2 Preset Reinforcement on Bar Chairs Bar chairs 300-mm Following completion of the subbase.martella@jacobs. correct support devices should be used.7.7 Recommended preset-reinforcement the reinforcement or side forms should be used to support details carry other construction loadings such as plant or equipment Figure 2. bars at 800.to1000-mm centres or less 5.5. installation of Support plate overlap the vapour barrier (if required) and form setting.1 Placing Methods To maintain the correct position of the reinforcement (most commonly in the form of welded wire mesh) in concrete slabs. Where mesh reinforcement lighter than 1000 to 1200 SL82 is used. should not 1000 be permitted as these methods give no assurance BAR OR MESH REINFORCEMENT GENERALLY that the reinforcement will end up in a true plane at the required depth below the surface. When access is not limited and transit mixers or dumpers can distribute the concrete evenly over the full placing width from outside the forms. workers and impact of the concrete as it is placed. Mesh reinforcement lighter than F82 16-mm-dia. The practices of laying reinforcing mesh on the subbase before concrete is placed and lifting it into position after placing. preset Chapter 2 reinforcement on bar chairs should be used. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. the bar chairs should be fitted with a plate support under the legs to prevent them sinking into the subgrade/ subbase or puncturing the vapour barrier. it should be supported on reinforcing LIGHT MESH REINFORCEMENT bars (spanning between bar chairs) or closer-spaced bar chairs. Note that the latter method should be used only where movement of vehicles will not result in deformation of the subbase/subgrade (to Bar or mesh reinforcement Vapour barrier maintain surface level and slab thickness tolerances) Bar chairs Support plate or damage to reinforcement. On soft subgrades (including layers of fine granular material) or when a vapour barrier is installed. the Vapour barrier reinforcement can be placed in the required location and at the specified depth supported on bar chairs Figure 2.6. Bar chairs of suitable height and spaced on a 0. the contractor should consider the placing of concrete by pumping or progressively providing Figure 2. 50 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . or placing it on the finished surface of the concrete and 'walking it in'.6 Reinforcement chairs provided as work chairs under the reinforcement to the correct level as proceeds work proceeds Figure 2.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. In other situations. Independent supports not resting on Figure 2.com] @ 2018-06-21 5 REINFORCEMENT 5. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.

preferred. strength and durability.11. on large projects the use of slipform pavers use of internal poker vibrators is required to ensure can assist in rapid and economical construction of compaction throughout the full depth Figure 2. additional compaction by the method. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. if concrete has to be moved by manual methods. and external industrial pavements in Australia in durable pavements. This is generally of steel or aluminium A fully loaded transit mixer with a capacity of 6 m3 can and may be either a single or double beam with a weigh up to 24 tonnes and it is essential that all roads. paved edge of concrete and any obstruction. particularly at the surface. set-out pegs and construction sheds/offices located to facilitate truck access. The optimum Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 51 . the consistency of concrete used for slipform paving is less than 50 mm and typically in To permit supply trucks to discharge their loads directly the range 40 to 45 mm. the strike-off plate of the into the final position. Whilst wetter concrete is easier to paving runs.8 Typical 6-m3 transit mixer ensuring maximum density. be weaker. pavement Most concrete is placed either directly from the chute of the supply truck (transit mixer.2 Compacting The reason for compacting concrete is to remove the air entrapped when it is mixed and placed. such as a wall. it will generally take longer to finish and longitudinal construction joints. Poker Figure 2. Whichever method of transport is used. it should be borne in mind that there is a side clearance Dimensions of a typical 6-m3 capacity transit mixer are requirement of 1.1 Placing There are many ways of transporting and placing concrete.8.5 m for the paver between the shown in Figure 2.com] @ 2018-06-21 6 Placing.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. paver should be adjusted at the edges to allow for any and obstacles such as excavated soil. This is particularly so The compaction produced by power floats and trowels for industrial driveways and external hardstandings is limited to the surface of the concrete only. for bases more than 200 mm As an alternative to the more usual fixed-form paving thick and at edges. Also. Due to the trenches. buried services and access points on the better finish achieved. In planning a slipform paving operation. industrial concrete pavements.9 Slipform paving of industrial floors and vibrators should not be used to move concrete. thus Figure 2. 3700 1800 6.0 to 1. This will avoid additional handling and increased risk of segregation. slipforming alternate slabs and placing infill slabs by conventional means should be considered Figure 2. by specialist companies in this field. ie by specifying equally-spaced compact. Finishing and Texturing 6.13. so that the Figure 2. even in wet conditions. undue edge slump. double beams are generally site can support this load. use of vibrating beams and poker vibrators (especially Slipform pavers have been used to pave internal adjacent to side forms) is essential to provide strong.10. light stanchion or other similar feature. etc) or As the paved edge must stand unsupported without by pump. Compacting. This is because the depth of thicknesses from 150 to 400 mm. agitator truck. Construction Under no circumstances should water be added to efficiency can be enhanced by designing the the concrete on site to assist placing and compacting pavement to maximise the number of equal-width operations. it should be done with shovels. Paving widths compaction from vibrating beams/screeds decreases in the range of 2 to about 10 m can be slipformed near edge forms Figure 2. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. However. it is important to place the concrete as close as possible to its final position. materials. Generally. purpose-made vibrator mounted on top.martella@jacobs. To avoid 7200 4000 damage to adjacent slabs.9. building slump at the unsupported edges. the site should be well planned. Different methods available include the use of a vibrating beam. Uniform spreading directly from the transporting equipment will reduce Chapter 2 the physical effort required to distribute the concrete46.

com] @ 2018-06-21 Generally.0 m/minute. only a slight roll of concrete should be maintained along the screed. it is necessary that a poker Surface vibrator vibrator be used adjacent to the side forms (and next Edge Edge Form Form to existing pavement edges when completing infill panels) because vibrating beams are least effective Depth of Depth of Immersion near their ends Figures 2. (Note: slump at the lower end of the range should be used for placing concrete on grade. compaction compaction vibrators decreases (maximum needed to To ensure compaction and accurate surface levels.5 and 1.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. During the first pass.10 Poker vibrator used to compact concrete for thick slab prior to use of vibrating screed The beam should be drawn evenly forward from the time vibration starts and the vibrating action should be stopped whenever the screed is stationary and in contact with the concrete.14 Base being compacted with a double this surcharge will vary according to the concrete mix vibrating truss beam (note the height of concrete is and method of placing. 52 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . No further reproduction or distribution permitted.13 Base being compacted with a double screeds surface maintains roll of slab vibrating beam concrete ahead thickness Figure 2.15. Figure 2.14.11 and 2.martella@jacobs. two passes of the vibrating beam are made over each section of the pavement at a rate of between 0. the in vicinity of 200 mm) supplement top edge of the side forms should be kept clean and edge forms compaction here free from concrete. Chapter Figure 2.12 to 2. a uniform ridge of concrete about 50 mm deep should be maintained ahead of the screed over its entire length Figures 2. The height of Figure 2. but may be 10% or more of the not more than 50-mm above finished level) compacted concrete thickness. the concrete surface level will drop. Concrete beams surcharge Rear beam Front beam Final Figure 2. 2 Where vibrating beams are used to compact bases up to 200 mm thick. On the second finishing pass. mortar and aggregates.) As entrapped air in the concrete is removed by vibration. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. The initial level to which the concrete is spread should therefore be higher than the side forms.11 Degree of compaction varies across width when surface vibrators are supported off edge forms or adjacent slabs Direction of travel Double vibrating. Any additional passes of the screed will not achieve significant increases in density but will result in excessive mortar being brought to the surface.12 Function of a double vibrating beam slump for concrete to be placed using the equipment and techniques discussed here is within the range 40 to 80 mm.

Special finishing stiffened sufficiently (but before it has hardened) to techniques (including the use of vacuum dewatering. the Chapter 2 surface of the concrete may be improved by the use of a 'bull' float Figure 2. Kelly compactors. The amount of deflection or remains on the surface.1 General the surface. the surface left by a double-beam vibrating screed will be level enough to be followed by initial power floating after a suitable delay (see Section 6. number and water into the surface layer will significantly increase type of vibrators attached to it. etc) and applied surface treatments Use of a bull float while bleedwater is on the surface (including dry shakes) or coatings are not within the may result in grooves from its edges or a weak surface scope of this guide. low-slump concrete followed by the vibrator running and later (when the water sheen has floating and trowelling operations at the correct times just left the concrete surface) with the vibrator running. and this will generally be and initial finishing operations. layer. and this practice should be banned. Finishing while bleed water is still rising may also lead Conventional surface tolerances can be achieved to blistering or delamination of the surface. The use of using typical construction methods. This section describes direct finishing techniques A second use of the bull float may be required after for concrete pavement comprising levelling. Superflat finishes will achieved by a laser screed (Figure 2. the maximum overlap of float passes rich mortar is inevitably brought to the surface. levelling and minimise the number of ridge marks left at the edges power floating of a pavement. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. Moderately flat a mixture of cement and stone dust (known as driers) surfaces will generally require construction techniques to absorb bleed water will also produce a very poor involving the re-straightening/re-screeding of the wearing surface. truss or laser) deflecting as it passes over the be commenced while bleed water continues to rise concrete surface Figure 2. Initial floating with a bull float 6. Flat surfaces 6. stiffening to smooth down these ridge marks. the rate of movement the water-cement ratio of the concrete in that surface and depth of concrete surcharge in front of the screed. and dust badly.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.3. of the blade.17. Floating and trowelling should not be considered as methods of correcting inaccuracies in level or profile.3. The re-working of bleed may depend on the weight of the screed. a layer of cement. will avoid the production of an excessively thick layer of mortar.com] @ 2018-06-21 passes of a vibrating beam Figures 2. resulting in a weakened surface prone to dusting. possible craze.16) or one to two generally be achieved only by skilled contractors using Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 53 . A base with a thick layer of surface mortar will wear A larger lightweight float fitted with a small vibrator can rapidly. Where a pavement is to be finished by power floating and trowelling. During the compacting. The bull float should be Figure 2. use of wide bullfloats (4–5 m) to smooth the concrete and float dish attachments. ahead of vibrating beam after compaction and screeding to smooth and close any holes in the concrete surface and correct small surface irregularities. To improve the flatness of the surface. the use of a wide bullfloat or 'bump cutter' after screeding will assist in It is essential in the direct finishing of concrete removing any 'waves' caused by the vibrating screed pavements that no floating or trowelling operations (beam. and result in a durable pavement surface. To procedures. A small trowel fitted with a mortar layer should not be allowed to become too long handle may be used at a later stage of concrete thick by excessive working of the concrete surface.13 and 2.3. firstly without the fully compacted. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. The use of be used to achieve accurate levelling. correct any slight undulations in the pavement surface. Only the minimum amount of working Many of the problems associated with the performance of the pavement surface should be allowed so that an of concrete pavements are caused by poor finishing excessively thick layer of mortar is not produced. surface. This should be about 50 mm. If power floating and trowelling are not used.3).15 Poker vibrator being used to compact drawn transversely across the pavement immediately concrete near base edges. layer of concrete.3 Finishing should be completed prior to bleedwater appearing on 6.2 Levelling will require further restraightening of the surface after It is important that the concrete surface be brought to floating. the bleedwater has evaporated and the concrete has trowelling and texturing (if required).18. while very flat surfaces will require multiple the final specified level prior to the commencement re-straightening in all directions following both floating of any finishing operations.martella@jacobs. floating.14.

In cold weather it may be three hours or more after the concrete is placed. The power trowel should be used only for the final trowelling operation. transverse direction to improve flatness of surface The power float should be systematically operated over the concrete in a regular pattern leaving a matt finish Figure 2. skilled contractors with specialised equipment may also achieve such finishes. A steel hand trowel may be used to give an improved finish near the panel edges Figure 2. A power trowel is the same or similar machine fitted Figure 2.martella@jacobs. used for the initial floating operations only. However. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. Stage 2: Final power trowelling to close the surface. In hot weather the concrete may stiffen rapidly. A power-trowelled pavement finish is obtained in two stages: Stage 1: Power floating the stiffened concrete to even out any slight irregularities left by the vibrating beam or bull float. and it is then important that concrete is not placed faster than it can be properly power floated and trowelled with the available resources.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. It is important that power floating is not commenced until the concrete has stiffened sufficiently.18 Use of wide bullfloat or 'bump cutter' in about 3 mm deep. The stringent tolerances associated with superflat finishes for applications such as narrow aisle widths will typically dictate the long-strip method of placement of concrete between narrowly spaced forms. but will be more economical.3.19. the surface is ready to power float. making it smooth and dense.21. 6. Power floating and trowelling will not Figure 2. Concrete close to obstructions or in panel corners that cannot be reached with a power float must be manually floated before any power floating starts. The time interval before the initial power floating can commence depends on the concrete mix and the temperature.3 Floating and Trowelling General floating and trowelling for large pavement Chapter 2 areas is normally undertaken using powered equipment.16 Pavement surface being compacted and necessarily achieve a better quality of surface finish levelled with a laser screed than good hand floating and trowelling. when an average-weight man can stand on the surface and leave footprints not more than Figure 2. The concrete must always be kept level with the side forms Figure 2.17 Initial floating of pavement surface with with small individual steel trowel blades that can be a 'bull' float progressively tilted during the trowelling operations. As a general guide. 54 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . No further reproduction or distribution permitted. A power float is a machine with large horizontal steel rotating blades.com] @ 2018-06-21 sophisticated equipment. Power floating.20.

2.22.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.23. using set accelerating admixtures or by heating the mixing water.19 Base surface being power floated pavement is not yet ready for trowelling. the trowel blades will leave ridges. 2. Whilst high concrete strength assists in providing surface abrasion resistance. three stages of power trowelling may be specified.com] @ 2018-06-21 Power trowelling.martella@jacobs. concrete setting can be accelerated by increasing the cement content and/or using Type HE (high-early strength) cement. the angle depends on the concrete stiffness but should be as steep as possible without causing the concrete surface to be marked.21 Ensure concrete is kept level with trowellings and the increased rate of hardening may side forms leave insufficient time to trowel the surface Figure 2. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. with the blade tilt again increased as the concrete Figure 2. so that at least the roof and preferably the walls are completed before the floor slab is placed. rapid drying of the concrete surface will reduce the interval between Figure 2.14. steel hand trowel and cleaning of existing surface to A limiting factor in the construction of a power- ensure levels match trowelled pavement is the waiting time required between successive trowellings while the concrete is hardening. The third trowelling should be undertaken after a similar waiting period. If mortar sticks to it when the hand is taken away from the surface. 2.16. These delays often mean that concrete placement must stop for the day in the early afternoon to allow time for the finishing operations to be completed within normal working hours. it should not be commenced until the excess moisture brought to the surface during the initial trowelling has disappeared. For some heavy-duty pavements.19. To minimise these problems for interior floors. This can be an even greater problem in cold weather.18 and 2. Increasing the speed of trowelling by using double and triple head trowelling machines will assist Figure 2. the construction of the building should be programmed. The tilt of the trowel blades should be gradually increased to match the concrete stiffness. where possible. If power trowelling is started too early. the Figure 2. A practical test to check the readiness for each Chapter 2 trowelling operation is to press the palm of a gloved hand onto the concrete surface. It should be commenced when most of the moisture brought to the surface by the initial power floating has disappeared and the concrete has lost its stickiness. Where a second power trowelling is specified. For Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 55 .20 Finish near edge being improved with a hardens. the practical test described above may be used. Again. Power trowelling of the surface is undertaken in a systematic pattern with the trowel blades set at a slight angle.5. Where the pavement must be constructed in the open or on sites exposed to winds. as seen in Figures 2. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. In such conditions. power trowelling also increases surface abrasion resistance.

potential wear. whilst medium to fine textures are obtained with soft-bristled brooms.24 Examples of wind breaks to protect concrete from rapid drying Figure 2. preferably in a direction perpendicular to the traffic. skid and slip resistance Chapter 2 and ease of cleaning. The Figure 2.com] @ 2018-06-21 walls with large door openings or where completion of the walls is not possible prior to concrete placement. Note that for pedestrian traffic and slow moving vehicles.4 Texturing The texture to be imparted to a concrete pavement should be chosen with reference to the type of traffic and loading. The finish is achieved by pulling a damp broom across the freshly trowelled surface. suitable for steep slopes or heavily trafficked areas are produced by stiff-bristled brooms.23 Double and triple-head power trowel steel-trowelled finish will provide a limited degree machines are now commonly used in Australia for of protection against the penetration of oil. Alternative forms of texturing may be produced using a dampened hessian drag or grooving of the plastic concrete using a steel-tined comb. When a greater degree of skid and slip resistance is needed. hard-wearing surface. the concrete surface may be finished by power or hand trowelling to give a dense. steel-trowelled surfaces will provide adequate slip and skid resistance when clean and dry. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. wind breaks may need to be erected to protect the concrete surface from rapid drying Figure 2. 6.22 Pavements exposed to rapid drying may leave insufficient time for trowelling and work area should be reduced or number of trowels increased 56 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . the finished surface of the pavement can be broomed.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.martella@jacobs. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. Coarse textures.24. Figure 2. but may major warehouse projects not provide adequate skid and slip resistance when wet. In many light to heavy industrial applications.

retaining fabrics are extensively used for curing windy) the delay in commencing any form of wet concrete Figure 2. crazing. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. including any and inferior concrete properties. Curing methods fall into two categories: n Those which supply additional moisture to the concrete during the curing period – these include Figure 2. eg by the use of soaker hoses. earth or clay mounds cycles of wetting and drying.25 Ponding and covering with hessian Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 57 .26. wear resistance. It water and careful supervision. the concrete surface throughout the curing period. and wet covering (such as hessian). plastic sheets.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. care should be taken to ensure that staining from impurities in the covering material do not occur. With decorative finishes or where colour is important. Figure 2. The method requires a reliable supply of maintaining a uniform temperature in the base. Curing should commence immediately after finishing. Such coverings should be curing including ponding. dry. the necessity for a drainage surface to retain a pond of water within the enclosed system.2 Ponding possibility of crazing or cracking caused by alternate On flat surfaces of pavements. or method of curing. Prompt and adequate curing is therefore essential and for best results the pavement surface should be continuously cured for at least 7 days. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.26 Wet hessian used for curing ponding. continuously through a system of nozzles provides a constant supply of moisture.25. Proper curing reduces the risk of cracking. If continuous wetting cannot be guaranteed. A fine spray of water applied sprayed liquid membrane-forming compounds. Care should drying at a critical time and result in surface cracking be taken to cover the entire surface. generally requires a considerable amount of labour and supervision. Wet coverings such as hessian or other moisture- Note that in adverse weather conditions (hot. and the possibility of uncomfortable working area Figure 2. Ponding is also effective in conditions. Alternate curing exposed edges. moist Chapter 2 conditions under which the concrete can continue to harden and gain its full strength and wear-resistance properties. Wet coverings that are allowed to dry out can have a detrimental effect on the concrete by sucking moisture from it. final quality and performance of the wearing surface. this form of curing should not be used.martella@jacobs. causes site obstructions and may be 7. This prevents the 7. Disadvantages of can be built around the perimeter of the concrete sprinkling include its cost.1 Purpose The curing of concrete has a major influence on the strength.4 Wet Coverings impractical on larger jobs.3 Sprinkling concrete by sealing the surface – this may be done Continuous sprinkling with water is also an excellent by means of waterproofing paper. sprinkling. n Those which prevent loss of moisture from the 7. A pavement has a large surface area exposed to drying in relation to the volume of concrete. curling and dusting of the pavement. sprinkling and wet coverings placed as soon as the concrete has hardened may leave the concrete surface exposed to rapid sufficiently to prevent surface damage. The purpose of curing is to maintain warm. The coverings should be kept methods may have to be used until water can be continuously moist so that a film of water remains on applied to the surface without damaging the finish.com] @ 2018-06-21 7 Curing 7.

but two coats sometimes may be necessary to ensure complete coverage. white pigmented compounds are most effective.27.com] @ 2018-06-21 7.28. when used. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. During hot weather. since they reflect the sun's rays and thereby minimise the temperature rise in the concrete. They are suitable for curing not only fresh concrete but may also be used for further curing of concrete after removal of forms or after initial moist Figure 2. Uneven colouration of the concrete surface. When applied correctly. Normally. and ensuring uniform contact is maintained between the sheeting and the concrete.28 Liquid membrane-forming curing curing. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.27 Plastic sheeting used for curing – sheets sometimes occurs when plastic sheeting is used. The concrete surface to be cured should be moist when the coating is applied. which Figure 2. can also be used to limit evaporation of moisture from the concrete.5 Impermeable Coverings A most reliable and efficient way to cure concrete pavements is by fully covering the surface with plastic sheeting or waterproof building paper as soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently to avoid marking Figure 2.6 Curing Compounds Liquid membrane-forming curing compounds in accordance with AS 379947. This type of covering also provides some protection Chapter 2 to the concrete against damage from subsequent construction activity. A second coat. compound being applied by spray Clear or translucent compounds are available. 58 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . only one coat is applied in a smooth even texture. they are an effective means of curing. 7. Lifting the sheeting regularly and flooding the surface under the sheeting will also assist in minimising colour variations.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. Many contain a fugitive dye which facilitates even coverage of the concrete surface. Plastic sheets should be lapped and well fixed down at the edges to prevent them being lifted by wind. simply known as curing compounds. should be applied at right angles to the first. Curing compounds are applied by hand-operated or power-driven spray equipment Figure 2. An advantage of curing compounds is that they can be applied to fresh concrete earlier than sheet materials – an important consideration in hot weather. Care must be taken to check that the use of the compound will not affect the adhesion of any later surface treatments.martella@jacobs. must be lapped and weighed down or secured at may be minimised by flooding the surface before edges the sheeting is laid.

the concrete on both sides of the joint by placing the concrete against a compressible filler should be re-levelled and re-compacted using a material (such as self-expanding cork) over the full vibrating float. Note that square and plate dowels are better suited to this application than round dowels.martella@jacobs. but after the Expansion joints are recommended at maximum concrete has hardened sufficiently to prevent ravelling 15-m centres in external pavements.29. If dowels conditions Figure 2. The appropriate locking up and causing cracking of the pavement time for sawing can be assessed by casting test immediately adjacent to the end of the dowels. strip. T-section. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. joint spacing the width will need to be increased The appropriate time for conventional saws can vary appropriately. For create a gap large enough to allow for the expected early-entry type saws the time may vary from 1 hour movement. In the obstructions in the pavement. are used in longitudinal joints.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. Figure 2.3 Expansion Joints before random cracking can occur. For increased or tearing of the surface under the action of the saw. the details and at the locations shown on the contract Formed joints are constructed by inserting a steel drawings. or back-to-back metal angle cutter into the plastic concrete directly following normal finishing 8. Generally.1 General 8. The timing of sawing is critical.1 Transverse contraction joints The four types of joints provided in concrete pavements These joints may be constructed either by forming are described and detailed in Section 2.2 Isolation Joints operations.30. inserted into the groove.4 Contraction Joints 8. top and exposed ends of the joint to ensure that no dirt Sawn joints are constructed by sawing a narrow or incompressible material is allowed to enter the joint groove (generally 3 to 5 mm wide) in the concrete after and restrict its capacity to accommodate movement. They are constructed latter case. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.2 in Chapter 1 a groove in the plastic concrete (formed joint) or by and they should be constructed in accordance with sawing a groove in the hardened concrete (sawn joint).4. The filler material must extend the full between 4 and 24 hours. the pavement from perimeter walls. both the top and exposed ends of expansion joints should be sealed to prevent the ingress of dirt or other incompressible material. If required. Installing sleeves having gaps to the vertical sides of the dowels is one solution.29 Conventional saw being used to cut sawn joint in hardened concrete Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 59 . machinery and column cutter may be removed immediately and a proprietary bases. Often sleeves will be manufactured to in hot-weather conditions to 4 hours in cold-weather incorporate a gap at the end once installed. that influence the setting and early rate of strength Dowels used for load transfer should have one end development of the concrete. Various panels adjacent to the works and conducting sawing surface coatings such as bitumen. the climatic of the dowel free to move in order to avoid the joint conditions have the greatest effect. tapes and sleeves trials at various intervals after placing the concrete. alternatively. depending on the factors depth of the pavement. the joints A cap should be provided at the end of the dowel to should be sawn by the times shown in Table 2. depending on temperature. it has hardened Figure 2. The cutter may be left in place until the Chapter 2 Isolation joints are used to isolate the concrete concrete stiffens and then removed. As are available to cover the dowel and allow movement. drainage and access pits and any other fixed type crack inducer.com] @ 2018-06-21 8 Joints 8. As for isolation joints. a general guide. and should commence as early as possible 8.2. the joint can be sealed at depth of the base and (after concreting) sealing the a later stage. then movement capacity perpendicular to the dowel must also be provided.

it may be necessary to provide a central needed. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. Where dowelled transverse contraction joints are specified.5 Construction Joints assemblies and securely fixed to the subbase prior 8. To permit movement. when the joint is to be longitudinal joint to control cracking in this direction.martella@jacobs.4. may be about 5 m. When concrete is placed in widths exceeding requiring special lighting and supervision.2 Longitudinal contraction joints morning. early The joint may either be sawn or formed as discussed sawing leaving a slightly ragged joint edge may be in Section 8. the dowels must be matches the spacing of the transverse contraction perfectly straight.1. and some means of load transfer (such as dowels) should be provided.30 Early-entry saw being used to cut sawn joint Table 2. Joints required at any location within a pavement base when concrete placing is interrupted by an emergency 60 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . header board firmly staked to the subbase.2 Recommended time for sawing Daily maximum temperature Recommended time for sawing (°C) (hours) <25 14–16 >25 10 Note: ACI 360 suggests between 4 hours (hot weather) Figure 2.1 Transverse construction joints to concrete placing to resist displacement when concrete is placed over them Figure 2. subsequently widened to receive a joint sealer.5.4.31.com] @ 2018-06-21 Line of transverse joint L/2 L/2 Tack welds Tie wire Dowel (debonded for L/2 + 25 mm) t t/2 Subbase fixing Chapter 2 Mesh bent into shape Mesh must be cut once shown and tack welded to cage is fixed to subbase give correct location to dowel and before placing concrete Figure 2. sawing outside normal working hours. as hinge or warping joints. These joints are sometimes referred to acceptable.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.31 Typical dowel-support assembly (the bottom supporting wire must be cut once the cage is fixed to the subbase and before concrete placing) Figure 2.32 Crack adjacent to joint due to dowel and 12 hours (cold weather) for conventional saws 'lock-up' In hot conditions when concrete is placed in the 8. The dowels These joints are provided transversely to the direction should be aligned parallel to both the direction of of placing. with cleanly sawn ends and must be joints. They should be formed by a steel or timber provided with a 'bond‑breaker' on one side of the joint. In some instances. the dowels should be prefabricated in 8.32. movement and the surface of the pavement to within Joints installed at the end of each day's placing close tolerances to prevent 'locking-up' of the joint operations are normally constructed at a location that Figure 2. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.

early stage of a project. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.com] @ 2018-06-21 such as plant failure. third of the length of a panel and dowel bars provided. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 61 .2 Longitudinal construction joints early strengths. or by adverse weather conditions. hardwood timbers may stain the surface if they become wet. should be Where concrete pavements are constructed at an constructed using the following principles. in cold weather. a dowelled joint as appropriate should be days and light pneumatic-tyred traffic for about seven provided similar to that described above. should be monitored by cylinder testing and the structural adequacy of the base checked for these 8. they should be protected If the interruption occurs near the end of a panel. In reinforced surface when early use of the pavement is necessary. Hardboard sheets or timber bearers laid on these joints are normally constructed as a concentrated traffic routes will assist in protecting the keyed joint or fitted with dowels. the strength development at early ages and to ensure that the base acts monolithically. the joint should be located within the middle hardens more slowly. To provide for load transfer. concrete Otherwise. from damage by following trades. days.5. a breakdown in concrete 9 Protection of Pavements supply. damage. the reinforcement may Note that softwood timbers are recommended as be continuous through the side forms.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. base construction. Foot traffic should at or very close to a transverse contraction be kept off newly-completed surfaces for one or two joint.martella@jacobs. the reinforcement should be If early loading or trafficking of the pavement is continued through the joint to prevent movement unavoidable. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. This timing will of course depend on the strength development of the concrete. Chapter 2 In reinforced bases. Longitudinal construction joints are constructed Polyethylene sheeting used for curing will assist to a between adjacent paving strips at the location limited degree in protecting the concrete surface from of the side forms.

than 72 hours after placing. and quality of the plastic or hardened concrete. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.3 Concreting in Cold Weather The prime effects of cold weather conditions on freshly‑placed concrete are: n A decrease in the rate at which the concrete sets and gains strength. n Dampening forms. 62 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . insulating materials. etc n Completing the transporting. ie placed in the n Increased rates of hardening forms.com] @ 2018-06-21 10 Adverse Weather Conditions Precautions for cold-weather concreting should be 10. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.2 Concreting in Hot Weather n Using high-early-strength cement to increase the The effects of hot weather conditions can be heat generated by hydration and strength gain summarised as follows: Chapter 2 n Heating the materials (the temperature of the n Shorter setting times and early stiffening concrete when it is discharged. placing and finishing of concrete as rapidly as practicable n Informed usage of set-retarding admixtures (to counter premature stiffening of the concrete) n Immediately following the initial finishing operation.martella@jacobs.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. and at a temperature Precautions for hot-weather concreting should be above freezing for the remainder of the curing initiated when the ambient temperature is expected to period) exceed 30°C. spraying a fine film of aliphatic alcohol over the exposed concrete surface – to limit evaporation and help control plastic shrinkage cracking (this should be repeated as necessary during any subsequent operations up to final finishing) n Immediate commencement of curing procedure after final finishing is complete n Moist curing to control concrete temperature n Restricting placing to night time when the ambient temperatures are generally lower.1 General initiated when the ambient temperature is expected to fall below 10°C. with a resultant delay in finishing the concrete n (At temperatures below freezing) physical damage to the concrete in the form of surface scaling or bursting. and the cessation of hydration. pipelines. They may consist of one or more of the Adverse weather conditions are defined as any following practices: combination of climatic conditions that may impair the n Providing heaters. chutes. 10. should be above 5°C) n Increased tendency for prehardening cracking n Not placing concrete on frozen ground n Difficulties in placing and finishing n Ensuring means of maintaining suitable curing n Danger of cold joints – a cold joint is formed when temperatures (the temperature of the concrete plastic concrete is placed against concrete that should be maintained at 10°C minimum for not less has set and commenced hardening. enclosures to prevent concrete freezing if sub-zero temperatures are expected 10. These precautions may consist of one or n Insulating the concrete (a thick insulating blanket is more of the following: often sufficient protection for pavements). reinforcement and subbase n Erecting wind breaks and sunshades to protect exposed concrete surfaces n Cooling concrete ingredients n (During transport) cooling containers.

Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.com] @ 2018-06-21 11 Construction Tolerances for a project and the pavement areas over which these Pavement Surfaces tolerances apply. comprising a series of light special operational needs. surveying equipment.34.34 3-m straightedge used to assess surface are an FF of 100 and FL of between 50 and 100. Maximum deviation measured The surface level in both cases would still be specified as being within ± 10 mm of the specified level. if any. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. achieved: n The maximum deviation of any point on the 11.3 Measuring Equipment pavement surface from a 3-m straightedge should For small pavement areas.33 Straight edge assessment of surface Further information on tolerances can be found in Tolerances for Concrete Surfaces19. Minor grinding should not affect the abrasion and supervision. floating and trowelling operations: operates preset limit switches connected to a warning n The maximum deviation from a 3-m straightedge device to detect out-of-tolerance areas. the exact requirements for Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 63 .2 'Superflat' Pavements High-density industrial warehouses introduced in recent years use narrow aisle. 'Superflat' pavements are discussed in more detail in Section 2. tolerance considerably higher than those for conventional or even 'flat' pavements. such as areas with only Chapter 2 after construction any out-of-tolerance high areas pedestrian traffic or light pneumatic-tyred vehicles. the client and the contractor. Typical F-number tolerances for 'superflat' pavements Figure 2.martella@jacobs. If measurements are made a prime consideration. concrete surface Figure 2. The tolerances specified for the surface regularity of More‑stringent tolerances than required should not be concrete industrial pavements should be appropriate specified to allow for unforeseen factors such as future to the function of the pavement and the applied finish ground movement.33 and 2. turret type stacking vehicles that require especially flat pavement surfaces for their efficient operation. As the straightedge is moved over with accurate placement of screed rails and carefully the pavement. More-stringent surface tolerances may be required for For larger areas. Figure 2. Measurements of flatness should be made frequently For applications where pavement flatness is not during construction. 11. the following tolerances should be resistance or other surface properties of the pavement. should be established beforehand 11. Accurate measurement of the flatness of 'superflat' n The level of any point should not deviate by more pavements may be carried out with conventional than 10 mm from the specified design level. to be used. trusses mounted on wheels with a small sensing wheel The following tolerances are regarded as achievable located at midspan. be assessed using a metal straightedge placed n The level of any point on the pavement should not progressively on the surface and measuring the deviate by more than 10 mm from the specified maximum deviation between the straightedge and design level. using the Walking Profiler G2 or the use of an F-Meter (refer Section 2. it may be more convenient to use pavements subject to heavy vehicular traffic or with a mobile straightedge. Since construction of such close-tolerance pavement surfaces can be expensive. it is should be ground to level with a powered grinding suggested that with typical standards of workmanship machine. the movement of the sensing wheel controlled levelling. surface regularity may not exceed 12 mm.6 in Chapter 1.1 Typical Pavements by consultation between the handling‑equipment manufacturers.6 in Chapter 1). should not exceed 6 mm. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. The equivalent surface tolerances for the cases listed above would be as follows: 3-m straightedge n Typical bullfloated pavements – FF of 15 and FL of 13 n 'Flat' pavements – FF of 25 and FL of 20.

2 American Society for Testing and Materials 65 11 Joints 78 4 Materials 66 11.4 Subbase 70 14 Testing and Acceptance of 6.3 Aggregate 67 11.5 Chemical Admixtures 67 11.2 Fixing 71 15.1 General 78 4.4 Water 67 11.2 Isolation and Expansion Joints 78 4.6 Joint Sealing 80 4.1 General 76 10.7 Reinforcement.3 Repairing Membrane 71 15 Construction Tolerances 83 8 Placing and Fixing Reinforcement 71 15.5 Form Removal 70 Concrete 83 14.4 Construction Joints 79 4.1 Concrete 66 11.9 Trowelling 75 9.3 Testing Procedures 84 8.1 Code Requirements 83 7 underlay membrane 71 14.com] @ 2018-06-21 9.8 Floating 75 9. Slag and Amorphous Silica 67 12 Protection of Concrete 4.4 Deficiencies and Corrections 84 9 Placing.1 General 83 8.3 Access for Concrete Placing 81 5 Equipment 68 12.1 Storage 71 14.2 Concreting in Hot weather 82 6.1 Placing 71 15.2 Standards to be Achieved 83 8.1 Standards Australia 65 10. compacting and Finishing 72 16 Removal and Replacement of 9.martella@jacobs.3 Template for Checking Subbase 70 6.5 Impermeable-sheet Curing 78 3.8 Curing Materials 67 12.3 Acceptance Criteria 83 7.4 Protection Against Rain 82 6.4 Placing 73 Chapter 3 Guide Specification 9.4 Sprayed Membrane Curing 77 3.2 Initial Curing 77 2 Introduction 65 10.4 Rejection Criteria 83 7.3 Contraction Joints 78 4.1 Forms 69 13.2 Other Requirements 83 7.5 Dowels and Tie Bars 80 4.2 Maintenance 68 13 Adverse Weather Conditions 82 13.10 Surface Texturing 75 contents 10 Curing 76 1 Scope 65 10.3 Placing Tolerances 71 15.3 Placing Restrictions 72 64 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .5 Compacting 73 9.1 General 81 4.3 Moist Curing 77 Chapter 3 3 Referenced Documents 65 10.1 Definition 82 6 Formwork 69 13.2 Delivery 72 9.2 Form Setting 69 13.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.4 Unhardened Concrete 81 5.6 Finishing 74 9. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.7 Levelling 74 9.1 Approval 72 Defective areas 85 9.2 Laying 71 14.3 Concreting in Cold Weather 82 6.2 Cement 66 11.9 Underlay Membrane 68 12.6 Fly Ash.1 General 68 5.2 Construction Traffic 81 12. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. Dowels and Tie Bars 67 Pavements 81 4.

setting out. nor to refer to it as a standard documents referred to are included.martella@jacobs.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. the AS 3799 Liquid membrane-forming curing compounds specified requirements. or pavements with portland and blended cement constructed with mechanised paving equipment. AS 1379 Specification and supply of concrete AS 1478. – has been left wherever it is necessary for users to provide information appropriate for a particular project. Where more- specification.2 American Society for Testing and Materials n Subbase Construction (ASTM) n Concrete Base Construction C 171-07 Standard Specification for Sheet Materials for The purpose of this guide specification is to provide Curing Concrete is referred to.1 Standards Australia The following standards are referred to and form part of this specification to the extent indicated in the appropriate clause. related to general requirements such as order of works. There is only one Table in this Chapter and it does not have a prefix number in order for Clauses to This guide specification does not include clauses refer to Table 1 in this guide specification. nor does it cover requirements for sections of the work not directly related to concrete. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 65 .1 Chemical admixtures for concrete.1 Aggregates and rock for engineering of concrete industrial pavements constructed on the purposes – Concrete aggregates ground and finished by methods such as trowelling or brooming.1 Structural steel – Hot-rolled bars and n Site Works sections n Drainage AS/NZS 4671 Steel reinforcing materials n Subgrade Preparation 3. It is COMMENTARY A list may be necessary and not appropriate to include a copy of this document in should be checked to ensure that only those a project specification. for concrete AS 3972 Portland and blended cements AS/NZS 3582 Supplementary cementitious materials 2 INTRODUCTION for use with portland and blended cement The specification for a pavement project would Part 3 – Amorphous silica typically be divided into: AS/NZS 3679. Part 1 – Fly ash It provides model clauses suitable for incorporation Part 2 – Slag. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. It does not cover suspended floors.com] @ 2018-06-21 3 Referenced Documents Chapter 3 Guide Specification 3. Ground granulated iron blast-furnace into the project specifications together with a AS 3600 Concrete structures commentary to explain the intent of. mortar 1 SCOPE and grout Part 1 – Admixtures for concrete This Chapter provides a guide to the specification AS 2758. base. A bracketed space – (…) should replace those listed. or the parts which affect this construction. records. those AS 2870 Residential slabs and footings – Construction Chapter 3 incorporating a wearing layer provided as either an AS 3582 Supplementary cementitious materials for use integral finish or as a bonded topping. or to clarify. inspections. etc. and forms part of this typical clauses for those parts of the specification specification to the extent indicated in the appropriate dealing either with the construction of the concrete clause. since each clause will have to be recent Standards have been published. these reviewed as to its relevance.

6 and approval shall be obtained for the use of these materials prior to the commencement 4.1. 4. The resultant concrete shall be sound and have the other qualities specified.6 as selection shall be made from the general types listed in appropriate. 66 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .1. Clauses 4.2 to 4. proportioning and mixing of the use of shrinkage limited cement refer to the concrete materials shall be such as to produce Drying shrinkage of cement and concrete 49.2 Where specific types of materials are not not detailed in Table 1. then the materials have required by Table 1 for a particular element then a to comply only with the Clauses 4.2 Cement of work.1.6 Premixed concrete shall be manufactured and supplied in accordance with the requirements of 4. Where specific requirements for materials are 4.5 The selection.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.1. For more detail on 4.4 The concrete for the various elements of the the use of Type SR (sulfate resisting) cement  48 may pavement shall be so designed and produced that the be advantageous for pavements subject to some properties listed in Table 1 are achieved.6. forms of mild chemical attack.2 to 4. and these materials shall satisfy the and properties for each element of the pavement. approved as detailed in Table 1. expressed as a percentage of cement content 4 MATERIALS 4.com] @ 2018-06-21 Table 1 Concrete materials and some properties required Pavement element Material Element 1 Element 2 Element 3 Cement type Minimum cement content (kg/m3) Maximum supplementary cementitious materials1 Admixtures – Mandatory – Permitted Chapter 3 – Banned Maximum water-cement ratio Strength – Compressive – Flexural – Indirect Tensile Slump (mm) Maximum nominal coarse aggregate size (mm) 1 Supplementary cementitious materials. requirements detailed in Clauses 4.1 The concrete for the various elements of the COMMENTARY Table 1 should be completed to pavement shall contain the specific types of materials show mandatory requirements in terms of materials listed in Table 1. 4.3 Chemical admixtures may be used only if requirements of AS 3972. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.2 to 4. such as fly ash.1 Concrete AS 1379.1. For example. a mix which works readily into corners and angles of the forms and around reinforcement with the method of placement employed on the work. COMMENTARY This clause should be amended to include the type of cement preferred. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. but without permitting the material to segregate or excess free water to collect on the surface. Portland and blended cement shall comply with the 4.martella@jacobs.1.

8.1. square and free from burrs.8 Curing Materials quality of water likely to be used. Recent Chemical admixtures.1 Reinforcement shall comply with the 4. mud.6 Fly Ash. air-entraining pavement has been sprayed. be deemed to comply with this clause if a sample of Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 67 . Dowels and Tie Bars with the requirements of ASTM C17151. Slag and Amorphous Silica If pavement coatings are specified. A white pigmented dye is the practices detailed in Appendix B of that Standard. it is or 'flowable' concrete is not recommended in recommended that they not be used when the pavements on grades or with crossfalls.martella@jacobs.8. it may be desirable to specify that a shall comply with the requirements of AS 3799. or if research has shown that special safety precautions approved for use.7. 4. eg in a remote 4. and of the sizes the Risk of Damage to Concrete Structures in shown in the drawings. loose completion of the following: rust. and shall be used in accordance with rubber compounds. has Aggregates shall comply generally with AS 2758. the designer Fly ash. agents are recommended to increase freeze-thaw Wax-based curing compounds are generally resistance. A joint Cement and Concrete Association of 4. AS/NZS 3582.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. 4. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. and this need not be removed. as appropriate. pavement is to be subject to early foot or vehicular traffic. Water shall meet the requirements of AS 1379. Nevertheless. sample be submitted for analysis and approval COMMENTARY Of the many types of liquid prior to the commencement of the project.2 and the curing compound. where specified in Table 1. after wire brushing by hand.1. but can The use of admixtures that will result in high slumps provide a slippery surface. They shall be saw cut to length Australia50 will help specifiers to understand the prior to delivery to the site and the ends shall be Chapter 3 practical issues raised by this phenomenon.2 Impermeable sheet materials shall comply 4.3 Dowels shall be one-piece. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.2 Reinforcement (immediately prior to concrete shall not be used on any surface until the successful placing) shall be free from loose mill scale. Australia/Standards Australia publication Alkali steel bars or plates complying with the requirements Aggregate Reaction – Guidelines on Minimising of AS/NZS 4671 or AS/NZS 3679.com] @ 2018-06-21 4. Dowels shall be clean and free from mill scale or loose rust. 4.7 Reinforcement.7. membrane-forming curing compounds available. shall comply with the requirements are necessary for the use of chlorinated of AS 1478. dimensions of cross-section and a mass not less than those required by AS/NZS 4671.7. grease and other non-metallic coatings n Tests to prove that no discolouration of off‑form that would reduce the bond between the concrete or other special surfaces will occur due to the and the reinforcement. plain. 4. the specification are used they shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and 4. and the size quantity is harmful to concrete or steel reinforcement. AS 3582.5 Chemical Admixtures types are preferred and recommended.3 When curing compounds permitted by requirements of AS/NZS 4671. deformed bars compound or interaction between it and any and welded wire mesh having mill scale or rust shall additive.1.7.4 Water 4. For this reason. the wax-based emulsions and chlorinated rubber 4.8. COMMENTARY This clause should specify the test procedure and the associated limits where COMMENTARY The bond properties of reinforcing alternatives are provided in AS 2758. recommended to facilitate checking that the COMMENTARY In cold climates. The test bars and tie bars are not affected by light surface procedure to be included should be that most rusting which forms on steel after normal exposure suitable for the particular project.4 Tie bars shall be deformed bars complying Water shall be free from matter which in kind and with the requirements of AS/NZS 4671. COMMENTARY If there is any doubt about the 4. efficient in terms of moisture retention. shown in the drawings.3 respectively. oil.3 Aggregate such reinforcement.1 Liquid membrane-forming curing compounds location. to the atmosphere. slag and amorphous silica shall comply with should check the compatibility of the coating with the requirements of AS 3582.1. straight.1. form coatings or release agents.

68 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .1 General adversely affected by the compound. This clause has been written in this form The underlay membrane shall be flexible. sheeting suitable enable the requirements of the specification to be for use as a vapour barrier (medium impact achieved 46.2 in AS 2870. by the Contractor and assembled at the site of the COMMENTARY Discolouration of the pavement work in sufficient time before the start of paving to surface may or may not be a major concern. required. setting and calibration. the Supervisor to reject equipment which will not COMMENTARY Generally.9 Underlay Membrane varied. COMMENTARY The range of equipment suitable for use in constructing pavements is wide and Chapter 3 4. The onus is on requirements of Clause 5. and the making of any repairs that may be compound on the adhesion of any applied coating.com] @ 2018-06-21 n Tests to show that the adhesion of any applied 5 EQUIPMENT concrete or other finish or covering will not be 5. or with which the Contractor from suitable high-quality ingredients satisfying the is familiar.3. adjustment is important to check the effect of any curing of parts. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. If not up to the required either a vapour barrier or a damp-proofing standard. a damp-proofing membrane to be used are to be provided.2 Maintenance (partially or totally) recycled materials in production. in some situations such as requirement that details of the intended equipment saline soil conditions. Dependable and sufficient equipment that is Certified existing test results which satisfy the above appropriate and adequate to meet the approved plan requirements shall obviate the need for these special and schedule for the work specified shall be furnished tests. The approved equipment shall be maintained in good Unless recycled material is specifically required. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. or to restrict innovation.2 mm thick and manufactured the Contractor owns. including paints.martella@jacobs. nominally 0. it working condition. calibration. prior to its continued use on the project. the equipment shall be repaired or replaced membrane. It permit thorough inspection.3. It shall be checked regularly for is suggested that the specifier simply nominate wear. resistance) will be adequate for industrial The conditions of tendering should include the pavements. However. polymeric so as not to restrict the use of equipment which film. Some manufacturers of impermeable sheets use 5. (high impact resistance) may be required.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.

6.2.2 The forms shall be staked into position with steel or timber stakes.1. dressed placed will be firmly in contact for its entire length and timber planks fitted with a metal angle or channel base width.1 The subbase under the forms shall be firm and cut true to level so that each form section when 6. 6. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 69 . No further reproduction or distribution permitted. within the tolerances shown in the drawings. Any an approved oil or release agent each time before problems should be rectified and approved before concrete is placed. keys and form locks on the forms shall there are no keyed joints in the particular project. than 3 mm. 6.martella@jacobs. of any equipment they support.6 Formwork shall be set and checked at least shall allow for their insertion and for rigidly supporting one day prior to placing the concrete and the setting of them in the correct alignment and for stripping of the the forms shall be approved by the Supervisor before formwork.4 The stakes shall be of sufficient length to hold fastened flush against the face of the forms so that the the forms securely in position during the concrete centre of the key is at the mid-depth of the base or edge placing. any concrete is placed. strength and so secured as to resist the pressure of the More-stringent tolerances are required for superflat concrete when placed.5 m apart. 6. However.8 Forms shall be cleaned and coated with forms for alignment. and continuity of line.2. for smaller n a cement/sand mortar bed of proportions 1 cement: projects or where the forms are not to be reused.2. the 6. The conditions of tendering should include the requirement that details of the type and quantity of 6. adequately staked to prevent movement during and the top surface of the form shall not vary from a placing. compacting and finishing operations. COMMENTARY This clause may be deleted if All wedges.1. bends or kinks. the forms 6. as being representative of what can be achieved 6. and the impact and vibration floors.6 Forming strips for the keyway of construction or contraction joints. and not less than 200 mm long. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. shall be securely 6. Chapter this requirement may be waived and unprotected timber forms permitted.3 The form face shall be vertical and not vary more than 6 mm from the required alignment. so that the top of the form does not deviate by more than 3 mm from the required level. control of pavement level and flatness.1. contraction or construction joints.2.5 m and in contact over their full area surface of timber forms to provide a smooth and with both the form and the subbase. compacting and finishing of the concrete. COMMENTARY It is important that the forms are 6.1.2.com] @ 2018-06-21 6 FORMWORK 6.1 Forms shall be of steel or seasoned.1.5 The method of connection between form Contractor should employ a surveyor for setting out sections shall be such that the joints do not move in and checking the forms.5 Form sections shall be tightly locked together.1.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. be maintained tight during placing. 6. not more than 1.5 m is appropriate but it need not be mandatory.2) and 6 mm in alignment 6. approval is given to place concrete. Forms shall extend the full depth of the base and if of composite timber/steel n approved hardwood or steel shims or plates of construction.3) may also be varied if deemed to prevent any overturning or rocking when the forms appropriate.1.1.2 Form Setting 6.2. continuity and rigidity.2.3 The base width of the form shall be sufficient (Clause 6. without springing or It is suggested that for projects requiring stringent settlement. width equal to the base width of the forms. level and gradient across the joint is maintained.1 Forms 6. or durable datum for screeding by incorporating a steel angle or channel.4 Forms shall be of such cross-section and with good-quality workmanship in the field.7 Where dowels or tie bars are required in expansion.9 All forms shall be approved prior to commencement of concreting operations. COMMENTARY The supervisor should check the 6.2 Forms shall be free of warps. Experience indicates that the figure of 3-m straightedge placed along the top edge by more 1. be fabricated to provide a flush form face. 3 sand.2. The form setting tolerances of 3 mm in level (Clause 6. Alternatively the forms may be seated on: section along the top edge. where required. These values have been established have been pinned and are in use. thickening. installed at intervals not COMMENTARY It is desirable to protect the top exceeding 1. 3 forms intended to be used are to be provided.1. any direction.

1 A template shall be used for checking the the forms shall remain in place for a longer period as shape and level of the subbase. 6. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. during form removal shall be repaired promptly by an waste concrete and other debris at all times.4 The subbase shall be dampened (but not saturated) and kept damp prior to placing concrete.martella@jacobs. The use of blended cements may also influence form stripping times. be designed to operate from the side forms or the concrete in adjacent panels. 6. A period of 48 hours should be specified.3. shall not be used as a lever against the concrete in removing the forms.4.5.6.4. Some contractors have found that hand trowelling of the surface of the concrete adjacent to the form enhances the strength of the concrete edge.2 The subbase shall be tested with an approved template as detailed in Clause 6.2 When conditions on the work are such that the early strength development of the concrete is delayed. Bars or other tools subbase surface.3 Forms shall be removed without damaging the 300-mm intervals. and shall be of such COMMENTARY The condition most likely to strength and rigidity that the deflection at the centre of contribute to delayed early strength development the template is not more than 3 mm. 70 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . COMMENTARY This clause is not applicable when concrete is placed directly over an impermeable material (eg polythene vapour barrier) or a material of relatively low permeability (eg bituminous sealed surface or lean-mix concrete). 6. 6. An absolute minimum period of eight hours is recommended.4 Any damage to the concrete occurring 6. and set to the required profile of the concrete.1 Forms shall remain in place for at least (…) hours after the concrete has been placed. COMMENTARY The appropriate time for the stripping of forms will vary according to the environment and the type of concrete used. This requirement may be specified in Clause 9. The template shall directed. common paving practice is to place concrete one day and to strip the forms on the following day.com] @ 2018-06-21 6. setting of the forms) shall be finished to the required profile of the bottom of the base as shown in the drawings. however. 6. 6.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.4. is cold weather.5. until the concrete is in place.5 Form Removal 6.3 Template for Checking Subbase 6. dowel bars or tie bars. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.5.4.5. reducing the risk of damage during form removal and subsequent construction works.3 and trimmed as necessary.3 The subbase shall be maintained in a smooth. and (after approved method. Chapter 3 6.1 The subbase shall be free of foreign matter.4 Subbase 6. compacted condition in conformity with the required profile and level.3.2 Scratch templates shall be provided with teeth projecting downward to the subbase at not more that 6.

3 Placing Tolerances Unless shown otherwise in the drawings.2 Laying concrete or plastic. protective packaging. not acceptable as these methods provide no assurance that the reinforcement will end up in a true plane at the required level. Chairs. or walking before the concrete is placed.com] @ 2018-06-21 7 underlay membrane 8 PLACING AND FIXING REINFORCEMENT If no vapour barrier or damp-proofing membrane is specified. not less than 200 mm. the reinforcement shall be fixed and maintained in its correct position within the tolerances specified in AS 3600. spacers and stools used as supports for Chapter 3 reinforcement shall be purpose made of metal. aggregate. or otherwise damaged at any time. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. these clauses will not be required. properties are unaffected by its exposure. compaction and lapped as recommended by the manufacturer. handling and storing of the underlay shall ensure that it is not 8.1 Storage in the drawings. Scrap pieces of wood. The underlay shall be laid over the levelled and brick or the like shall not be used. Any punctures or tears the mesh in from the surface of the concrete. Laps and other details shall comply The underlay shall be delivered to the site in suitable with AS 3600.2. so that its specified supports.2 Fixing punctured. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 71 . 8. compacted subbase.3 Repairing of Membrane mesh on the subbase or subgrade and hooking The membrane shall be inspected after laying and into position after concrete is placed.2 The supports shall be adequate to withstand width to suit the layout shall be used and shall be construction traffic and shall be sufficient in number arranged such that overlaps face away from the and spacing to maintain the reinforcement in its correct direction of concrete placement.martella@jacobs. Sheets of maximum practical 8. The sheets shall be position during the concrete placing. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. COMMENTARY The practices of laying reinforcing 7. torn.1 Reinforcement shall be placed and securely The underlay material shall have sufficient resistance to held in its correct position by the use of approved sunlight and associated radiation. are shall be patched and sealed.2. 8. 7. 8. The packaging.1 Placing Reinforcement shall be placed in the locations shown 7.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. but finishing operations.

COMMENTARY AS 1379 52 requires that concrete 9. Also.1 Concrete shall be placed within 90 minutes 9. and in such a way tolerance for slump given in the following table.4 There shall be no addition of water or any from the time of batching. supplier if the concrete is of such consistency. placed and compacted without the addition of excess COMMENTARY This does not prevent the water to the mix. low humidity. after COMMENTARY The intent of this clause is to 90 minutes has elapsed. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.1 The concrete shall be transported from the COMMENTARY AS 1379 states that the concrete delivery vehicle to its final position as rapidly as shall be deemed to comply with the specified possible by a means which will prevent segregation or slump. but this stiffening of the concrete. or before if the consistency other material to the concrete by the contractor at the of the concrete is such that it cannot be properly site without approval. that proper placing and compaction of the concrete will not be adversely affected.com] @ 2018-06-21 9 PLACING. A figure of of excess water to the mixer. Permissible tolerance on slump (after AS 137952) 9.3. Any concrete placed Concreting 54 for precautions to be taken when without approval shall be demolished and removed placing concrete at ambient temperature below from the works at the Contractor's expense. compacted and finished. to enable the Section 13.1 Approval ambient temperatures below 10°C or above 30°C The Contractor shall give at least 24 hours notice of his special precautions shall be taken in accordance with intention to place concrete in any area. In hot-weather 20 m3 per hour is considered a reasonable rate for conditions or under conditions contributing to early manual placing methods with one crew.1 and Table 1. less than 90 minutes may figure may be adjusted to take into account the be available to adequately place and compact the anticipated environmental conditions and supply concrete. >110 ≤150 ±30 >150 ±40 9.2. that it can be properly ensure that placing proceeds at a reasonable rate placed and compacted without the addition and that no 'cold joints' are formed.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. the limit arrangements.2. if the measured slump is within the loss of materials or contamination. or plant and equipment defects will be discharged from truck mixers within 90 minutes prevent the requirements of this specification being met.3.2 The temperature of the concrete as delivered shall be not less than 5°C nor more than 35°C. Conversely in cold conditions. It also states that this limitation may be and labour force shall be capable of maintaining this waived by agreement between the customer and rate.2 The contractor is required to notify the Specified slump (mm) Tolerance (mm) concrete manufacturer when a concrete mix is required to be placed by pumping. in AS 1379. For 9.3 Placing Restrictions 9. equipment first. refer to CCAA Data Sheets on Unless approval is given no concrete shall be placed Hot-Weather Concreting 53 and Cold-Weather in that section of the works. checked and approved prior to COMMENTARY The limits shown are those given commencement of placing. or before proper placement and compaction of the concrete can 9. wind.3. The time limitation may be waived manufacturer from adding water in accordance by agreement if the concrete can still be satisfactorily with the requirements given in AS 1379. whichever occurs not less than 20 m3 per hour and the plant.3.6 Placing at each location shall be at a rate of no longer be accomplished. rain. 10°C or above 30°C. 72 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . area to be inspected. 9. Transporting the <60 ±10 concrete by pumping shall not relieve the Contractor ≥60 ≤80 ±15 of his obligation to satisfy the requirements for the >80 ≤110 ±20 concrete as set out in Clause 4.3.2 Delivery 9. 9. of the commencement of mixing. COMPACTING AND FINISHING 9.3 The concrete shall not be placed if the slump Chapter 3 is outside the specified limits. placed. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.3.5 Concrete shall not be placed when heat.martella@jacobs. may be extended.

The with shovels.5. The number of vibrators on site in continuously between forms and/or construction joints full working order shall be not less than one per 7 m3 and in such a manner that a plastic concrete face of concrete placed per hour.1.5.2.5. n For pavements over 200 mm thick.4.5. profile using a vibrating beam. 9. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.1 All concrete.5.5 Concrete placing shall be carried out mm from the head.2 The concrete shall be placed so that its Chapter 8 of the Guide to Concrete Construction14. specifiers be used to supplement the compaction adjacent to the do not permit eating. Where no construction 9.3 Workers shall not be permitted to walk in the 9.6. to produce noticeable vibrations at a distance of 300 9. joints which may be required shall be approved. construction joints shall neither be relocated held in reserve at all times.5. Vibrators shall not be 9.4 The internal vibrators shall be operated so as concrete mix.4 to 9.7 If an interval of more than 30 minutes between A guide to the most appropriate method can be placing of any two consecutive loads of concrete summarised as follows: should occur.4 Placing vibration may not be sufficient to compact 9.2 Pavements up to 200 mm thick shall be concrete during placing with boots coated with soil or compacted and screeded to the required surface other deleterious substances. the n Internal vibration should be used adjacent to all base thickness. including that adjacent to forms or direction of placing. 9. and internal as to require a minimum of rehandling and shall be vibration is required.5. distributed so that when consolidated and finished. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 73 . drinking or smoking near side forms and at construction joints in accordance concrete placement and/or in internal areas to with Clauses 9.4.5.3 or construction joints. minimise the risk of concrete contamination. Clause 14. and normal to the 9. surface 9.5) shall be installed. and the Contractor shall is maintained.4 appropriate to the specific project should be for rejection of the placed concrete in accordance with selected.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.1 Concrete shall be deposited in such a manner the concrete over its full depth. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. Vibrators shall be inserted and withdrawn relocation of construction joints or the inclusion of vertically.5. The duration of vibration shall be sufficient to additional ones.4 Hand spreading of concrete shall be done be initially compacted using internal vibrators.4. shall be compacted by mechanical the width of the base and in such a manner as to vibration through the use of internal vibrators and/or minimise segregation.5 The vibrators shall be inserted into the joints are shown in the drawings. It shall be placed uniformly over existing concrete. vibration of concrete adjacent to side forms and The relevant clauses from the options 9. Internal vibrators shall COMMENTARY In some instances. not rakes. concrete shall then be screeded to the required COMMENTARY Vibrators should not be used to surface profile using a vibrating beam. The Supervisor should consult pattern at a spacing to ensure full compaction over the the Designer before giving any approval to the entire base.5.martella@jacobs.4. The designer and specifier should also refer to Chapter 3 9. vibrating-beam screeds as detailed herein. but not longer than 30 seconds in any one location.4. 9.4. drawings will be obtained.6 Particular attention shall be paid to the employed is dependent on the pavement thickness. the location of any concrete to such depth as will provide full compaction.5. The vibrators shall be operated by quickly construction joints is critical to the functioning inserting and slowly withdrawing them in a uniform of the pavement. produce satisfactory compaction. working face is generally vertical. spread concrete as it causes segregation of the 9. nor eliminated without approval.com] @ 2018-06-21 9.3 Pavements greater than 200 mm thick shall 9.4. 150 mm thick. COMMENTARY The method of compaction to be 9. Where their location is shown in the ensure that at least one vibrator in working order is drawings. surface shape and level shown in the construction joints and edges.4. Any honeycombing will be grounds 9. but no deeper than 50 mm above the surface of the COMMENTARY The proper location of subbase.3.3 and 11.5 Compacting used for spreading concrete. paving operations shall cease and n Internal (immersion) vibrators are not suitable a transverse construction joint (in accordance with for compacting floors and pavements less than Clauses 11.

5 to process and must be applied at the time 1.0 m per minute. However.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. the requirement for surface be brought to the final specified level prior the maintenance of a ridge of concrete for this first to the commencement of any finishing operations.5. immediately after initial finishing will limit evaporation of water and reduce plastic shrinkage cracking in hot weather conditions. and broomed finishes.com] @ 2018-06-21 9. and. They shall be at least 300 mm longer than the or a combination of these materials. or the spraying of free from observable departure from the straightedge. Projections above the concrete to assist in finishing operations shall not required level shall also be struck-off and refinished. 9.71 Following the second pass of the vibrating be maintained along the beam. COMMENTARY The sequence of finishing The straightedge shall be advanced along the operations may be varied to suit the particular pavement in successive stages of not more than one pavement application. the surface by trowelling is required prior to the 9.6. The second pass is to screed the surface and this will generally be achieved by the vibrating and give as uniform a finish as possible. Floating must not be considered as a method of correcting gross inaccuracies in level or profile. windy 9. for filling depressions shall have all stones larger 9. Generally.6 Finishing surface. permitted.7 Levelling Chapter 3 On the second pass only a slight roll of concrete shall 9.5.2 The addition of water to the surface of the than nominal 20 mm removed. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. a recommended by the product supplier.5 The straightedge testing and finishing shall conditions the application of water to the surface in continue until the entire surface of the concrete is the form of a fog.1 Finishing operations comprising levelling. 9. shall commence with a 3-m straightedge held in successive positions following compaction of the concrete. in hot weather or dry. will satisfy the surface requirements COMMENTARY Spraying with aliphatic alcohol specified in Section 15. and shall be parallel and at right angles to the centreline of the completed as soon as possible in the appropriate pavement and in contact with the surface. 9.6.8 Two passes shall be made with the beam over category as they form part of the construction each section of the base at a rate of between 0. 9. Concrete used texturing will not be required. the float shall be used to smooth and fill in open-textured areas in the pavement 9. Refer to Hot Weather Concreting (Section 10 in Chapter 2). or the concrete to soak up surface moisture.3 No material shall be applied to the surface of beams made of extruded aluminium or steel. so it should be as slow as possible and the operated.7 Vibrating beams shall incorporate double 9. During the first pass of the beam.5. beam. floors or for decorative effect do not fall into this 9.4 Any depressions found during straightedge application of surface textures such as wood float checking shall be filled with freshly-mixed concrete. uniform ridge of concrete about 50 mm deep shall be maintained ahead of the beam over its entire length.6. pass.7. or fine mist spray. surface struck-off.7. long-handed float. 74 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . whole area covered as necessary to detect variations. compacted and refinished. Dry-shake width of the panel being compacted. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.7. beam must remain in contact with the concrete COMMENTARY It is important that the concrete over its entire width. For many floors. and the sequence/time. the surface with an approved aliphatic alcohol may be conforms to the required grade and shape.3 The surface shall also be tested for trueness floating. metal‑shod timber sections with edges at least 75 mm COMMENTARY This applies to cement. 9. stone-dust wide.9 The vibrating action of the beam shall be stopped whenever the beam is stationary. beam.2 When necessary. compaction of half the length of the straightedge.martella@jacobs.7. be permitted. and equipped materials incorporating special aggregates which with handles to allow the assembly to be drawn over are utilised to improve the abrasion resistance of the concrete surface from outside the forms. minor irregularities and score marks in the COMMENTARY The first pass compacts the surface shall be eliminated by means of a hand- base. Hence. when hardened. trowelling and texturing.

9. surface of small areas unable to be covered by mechanical equipment and along edges.3 Broom texturing.8. it should not be commenced until the may be three hours or more after the concrete is excess moisture brought to the surface during placed. pattern over the entire surface of the concrete to In many light to heavy industrial situations. increased to match the concrete stiffness. commence until the surface is sufficiently hard to resist COMMENTARY Clauses 9. The broom shall A practical test to check the readiness for each be drawn across the full width of the base in a series trowelling operation is to place the palm of a gloved of overlapping strokes. rapidly and it is important that concrete is not the practical test described above may be used.8 Floating trowelling is started too early.9. it is specified.10.9. If Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 75 . only one should be used for COMMENTARY The power trowelling is any section of the pavement. natural material.com] @ 2018-06-21 9. the surface not prevent the use of hand trowelling to finish the shall be provided with a (…) texture.5 displacement under the action of the trowel. 9.3 are is not commenced until the concrete has stiffened complied with. and the surface If the tilt on the blades is too great. sufficiently.3 Floating shall be undertaken in a regular trowelling to be made.2 Texturing shall not commence whilst the condition of the concrete is such that the surface could 9. The small blades can be slightly 9.3.4 Subsequent trowelling shall not commence COMMENTARY It is important that power-floating until the provisions of Clauses 9. In cold weather.10.2 Floating shall not commence until all surplus depends on the concrete stiffness but as large a moisture has been removed or has evaporated tilt as possible to suit the surface should be used). Again. Trowelling shall not whilst there is free water on the surface.9. are alternative clauses. 9.4 and 9. 9. placed at a greater rate than that at which it can be The tilt of the trowel blades should be gradually properly power-floated and trowelled. the produce a closed and level surface. not provide adequate skid resistance if subject to COMMENTARY A power trowel is similar to a frequent traffic. This clause shall 9.10. Some heavy-duty floors may require a third power 9.9 Trowelling This finish may provide a limited degree of 9. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. the trowel blades will leave ridges.10.2 and 9. from the surface of the concrete.9.10 Surface Texturing tilted during trowelling operations. The waiting time before power trowelling also Brooms shall be at least 500 mm wide with bristles of depends on both the concrete mix and the weather. the concrete may stiffen the first power trowelling has evaporated. especially when damp. The time interval before the initial power-floating can commence depends on the COMMENTARY Where a second power trowelling concrete mix and the weather. commenced when the excess moisture brought to the surface by initial power floating has largely 9. or surface has been power floated. Chapter 3 action of the float. the concrete is not ready for trowelling.8.2 Trowelling shall commence after the be torn and coarse aggregate particles displaced.3 The blades of the trowel shall be tilted such COMMENTARY The power float shall be used for that maximum pressure is applied without leaving the initial power-floating operations only. hard-wearing surface.10. 9. the concrete is sufficiently hard to resist displacement under the surface will be marked. base may be directly finished by power or hand trowelling to give a dense.9. surface. but may approved powered mechanical equipment. surface is undertaken in a systematic pattern with the trowel blades set at a slight angle (the angle 9. nylon or flexible wire. If the mortar sticks shall be uniform in appearance and approximately (…) to the palm when the hand is taken away from the mm in depth without disfiguring marks. The marks in the base surface hand on the concrete surface.9. ridges on the surface of the concrete. 9. power float but fitted with small individual steel trowel blades. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.9. Refer to Clause 9. In hot weather. base shall be broomed in a direction perpendicular to the direction of placing or as shown in the drawings.martella@jacobs.1 Floating shall be undertaken using approved powered mechanical equipment. The whole surface of the evaporated and the concrete has lost its stickiness.1 Trowelling shall be undertaken using protection against the penetration of oil.8.10.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. The subsequent operation of trowelling should be COMMENTARY The first power trowelling of the carried out with a power trowel.1 Following finishing of the concrete.

The surface shall be strength and wear resistance improve with age as textured by means of a mechanical tining device which long as conditions are favourable for continued produces grooves in the plastic concrete. or moist curing.martella@jacobs. at least 1 m.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. It follows that concrete should be protected so that moisture is not lost during the early hardening period. The width of the tines shall n the presence of moisture be not less than 2 mm nor greater than 3 mm and they n a favourable temperature. temperatures are low.1 Concrete shall be cured by protection against achieved by applying extra force to the broom. 10. Loss of the proposed method of achieving the required texture water also causes concrete to shrink.1.5 The sides of panels exposed by the removal of forms shall be cured by one of the methods detailed herein. Curing shall comprise be textured by dragging hessian longitudinally over initial curing followed by either membrane curing. 76 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . a grooved surface may the concrete temperature is near freezing point. rapid at an early age. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.1. The surface shall of the finishing operations. assist in improving traction for vehicles. there is practically no Where surfaces are likely to experience soil or other chemical action between cement and water when waste material deposits. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. Drags shall be kept clean and free from Note that longer curing periods (ie 7 days) are Chapter 3 encrusted mortar. The drag shall comprise a seamless. a coarser texture can be 10. If tensile stresses less than (…) mm nor more than (…) mm.10. the full width of the base to produce a uniform. gritty impermeable sheet curing.1. beneficial as the properties of concrete such as 9. To improve traction in ramped or inclined areas. 10. can cause the hydration process to stop. 10.2 Before concrete placing commences. all equipment needed for adequate curing of the concrete shall be on hand and checked to be ready for use. The tines hydration of the cement. texture. Details of this proposed Evaporation of water from newly-placed concrete device shall be submitted for approval and.com] @ 2018-06-21 COMMENTARY For most pavements.6 in Chapter 1. but continues more slowly approximately 0. The texture depth shall be not tensile stresses at the surface. 10.3 Curing shall commence as soon as practicable. The improvement is shall be rectangular shaped and of flat spring steel. COMMENTARY Grooved texturing is necessary only for pavements where traffic speeds in excess Hydration proceeds at a much slower rate when of 80 km/h are anticipated or for ramped areas.1. and that concrete should be kept above freezing point.5 Grooved texturing. two-layer COMMENTARY The minimum curing period should strip of damp hessian which is in continuous contact be specified as either 3 or 7 days depending on with the base over its full width and over a length of the exposure classification Table 1. if required. shall be spaced between 8 and 21 mm apart in an approved random pattern.1 General be applied to the surface. surface cracking may result. but no more than three hours after completion of the finishing operations or stripping of formwork (if this occurs within the required curing period).10. develop before the concrete has attained adequate strength. no additional 10 CURING force other than the self weight of the broom need 10.6 mm thick and of a uniform length thereafter.1.4 Hessian-drag texturing.4 Failure to comply with the specified curing requirements shall be cause for immediate suspension of concreting operations. The required conditions are: between 100 and 150 mm. loss of moisture and rapid temperature changes for a period of not less than (…) days from the completion 9. thus creating shall be demonstrated.

2 The spraying device shall be equipped with 10.3). If any initial drying has occurred.1. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. The spray nozzle shall wet and in intimate contact with the base edges and be provided with a suitable wind guard. Clause 10. that may cause staining of the surface or affect the concrete properties.3.1. suitable bunds shall be provided completed and until the membrane.8.3. 10. approved material. COMMENTARY Where chemically compatible with individual curing compounds. For this reason.6 The use of covering material that contains or 10. to cover the entire width and faces of the and operated as to completely and uniformly cover the concrete base.com] @ 2018-06-21 10. surface treatment or coating which is to the forms and entire surface of the newly-laid concrete be subsequently applied should be checked (see shall be covered with wet hessian mats.2.1 or 10. The commonly as a retardation of setting and water level shall be maintained to ensure the concrete hardening characteristics. 10. eg moist curing. Chapter 3 curing has been applied.3.3. anchor the mats to ensure that they remain in place in Spraying pressure shall be sufficient to produce a windy conditions.3. initial curing shall be used to prevent placing and finishing operations.2 Ponding with water becomes contaminated with sugar in any form. The likelihood of satisfactory bonding of any has set sufficiently to prevent damaging the surface.4 Sprayed Membrane Curing curing may be necessary to protect the exposed surface. 10. be commenced immediately after finishing due to the risk of surface damage. as noted in the concrete surface from drying out prior to the Clause 13. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.3 The curing compound shall be sprayed 10.4. surface does not become exposed and dry out due to evaporation or other water loss.3. the surface of the concrete shall be 10.3 The water used and any material used shall be kept continuously damp by means of a water for perimeter bunds shall be clean and free of any fog or mist applied with approved equipment.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. generally efficient in terms of moisture retention but can provide a slippery surface. tannic 10.3. Provision shall be made to securely surface with the required amount of curing compound.2.2 should be COMMENTARY Wax-based curing compounds are used for the selected method of moist curing.1.3. The mats shall be kept continuously completely with a uniform film.3 Moist Curing moistened with a spray of water. surface for the duration of the specified curing period.1 As soon as possible after the finishing acid. the use of white pigments or coloured fugitive dyes are effective Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 77 . it is simply a complying with the requirements of AS 3799.1 Covering with hessian is recommended that they not be used when the 10.1. Where temporary moisture-retention facility for use during required.1 As soon as possible after the finishing pavement is to be subject to early foot or vehicular operations have been completed and the concrete traffic.martella@jacobs. it 10. The mats shall overlap each other fine spray and cover the surface thoroughly and at least 150 mm.4.1 The entire exposed surface of the concrete including edges shall be uniformly coated with an The use of a sprayed film of aliphatic alcohol is approved liquid membrane-forming curing compound not a part of the curing process. initial 10. contaminants that may cause staining of the surface or COMMENTARY As some curing methods cannot affect the concrete properties.2 Hessian mats shall have sufficient width. 10.2.2 Where there are no upturns around the Immediately after the finishing operations have been perimeter of the slab. ponding with water.3.2. COMMENTARY Contaminated curing covers water shall be ponded over the surface so as not generally affect the surface of the concrete.2 Initial Curing 10. has set sufficiently to prevent damaging the surface. The curing compound Common methods of moist curing include covering shall be applied to the finished surfaces by means of with hessian and continuously spraying with water or an approved mechanical spraying device.3.5. or any other substance considered detrimental to operations have been completed and the concrete portland cement concrete shall not be permitted. application of the curing compound. or other Clause 4. particularly in adverse weather conditions. sheet or moist to retain the water. after a spraying nozzle or nozzles that can be so controlled shrinkage.4. to leave any of the concrete surface exposed. the surface of the concrete 10.3 The hessian and the water used to keep the uniformly at the rate recommended by the hessian damp shall be clean and free of any material manufacturer to achieve compliance with AS 3799. topping.

COMMENTARY The most commonly used 11. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.6 In the event of failure to achieve the required joint. details displacement or billowing by wind.2. 500 mm and the lapped edges securely tied or 11. either moist curing or impermeable sheet from the straightedge by more than the tolerances curing shall be immediately used.1 All joints shall conform to the details. a 3-m straightedge placed at right angles across the 10.3 Isolation joints shall be formed about as the condition of the concrete is such that the structures and features that project through. Sawn contraction joints will be permitted only where 78 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . 10. the surfaces of adjacent panels shall not vary coverage. 11.4. or an approved regular combination of the two.2 Isolation and Expansion Joints 10. If any initial drying concrete with approved adhesive.3 Joints shall be plumb and when tested with stopped.3.3 Contraction Joints repaired immediately. and held in line has occurred. Dowels folded down over the side of the pavement edges.com] @ 2018-06-21 in reducing temperature variations near the base 11 JOINTS surface. attached to the hardened the impermeable curing sheets. 11. or sawn joints.4.1. be straight. Any damage that might reduce in accordance with the details shown in the drawings.4.1. such as clear polyethylene. continuously weighted. against the base. shall be resprayed by the method and otherwise in the drawings. wherein a groove is sawn in the hardened concrete.5.5. The sheeting should be placed as soon 11. The strips of filler shall surface from drying out prior to the application of be fitted tightly together.4 Expansion joints shall incorporate dowels or weighted down along their full length to prevent other approved load transfer devices of the type. and continuous from edge to edge of 10.2 Transverse and longitudinal joints shall affected areas within 30 minutes. Sheets shall be and at the centres detailed on the drawings. wherein a groove effective curing may be rejected at any time. Adjacent sheets shall overlap not less than structure and the pavement base. the surface of the concrete shall be to ensure continuity and prevent any concrete from moistened with a spray of water. and that will be free from pin holes and other in Chapter 1. be constructed in the locations shown in the drawings. shall comply with the requirements of Clause 11.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. except where shown been applied.2 The curing sheets shall be in pieces large and width as indicated. pin holes or abrasions exist. is formed in the plastic concrete. and installed in such a manner enough to cover the entire width and edges of the as to form a complete. the serviceability and effectiveness of the sheets as a curing medium shall be prevented.5 Concrete surfaces that are subjected to heavy the pavement throughout all long panels that are rainfall within 3 hours after the curing compound has connected in a single area. thickness 10.2.3.5. and shall be constructed specified curing period.1 General uniform coverage. and shall 10. Tears and holes appearing in sheets during the curing period shall be 11. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.4 The curing compound shall form a uniform. specified in Section 15. into or surface will not be marked or damaged.1 The entire exposed surface of the concrete 11.2 Isolation and expansion joints shall be sealed impermeable covering is waterproof plastic along the top surface and any exposed sides at the sheeting. an additional coat shall be applied to the 11.2 Transverse contraction joints shall be that do not provide a continuous cover as required for constructed as either tooled joints. uniform separation between the base. Where required.5. cohesive film that will not crack or COMMENTARY Typical joint details are provided peel. entering the joint.martella@jacobs.2. continuous. imperfections.5 Impermeable-sheet Curing 11. Chapter 3 at the coverage specified above after the rain has 11. using joint filler of the type.3 The sheets shall remain in place for the entire weakened-plane or key type.1 Isolation and expansion joints shall be formed including edges shall be covered with approved by means of an approved preformed filler material impermeable curing sheets. Curing sheets 11.2.1 Transverse contraction joints shall be of the 10.1. If discontinuities. and in providing for a visual check of 11. initial which shall be installed only after the concrete on one curing shall be used to prevent the concrete face of the joint has hardened. or its edges of the pavement. equivalent. and secured.

cut shall be between one quarter and one third of the base depth unless otherwise approved or indicated in 11.11. 11.4.9 Before sawing a joint. If this action and at any other points within a pavement when is sufficiently deep to cause structural weakness concrete placing is interrupted for 30 minutes or longer. access to one approved concrete saw in working order COMMENTARY Where a crack occurs ahead of at all times for sawing of contraction joints in the event the sawcut. The actual In continuously reinforced pavements.3. usually as a result of sawing too late.4. COMMENTARY In jointed pavement construction. and in the joints shall commence as early as possible and accordance with the details shown in the drawings. to the works and conducting trials to evaluate the extent of chipping. 11. tooled and key type shall be straight from edge to edge of the panels and contraction joints are discussed in detail in shall not vary more than 15 mm from the true joint Chapter 1. The sawn faces of 11. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 79 . be carried out when the concrete has hardened and Clause 11. In these instances the proposed joint shall be relocated away from the crack and remedial treatment Chapter 3 11.4 or 11.3 Transverse construction joints shall be joints shall be inspected for undercutting or erosion installed at the end of each day's placing operations of the concrete due to early sawing.3. Sawing shall be discontinued if a contraction joints are used. Where the drawings. sufficiently to permit cutting without excessive chipping. the joint shall not be sawn either Clauses 11.5. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.1 Longitudinal construction joints shall be 11. on ambient conditions. If. it may be suitable to rout the crack weakened-plane joint of the dimensions shown in the to receive a field-moulded sealant. will decide which type to use.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. however. 11.2 Dowels or tie bars shall be installed in uncontrolled cracking of the pavement. depending provided as shown in the drawings. or cleaning difficulty. overnight if necessary. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. it may be necessary to inject the at the prescribed joint location immediately following crack with a suitable epoxy compound and then screeding operations. The depth of the remedial action is necessary. this clause must be re-written and examined closely for cracks. only one type of contraction joint is to be permitted for a 11. what type. spalling or tearing.martella@jacobs.4 Transverse construction joints at the end of delayed. location of a planned transverse control or isolation Adequate provision shall be made to permit sawing joint.4 Construction Joints the drawings. spalling or tearing. on the length. and resumed as soon as the sawing can each day's placing operation shall be installed at the be continued without damaging the concrete panel. of delays in finishing that preclude the construction of remedial measures may be required – depending a formed joint in the plastic concrete. The saw cut disadvantages of sawn.5 Sawn joints shall be constructed by sawing a Each crack of this type should be considered groove not less than 3 mm and not more than 5 mm in individually before deciding whether or not width for the entire depth of the cut. and shall be such as to prevent 11.3.3.4.3.4. 'end-of-day' time will be dependent on the characteristics of the joints should be constructed by using header mix and the environmental conditions prevailing boards with the reinforcement continued through after placing.3 Irrespective of whether or not formed may be required. the Contractor shall have crack develops ahead of the saw cut. 11. direction and linearity of the crack. the concrete shall be specific project. a joint. or night regardless of ambient conditions.7 The joints shall be sawn in the sequence of operations are carried out as required during the day the concrete placement.com] @ 2018-06-21 sufficient standby machines are available and sawing 11. COMMENTARY The appropriate time for sawing 'end-of-day' joints should be constructed at the is best assessed by casting test panels adjacent planned location of contraction or isolation joints.3.9 if a crack has occurred near the location chosen for omitted. This clause assumes that the Contractor alignment. See Figure 1.3. The groove shall be formed by pressing an crack is considerably skewed in relation to the approved steel cutting device into the plastic concrete intended joint line.8 A chalk line or other suitable guide shall be COMMENTARY The advantages and used to mark the alignment of the joint. the sawing operation shall be 11.4 Formed joints shall be constructed by forming Where the crack closely follows the intended a vertical groove in the plastic concrete to provide a joint line. Sawing of longitudinal construction joints as required by. complete the initial saw cut later. and if so.3.6 The time of sawing shall be varied. the joint.3.3.5 through 11.

5 When concrete placement is interrupted for 11. after removal of the successive saw cuts so that a check can be made of formwork the part of the dowel that is to be free to the alignment of the joint edge. or to assist in form stripping. joint space is free from concrete.8 All dowels and tie bars intended to be Dowels shall be correctly aligned and securely held cast into the concrete shall be clean and free of oil. COMMENTARY Dowels and tie bars located 11. and protrusions of hardened concrete are removed bar or plate) shall be installed into the sleeves and the from the sides and upper edges so that the entire exposed side cast into the second-placed panel.1 Dowels and tie bars shall be prepared and from their specified alignment.5 Dowels and Tie Bars dowels do not deviate by more than 3 mm in 300 mm 11. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. and excess concrete removed. as specified in the top of sawn joints.6 Joint Sealing 11.2 Tie bars shall be placed by the bonded-in. When a construction joint is installed 11.5.3 Dowels shall either be placed by the bonded. the groove shall be washed out between the bonded-in-place method. between planned joints). after removal of the formwork the dowels (rod. and may cause a corner crack to be construct a transverse construction joint shall be ready developed due to the restraint. beginning longitudinal joints shall not be located closer than with the first regularly scheduled transverse joint. When concrete placing is resumed. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. Installation by removing and replacing n formed joints which are sealed as part of the tie bars in preformed holes. Where multiple in-place method or have the PVC sleeve fitted to cuts are necessary to saw the groove to the specified the formwork of the first-placed panel.4. the Chapter 3 11. Omit these clauses if: place method. including their withdrawal jointing operation are specified exclusively.5. placed across joints where indicated in the drawings.1 Widening of sawn joints At the end of the tie bars to be hammered into the wet concrete or curing period and immediately prior to joint sealing preformed holes. the base (but only within the middle third of its length n Vertical location. loose rust and other foreign material when the placing and finishing operations. bond‑breaking compound or covered with a sleeve 11. concrete is placed to permit maximum bonding with COMMENTARY Dowels permit horizontal the concrete.5.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. or cannot be continued due to and tie bars shall be as specified in the drawings.2 Sealant installation Immediately before the and have an expansion cap or space provided at the installation of the sealer. be constructed so as not to permit movement in except that where the planned spacing cannot be accordance with the details shown in the drawings. operations.5. not to permit movement.6.5 The spacing of dowels and tie bars in within a panel and between movement joints it shall longitudinal construction joints shall be as indicated. 300 mm (horizontally) to a transverse joint. ± 10 mm. a groove for the joint sealer shall be sawn 11.4 The spacing and vertical location of dowels 30 minutes or longer. a following tolerances shall not be exceeded: transverse construction joint may be installed within n Horizontal location. The equipment failure or adverse weather conditions. Plate COMMENTARY This is an 'emergency' joint which dowels shall be located no closer than 150 mm to can be constructed mid-panel and it is designed transverse joints. n joint sealing is not required. 11. If sleeves are placed in the first-placed water jet until all laitance. maintained because of form length or interference with A transverse construction joint within a concrete base form braces.5.martella@jacobs. 11. dirt. shall not be permitted.6 Round and square dowels and tie bars in planned joint spacing shall be maintained. concrete.6 One complete set of formwork stakes.7 The method used to hold dowels in position shall be sufficiently rigid to ensure that individual 11. movement of panels at joints while tie bars hold panels together without movement at the joint.5. at the site of placing at all times. If installed by dimensions. dowels close to a transverse joint may restrict functioning and/or tie bars and other equipment necessary to of the joint.5.com] @ 2018-06-21 11. The sides of the sawn move in the concrete shall be coated with an approved groove shall be parallel. the joints shall be thoroughly end of the dowel (for expansion joints) prior to placing cleaned using compressed air or high-pressure concrete.4. ± 10 mm. COMMENTARY It is poor practice for dowels or 11. closer spacing with additional dowels or shall not incorporate a groove at the surface of the tie bars shall be used. filler panel. 11. curing compound.6.5. parallel to the surface of the finished base during grease. dust and other 80 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .

and 14 days for compressed condition. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.4. Upon completion of the new concrete and on the same day. trafficking of pavements by tracked or solid-wheeled construction equipment shall be permitted only if protective matting. the surface of concrete on which equipment has operated. steel plates.3 Access for Concrete Placing Operation of concrete transport vehicles or other equipment will be permitted on the previously constructed pavements after the concrete has reached a sufficient strength to adequately support the loads. or timbers are provided. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 81 .Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. such as cellular rubber associated with each particular project. and n all foreign matter including aggregates and concrete are progressively and continuously removed from the area over which traffic is moving. The joint sealer shall be set flush or damage prior to final acceptance of the work. not more than 5 mm below the base surface. shall be cleaned and the barriers replaced. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. Minimum strips which are inserted into the joint in a periods of 7 days for light traffic. COMMENTARY Joint sealers are usually divided Traffic shall be excluded from the base by erecting and into two categories: maintaining barriers and signs until the concrete is at least (…) days old. or for a longer period if so directed.com] @ 2018-06-21 materials.4 Unhardened Concrete Unhardened concrete shall be protected from rain and flowing water. Refer to Clause 13.2 Construction Traffic Irrespective of age. 12. 12.1 General tape rod in accordance with the manufacturer's Concrete pavements shall be protected against all recommendations. Fast-track paving by Chapter 3 utilising high-strength concrete mixes can allow early trafficking of the pavement 55. 12. heavy traffic are suggested.martella@jacobs. Joints required to be sealed shall be sealed 12 PROTECTION OF CONCRETE PAVEMENTS using an approved joint sealing material and backing 12. provided: n the joints have been sealed or otherwise protected. n Field-moulded sealants which are poured or gunned into the joint COMMENTARY The period for protection from traffic should be based on practical considerations n Preformed sealants.

temperature practicable. placing the concrete. Waterproof covers for the protection of the surface of all concrete less than 13. for not less than 72 hours after placing. snow.3. soon as possible after finishing. 13. 13.3. when placed. and operations have been completed.3 Concrete shall be placed at the lowest frozen lumps before entering the mixer.3 The temperature of the concrete when placed shall not be less than 5°C. of the curing period.4 or impermeable sheet curing in measures as required: accordance with Clause 10. and 13. Initial curing shall be provided if the final curing 13.5 During the placing and finishing operations. All methods and equipment for heating shall be sprinkled with water immediately before shall be subject to approval.4.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. 13.3.4 Protection Against Rain method can not be applied immediately after finishing 13. curing and 13. This procedure may be carried out whenever placement and preferably at a temperature of at there is a break in the sequence of placing and least 10°C for the duration of the curing period to finishing operations. ensure continuous placing and that no 'cold joints' Salt. COMMENTARY The rate should be adequate to concrete temperature shall be allowed to fall gradually.2 The subbase shall be prepared and protected.2.7 Any concrete damaged by freezing shall be an approved aliphatic alcohol shall be sprayed removed to the full depth and replaced. over the exposed surfaces in accordance with the COMMENTARY Concrete should be protected manufacturer's specifications to limit evaporation of from freezing for at least the first 24 hours after water.2.4 The aggregates shall be free of ice. or climatic or other conditions are likely to result in 82 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . achieve a reasonable rate of strength gain in order 13. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.3. At the end of the curing period. to ensure the minimum temperature of 5°C at the point 13. placed and and at a temperature above freezing for the remainder finished continuously.1 If it is necessary to place concrete when and paving shall not commence until this provision is the ambient temperature of the air is below 10°C.2 Concreting In Hot Weather Concreting54. 13. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.2 The forms. COMMENTARY Refer to Cold-Weather 13. placing shall proceed means any combination of climatic conditions that may only upon full compliance with the following provisions. curing in Cold-Weather Concreting54.martella@jacobs.2. impair the quality of plastic or hardened concrete.3. paving concrete.3.3 Concreting In Cold Weather 24 hours old shall be available on site at all times. exceed 30°C or climatic or other conditions are likely shall not be frozen and shall be entirely free of frost to result in the temperature of the concrete exceeding when the concrete is deposited.1 When the shade temperature is likely to 13.6 As soon as possible after final finishing to allow construction activities to proceed. 13.1 No concrete shall be placed during rain. not be mixed with the concrete to prevent freezing. as a means of controlling the temperature of the 13.6 Suitable covering and/or other means shall be n Mixing and placing of concrete shall be done provided for maintaining the concrete at a temperature during the coolest period of the day.1 Definition delivered. or when the concrete is likely to be subjected to freezing conditions before the expiration For the purposes of this specification. complied with. adverse weather of the specified curing period. unhardened concrete shall be protected from rain and COMMENTARY Moist curing is recommended flowing water. hours old shall be protected. n Mixing water shall be cooled. and in no case exceeding 13.5 shall be commenced as n Aggregates shall be shaded from the sun.com] @ 2018-06-21 13 ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS the concrete temperature falling below 5°C when 13. accordance with Section 10 shall be commenced. of at least 10°C. reinforcement and the subbase of discharge. as well as curing compounds containing operations shall cease and all concrete less than 24 white pigments and coloured fugitive dyes. additives or other foreign material shall are formed. 13.3. 35°C. and as rapidly as possible. chemicals.4 Concrete shall be transported.4. some or all of the following precautions shall be taken in placing. and/or aggregates shall be undertaken as necessary COMMENTARY Refer to Hot-Weather Concreting53.2 When rain appears imminent.5 Sprayed membrane curing in accordance 35°C by adopting one or more of the following with Clause 10.2.2.2. Heating of the mixing water Chapter 3 protecting the concrete as necessary and as directed. Refer to operations have been completed. 13.

Part 3).2. the relevant tolerances can n A structural investigation be listed in an extended version of Table 1. n slump (AS 1012. Tolerances included within this section should be 14.3. segregated or honeycombed.4.1.1.3.3 Acceptance Criteria tolerances would be the subbase being deliberately finished high all over.1. and for surface flatness by the methods 14.1 Hardened concrete shall be liable to base shall conform to the levels. Clause 9.2. An example of the intentional use of maximum 14. grades and cross rejection if: sections shown in the drawings to the extent that any n it is porous. Clause 15. determination of the base above that contained in AS 1379. the FL number shall be greater than (…) n inserts and other items embedded in the concrete 15.2 Additionally. Part 4) – when that may occur in pavement construction under air‑entrained concrete is specified. Additional information on reasonable tolerance to 14. Alternatively. replaced in accordance with Section 16.martella@jacobs. The clause should contain details of sampling and 15. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.3 Where concrete work has been finally rejected specify can be found in Tolerances for Concrete it shall be removed to the extent determined.3. Clauses 15.3 Construction with intent to use maximum Chapter 3 testing frequency.1 General 14.1 Code Requirements 15. project.4.1 and 15.2 Slump The slump shall be deemed-to-comply related to the size and standard of the particular if the appropriate requirements of AS 1379 are satisfied. the finished surfaces of The concrete shall be sampled and tested for strength the various sections of the pavement shall be tested for in accordance with the requirements of AS 1379. n work can be shown to be otherwise defective.2 The finished surfaces of abutting panels shall have been displaced from their specified position.com] @ 2018-06-21 14 TESTING AND ACCEPTANCE OF 15 CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES CONCRETE 15.4 Rejection Criteria 15. and flatness and thickness are the normal deviations n air content (AS 1012.2 Other Requirements (…) detailed hereunder. In n Additional tests (such as outlined in AS 1379) this case.2 should be n Approved remedial work is undertaken. eg: COMMENTARY The tolerances permitted in level.1 Surface levels The finished surface of the 14.3. test method.2.3.2. COMMENTARY Any other requirements regarding the sampling and testing of concrete over and 15. A discussion on appropriate values is COMMENTARY Refer to comments at the end of provided in Chapter 2. n An appraisal of the statistical information related to COMMENTARY Where more than one pavement the concrete strength element is involved. conformance to the grades. n the reinforcing steel has been displaced from its correct location.4).2 Standards to be Achieved 14.4.3. amended to refer to that Table.1 Following completion. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. to effect an 14.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. specification shall be in accordance with AS 1379.3.2 Concrete that is liable to rejection may be various sections of the base shall: permitted to be retained on the basis of satisfactory n not deviate from the testing edge of an approved results being obtained from one or more of the 3-m straightedge by more than (…) mm following: n achieve an FF number not less less than (…). lines and levels shown in the drawings. and Surfaces19. 15. should be thickness may be carried out as detailed in specified. and reference to an appropriate tolerances shall not be permitted. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 83 . 15. coincide at their junction. point on the finished surface shall not vary by more than (…) mm above or below the level indicated.1 Strength The criteria for compliance with overall reduction in concrete thickness (but within any of the characteristic strength requirements of this the thickness variation detailed in Clause 15.3 Surface flatness The finished surfaces of the 14. good workmanship and supervision.3.

4. the result (eg formwork stripping).com] @ 2018-06-21 15.3 Thickness determination The thickness of the base shall be determined on the basis of the average of base-thickness measurements made on cores not less than 100 mm in diameter taken from selected points. would be a reasonable tolerance to use. a 3-m long straightedge (consisting of an aluminium box-section of sufficient rigidity to maintain its accuracy) or a mobile straightedge of approved design shall be used.4. thickness. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. All Clause 15.4 Thickness Where the average thickness 15.2. the pavement shall be considered within the COMMENTARY Abrasion resistance or other limit of permissible thickness variation and satisfactory required surface properties should not be affected.2. n an 'F' meter.4 All areas that have been surface ground may Chapter 3 15.martella@jacobs. All core holes shall be repaired by an FF measurements) or other activities that may influence approved method. and measurements taken are not sufficient to indicate fairly the actual thickness of the base. As such. as determined in accordance with reduced by grinding by an approved surface grinding Clause 15.3.2. until two consecutive cores indicate that the pavement shall be tested for conformity with the deficiency in thickness is less than (…) mm. specified. additional cores 15. is within (…) mm of the thickness method. specified areas not exceed 1/ 200 times the specified dimension that exceed the required surface tolerances may be or 5 mm. in thickness. 5 mm required to be removed and replaced. or at any other locations as directed.4. each section of the pavement shall be tested for conformance with Clause 15. additional cores shall be drilled the result (eg formwork stripping). When the measurement of any placement and prior to any saw cutting (in the case of core indicates that the base is deficient in thickness FL measurements) or other activities that may influence by (…) mm or more. 15.3. 15.3 If the area to be corrected by grinding COMMENTARY AS 3600 specifies that the exceeds 10% of the area of any integral panel or deviation from any cross-sectional dimension shall exceeds 3% of the total area of base.1 Surface level and flatness All areas of the pavement that are defective with respect to surface level and/or surface flatness as specified in Clause 15. If the Contractor believes that the cores n by the use of an 'F' meter. For this testing.2 High areas of unsatisfactory flatness may be of the base.3. each section of on a 3-m grid. 15. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.3 using (insert the appropriate wording from below): n a 3-m straightedge operated over a grid of points spaced not greater than 3 m in each direction.1 (insert the appropriate wording): areas deficient in base thickness by (…) mm or more n by determining the finished surface levels of a grid shall be considered defective base areas and shall of points spaced not greater than (…) m in each be removed and replaced with panels of the specified direction.2 shall be removed and replaced.4 Deficiencies and Corrections 15.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. whichever is the greater.2 Surface flatness Within 72 hours of concrete and measurements may be taken if the Contractor placement and prior to any saw cutting (in the case of so requests. 84 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .4.3. 15.3.1 Surface levels Within 72 hours of concrete 15.3 Testing Procedures be required to be re-textured by an approved method.4. 15.5 Thickness.

No further reproduction or distribution permitted.5.1 Base areas of unsatisfactory flatness and/or of unsatisfactory level that have not been corrected in accordance with Clause 15. 16. areas that are deficient in base thickness as defined in Clause 15.4. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. 3 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 85 .com] @ 2018-06-21 16 REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT OF DEFECTIVE AREAS 16.3 Jointing of the replacement concrete to the existing concrete shall be by an approved method. and areas rejected in accordance with Clause 14.4 shall be considered as defective areas.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. Chapter 16.martella@jacobs.1.2 Defective base areas shall be removed to the nearest joint(s) and replaced as specified herein with concrete of the thickness and quality required by this specification.4.

Compaction The process of inducing a closer packing Float (see also Power float) A flat-faced wood or metal of the solid particles in freshly-mixed concrete during hand tool. its depth. Terminology 56 or Barker. 86 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . placing by the reduction of the volume of voids. between the pavement and the topping. casting or finishing. JA Dictionary of Concrete 57. Bull float A flat. Curing Maintenance of humidity and temperature of freshly placed concrete during some definite period following placing.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.martella@jacobs. broad-bladed steel hand tool used in the initial stages of finishing operations to impart Finished pavement level The level of the wearing a smooth surface to concrete pavements and other surface of the pavement. an admixture in a bonding layer mortar or grout to Edging tool A tool similar to a float. line joining two points on the surface. Float finish A rather rough surface texture obtained by Construction joint The location where two successive finishing with a float. for evening or flattening concrete. off coarse aggregate particles lying just below the Flatness The deviation of the surface from a straight surface. refer to ACl 116 Cement and Concrete moisture and promote curing. Crazing Fine.com] @ 2018-06-21 Crack inducer A strip of material placed within the Appendix A Glossary of Terms pavement so as to induce a crack at a desired location. reinforcement. Curling Warping of a concrete pavement. Finishing Levelling. to ensure satisfactory hydration of the cementitious materials and The following terms are typically used in the proper hardening of the concrete. topping or screed whereby the edges curl up because of Base The main structural element of the concrete differential shrinkage or thermal movements through pavement. but having a improve its bonding properties. green or hardened concrete base. or as the bonding layer form suitable for rounding the edge of freshly placed itself. sawn or tooled joint to impart a relatively even (but not smooth) texture to provided to relieve tensile stress in the pavement due an unformed fresh concrete surface. coated with a within newly placed concrete caused by the settlement debonding agent or provided with a sleeve over half its of the solid materials within the mass. material. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. to improve the bond panels or structures to prevent stress due to expansion. Floating The use of a float during finishing operations Contraction joint A formed. laid over a fresh. length. Granolithic concrete Concrete suitable for use as a Control joint A joint provided in a concrete pavement wearing surface to pavements and made with specially to prevent stress due to expansion. Controlled low-strength material (CLSM) Granolithic topping A layer of granolithic concrete A cementitious backfill material that flows like a liquid. Bonding layer A layer of grout. Appendix A Bleeding The rising to the free surface of mixing water Dowel A smooth steel bar or plate. random cracks on the concrete surface. self-levels and supports like a solid without compaction. mortar or other Expansion joint A joint. texture and particle shape. placements of concrete meet. description of industrial pavements and many have Curing membrane A proprietary coating applied to been used in this guide. placed horizontally across a joint to transfer Bond The adhesion of concrete to the surface vertical loads from one side to the other while permitting of hardened concrete or other materials such as differential horizontal movement between the panels. concrete. Finish The texture and smoothness of a surface. smoothing. to contraction. surface warping. For further information or the surface of a concrete pavement to reduce loss of other terms. normally filled with a resilient material applied to a hardened concrete pavement. or otherwise treating Chatter marks Marks on the surface of concrete surfaces of freshly or recently placed concrete to caused by a trowel or other finishing tool bouncing produce the desired appearance and characteristics. contraction or selected aggregate of suitable hardness. unformed concrete surfaces. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. Dusting Development of powdered material at the Bonding agent A proprietary material used either as surface of hardened concrete. provided to separate a panel from adjoining before a topping is placed.

Printed / viewed by: [kevin. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 87 . form of a key shape into the adjacent slab. Power trowel A motor-driven device which operates orbiting steel trowels on radial arms from a vertical shaft. rather than as a means of parallel to the direction in which placing proceeded. so as to improve its surface regularity. which may or may not contain other finely forces cause a crack between the bottom of the divided. Surface hardener A chemical applied to a concrete Levelness (elevation tolerance) The permitted pavement to reduce wear and dusting. when it can no longer be moulded but has not attained any appreciable strength. material laid over a pavement and brought to a defined level. Trowel A tool (usually of high tempered steel) with a hand grip and made in a variety of patterns.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. Panel A unit of concrete pavement laid in one piece and bounded on all sides by free edges or joints. Lean-mix concrete Concrete which has a low cement Subbase A layer of select material between the content. In-fill In alternate panel or long-strip method of construction. Power float A motor-driven revolving disc (or blades) that flattens and compacts the surface of concrete. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. vertical load transfer (as does a dowel). Isolation joint A joint between a panel and other parts of the structure to prevent stress due to expansion or Seal The prevention of ingress of water or foreign solid contraction or other structural movements. for example. Laitance Scum or whitish deposit that forms on the Side form A form used along one side of a pavement surface of newly placed. Joint sealant A material used to prevent ingress of Set (initial) The condition of cement paste or concrete water or solid foreign materials into a joint. No-fines concrete Concrete which contains little or no Topping An integral or applied layer used. the surface. Rotary disc compactor A motor-driven rotary disc (also known as Kelly Compactor) used after final trowelling to burnish the pavement surface and provide a highly-abrasion-resistant surface. vertical variation of the surface from a fixed external Tie bar A steel bar (usually a deformed bar) used reference point or datum. crack. over-wet or over-worked to retain the concrete and act as a datum for finishing concrete. Joint filler A strip of compressible and/or elastic Sealant A material used to form a seal in a joint or Appendix A material used to fill an expansion or isolation joint. Hardened concrete Concrete which has attained an Screed A straightedge of wood or metal moved over appreciable strength. Levelling compound A semi-fluid material applied Subgrade The natural or prepared formation on which to a pavement before the installation of a dry-laid the pavement is constructed. thermal and chemical changes. guides to strike off or finish the surface of the screed topping or concrete. fine aggregate. the depth of the hardened concrete pavement. disc or circular saw to between one quarter and one third of grindstone. surfacing. across longitudinal joints and primarily designed to Longitudinal joint The joint between panels and prevent opening of the joint. so as Grout A mixture of cement and water. Wearing surface The surface which comes in contact with traffic using the pavement. groove and the bottom of the base. Key (keyway) A means of transferring vertical load between adjacent panels by having a projection in the Shrinkage The reduction in volume caused by drying.martella@jacobs. insoluble material. of fluid to create a contraction joint when shrinkage restraint consistency.com] @ 2018-06-21 Grinding Removal of parts of the surface of hardened Sawn joint A transverse groove. cut by a special concrete by means of an abrasive wheel. to increase abrasion (wear) resistance and/or chemical resistance of the base. the panels cast between the previously Screed Topping A layer of mortar or other plastic laid and hardened panels to complete the pavement. material into a joint or crack. subgrade and the base. Placing The deposition of freshly mixed mortar or concrete in the place where it is to harden.

Coffey Geotechnics – then Coffey Partners Es. a number of shortcomings. This document uses as selecting the equivalent elastic parameters. allowable values. 88 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . The details of the loadings are discussed in Section B3. k. theoretical solutions from the theory of subgrade theory has a major advantage over the theory of reaction. and parameters: — distributed loads. Soil layer In 1992.2. rigid base. it is further highlighted in a Civil College Technical Report prepared assumed that the primary design criterion is to limit by the Victoria Group of the Australian Geomechanics the flexural tensile stresses in the base to the specified Society and published in Engineers Australia 61. many of which have been For all cases of loading considered. in part. Elastic a basis. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. possibility of punching shear is addressed separately C&CAA developed a revised document for the design by the designer and that a base plate of adequate size of concrete industrial pavements. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. t Ec. This appendix describes the basic approach adopted by Coffey Geotechnics to the development of these charts. Appendix B elastic theory provides a consistent and coherent B1 Introduction framework for analysis. behaviour of both soil and concrete. νc n The utilisation. The information is adapted from Revised n The loadings are represented as uniformly Design Charts for Concrete Industrial Floors and distributed loads acting over an appropriate area Pavements Coffey Partners International S9662/1-A6 on the surface of the pavement. This approach. Es for soil) soil properties measured by geotechnical site n Equivalent Poisson’s ratio (nc for base. from Review of Design It is recognised that the assumption of linear elastic Issues for Concrete Industrial pavements Coffey behaviour is an over-simplification of the complex Partners International S10896/1-AF June 199859. concrete base and the soil are characterised by three — post loads. νs H International Pty Ltd (CPI) – was commissioned to Rough rigid undertake the development of the revised design subgrade charts. where possible. underlain by a rough. n Design charts which are straightforward to use and give answers within the accuracy of the input Loading Loading Concrete base parameters and design procedures. the following assumptions have been made: Thickness Design Procedure n The soil is modelled as an equivalent homogeneous isotropic elastic layer of limited depth. it is assumed that the the need to extend the range of the existing charts. December 199258 and. has modulus of subgrade reaction. meaning and are scale-independent. together with (eg arising from storage racks). in which the supporting soil is characterised subgrade reaction in that the elastic parameters as a series of unconnected springs and is quantified (Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio) have physical via a modulus of subgrade reaction. unlike the although attractive from an analytical point of view. n The concrete pavement is characterised as a This appendix details the background to the relatively thin elastic plate located at the surface of establishment of the design procedure and charts in the soil layer. For cases such as post loading In recognition of these shortcomings. this guide. C&CAA required the following: Figure B1 illustrates the analytical model adopted n Design charts for three types of loading and the basic parameters of the model. Both the — wheel loads. n Thickness (t for base. investigations. recommended procedures to assess the Figure B1 Diagrammatic representation of the finite relevant soil parameters and the development of an element analytical model appropriate geotechnical profile. In its brief for this will be provided to cater for punching shear. revised document. provided that due care has been taken in and Pavement Design (T34)60. ns for soil). and has been successfully In 1985 the Cement and Concrete Association of used for a wide variety of geotechnical and structural Australia (C&CAA) published Concrete Industrial Floor problems.martella@jacobs. of the same parameters for all loading cases. n Equivalent Young’s modulus (Ec for base. Nevertheless.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. H for soil) n The use as input parameters to the design charts.com] @ 2018-06-21 B2 Basic Assumptions Appendix B Background and In developing the design charts presented in this Development of Rigorous appendix.

in conjunction with an b = √(wheel load/tyre pressure) efficient finite layer technique to analyse the soil layer. but if the loading is taken as Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 89 . and such differences are not considered to be Figure B3 Representations of post loading significant. post loading. a w w series of nine square. since it has been found that. equally loaded areas has been INTERIOR LOADING EDGE LOADING – CASE 1 considered Figure B3. As is evident. and distributed loading. Panel edge In addition. b B3.5 rectangular area.com] @ 2018-06-21 B3 Method of Analysis Panel edge S S B3.2.1 Types. Three types of loadings are b considered herein: wheel loading. B3. b b y y B3. Figure B2 illustrates the cases of wheel loading analysed. only single-wheel axles have been analysed. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. n Edge loading. the maximum stresses below dual wheels are slightly less than those below single wheels. given the uncertainties involved in the selection of other parameters. In each case.4 Distributed loading. and this has been verified by an analysis of selected typical cases.2. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. where the loads are applied at b Panel edge b an edge of the base – generally a more critical condition than interior loading.45.3 Post loading. for a given axle loading. it was decided to employ the computer program FEAR (Finite b b b b Element Analysis of Rafts40) as the main computational INTERIOR LOADING EDGE LOADING – CASE 1 tool.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. Figure B4 shows EDGE LOADING – CASE 2 the representation of distributed loading as a single uniformly distributed strip loading of width W. It has been assumed that the effect of additional loads (beyond nine) on the maximum stresses in the w concrete base will not be significant. where the loads are sufficiently distant from the edges of the base that the edges Figure B2 Representations of wheel loading do not influence base behaviour. two cases of edge loadings need to be considered. B3. two extreme loading Appendix B b locations are analysed: EDGE LOADING – CASE 2 n Interior loading.1 General After consideration of the available options for b b b b analysing the behaviour of the base/soil system. The possibility of different spacings in the x and y directions has been allowed Panel edge for. To represent post loading.2 Wheel loading.martella@jacobs. and utilises the finite element Panel edge method to analyse the base. This Figure B4 Representations of distributed loading represents directly the conditions below a single loading row of width W. This program was written by Professor J C Small of the University of Sydney. the design charts for wheel loading were based on the representation of y y each wheel as an equivalent rectangular contact area with a length: width ratio of 1:1. In T34.2. The calculations indicate that there are only relatively small differences x x x x (of the order of 5%) between the stresses developed INTERIOR LOADING EDGE LOADING in a base loaded by a square or a 1:1.2.2 Representation of Loadings b S B3.

Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.3 B3. it is possible to make some Figure B6 Accuracy check. there is reasonably close agreement between the solutions from FLEA and FEAR.4 1. solutions have been compared for the maximum Figure B7 Comparison of bending moment bending moment. Case 2.com] @ 2018-06-21 being negative. However.3 Jointed Bases Soil layer In T34. Typical comparisons are tabulated in Table B1.6 0.16 but no bending stiffness.024 stresses and displacements within a multi‑layered 0. strip or rectangular region.8 1. distribution.002 concentrated loadings within an extensive raft.4 Accuracy Checks Because accurate closed-form solutions do not exist for the problem of a base on an elastic layer.0 1. in order to represent a joint with shear resistance t νc = 0. Mmax. The results of these analyses have been used to assess the requirements for shear transfer capacity of the joint in order for the interior Soil layer loading case to be used for design. H = 6000 Es = 20 MPa νs = 0. 0.0 Distance from centreline (m) For the two cases illustrated in Figures B5 and B6.018 Moment per unit length (kNm/m) 0.4 0. S = 1200 a limited number of analyses have been carried out in Appendix B D = 300 D = 300 Concrete base which shear loading has been applied to the edge of a q = 1. it is stated that the thickness design H = 6000 Es = 20 MPa procedures for interior loads can be used for jointed νs = 0. also 0. T34 states that the base edges adjacent to the joint should be thickened to prevent local over. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.0 MPa νc = 0.016 circular. 0 0. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.008 therefore be used for interior loadings. For this purpose comparisons have Centreline Wheel centre Selvadurai been made with the following alternative analyses: 0.2 0. Figure B5 Accuracy check. and maximum deflection. and 0 also near the edge of an extensive raft. the absolute accuracy of the program FEAR cannot be assessed. it can also be considered to represent W = 2000 Concrete base the conditions in an aisle of width W between two very Ec = 30 000 MPa wide loaded rows.028 FEAR n Program FLEA (Finite Layer Elastic Analysis).2 1. uniform strip load on extensive raft To investigate further the influence of joints on the bending moments and stresses developed in a base.006 0.014 can analyse the behaviour of an extensive base 0. For the case of interior distributed loading (Case 1).16 B3. beneath the loaded area.020 multiple uniform surface loadings applied over a 0.0 MPa Ec = 30 000 MPa base. At isolation joints. Case 2 Dmax. can 0.012 on a layered soil profile. consisting of a stressing of the concrete.004 n Analytical solutions presented by Selvadurai 62 for t = 300 Mx 0. which can calculate the 0. t q = 1. Case 1. and if loads are assumed 0.3 bases. consisting of assessment of the consistency of the FEAR solutions uniform circular load on extensive raft by comparing them with corresponding solutions from other analyses. 90 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . provided that adequate load transfer is provided between adjacent bases.8 2.010 My to apply a rectangular or circular loading.6 1. or at other joints where no load transfer devices are provided. The program 0.026 written by Professor Small.martella@jacobs.022 soil deposit of finite thickness generated by 0.

This n concrete Young’s modulus (30 000 MPa) and program has therefore been selected as the tool for Poisson’s ratio (0.5 m). and have concluded that the FEAR main analyses.0230 0. F. moments given by FEAR.16). 2 Dmax (mm) Mmax (MNm) t (mm) FEAR FLEA Selvadurai FEAR FLEA Selvadurai 200 1.58 0. or aisle width for distributed loading (2. loading. for a range of base objectives were pursued: thicknesses from 100 to 600 mm.77 0. such as tyre pressure (700 kPa).martella@jacobs.056 0.0324 For interior dual-wheel loading (Case 2). varying in turn: developed in which the base thickness was related to the maximum stress developed in the base by the n soil Young’s modulus. n The charts should incorporate as many relevant 3 From the maximum bending moment so computed. variables as: n loading details. adequate accuracy for most practical purposes. Selvadurai solutions also agree very well.48 500 0. was prepared.50 0.59 1. The procedure for developing these charts was as Zhang and Small63 have carried out a series of follows: comparisons between solutions for a loaded raft 1 A ‘standard’ set of parameters was selected for the foundation. the the range likely to be encountered in practice maximum stress was expressed in dimensionless form by dividing by the applied loading. but this form of presentation was considered to have 5 The problem was re-analysed for the ‘standard’ some limitations with respect to the first two objectives parameters and for a typical base thickness above.090 0. the program FEAR is capable of producing results of n soil layer depth (5 m). via a stress factor which can incorporate such n soil layer depth. FLEA and Selvadurai n the soil characteristics.0219 Appendix B 500 0.80 0.30). the parameters including: analysis gives results which agree well with previously‑published solutions. such as stiffness and layer agree well. A more versatile approach was therefore (usually 200 mm).0307 0. These comparisons.088 0. variables as possible the maximum stress in the base was calculated.78 1. against base thickness The design charts in T34 are in the form of nomograms. wheel spacing (1. B4 Procedure for Development and 2 For these ‘standard’ parameters. for Case 2. design charts for industrial pavements. the following bending moment in the base.0326 0. suggest that Poisson’s ratio (0.052 1. 1 Dmax (m) Mmax (MNm) t (mm) FEAR FLEA FEAR FLEA 200 0.76 0.53 Case No.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. and distributions of bending moment from the FEAR and n the location of the loading.32 1.5 m).com] @ 2018-06-21 Table B1 Comparisons of alternate solutions for test cases Case No. n soil Young’s modulus (10 or 15 MPa) and together with those presented herein. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. 4 A plot of maximum stress. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 91 . As shown in Figure B7. the program Use of Design Charts FEAR was used to compute the maximum value of In developing the design charts. n The values of the relevant variables should cover For the cases of distributed and post loading. the depth. n The charts should be straightforward to use. the bending n the nature and magnitude of the loading. obtaining the solutions which are used to develop the n loading details.0214 0. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.

about 5%. 2.2 Design Chart for Post Loading (Chart 1. three types of loading ‘standard’ value of the parameter by the computed have been considered. f all = design tensile strength of concrete in MPa FE3 = factor for soil Young’s modulus Es of equivalent B5 Summary of Base Design Procedure uniform layer FH3 = factor for depth of soil layer. pressure. the correction factor for soil and post loading. For example. change by about ± 1. where: Changing the tyre pressure by ± 200 kPa from the F = stress for the 'standard' parameters. f . FH. the following correction factors were B7 Design Charts for Base Thickness derived: B7.martella@jacobs. H The design procedure for base thickness involves four FS3 = factor for post spacing in x direction broad steps: P = magnitude of loading on each post (in kN). stress for the value of that parameter used in the Consideration is only given herein to combined wheel analysis. post loading and distributed loading respectively.1.1 Influence of Other factors on Wheel Loading n FE (for soil Young’s modulus) (Charts 1.3 in n Assessment of design flexural tensile strength of Chapter 1 have been computed for a base plate area base of 25 000 mm2. but a reduction of 5 000 mm2 reduces n Computation of required base thickness. F has been given subscripts loading. computed in Equation B4. FE was computed as: circumstances where (for example) a combination of Maximum stress for 'standard' value of Es distributed loading and wheel loading could occur. the three factors considered above do not appear to be of major importance.2) n FH (for soil layer depth) The influences of Young’s modulus of the base. F3.com] @ 2018-06-21 6 For each parameter varied. t. eg for long-term distributed loading. was then estimated as follows: (from the adopted value of 30 000 MPa) causes the f = F / (FE FH FL) Equation B2 F1 factor to change by about ± 5%. required value of t can be found from the value of F The basic figure in this Chart plots base thickness. ie: Within the uncertainty of the estimation of design loads f ≤ f all Equation B3 and soil properties. F3 by only about 6%. a significant influence on the required base thickness. 3 or 4 to represent the types of loading F3 = 1000 (f all / P) FE3 FH3 FS3 Equation B5 considered – interior axle loading. where F3 is computed as follows: 1. In FE = that case.2. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. n Assessment of loadings The factor F3 is relatively insensitive to the area of the n Assessment of subgrade and soil conditions baseplate below each post.5 thickness. edge axle where: loading. the than interior loading. Changing the modulus of the base by ± 10 000 MPa 9 The actual stress. 10 In using the charts to assess the required base If the wheel print is changed from a square to a 1:1.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. and shape of the wheel print have been Appendix B 8 Each of these correction factors was then plotted examined for typical cases. Thus the equivalent value of the stress F can be computed as: B7. t. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. a correction factor was B6 Assessment of Loading obtained by dividing the computed stress for the As outlined in Section B3. however.3) F = f all FE FH FL Equation B4 It is found that the edge loading case is more critical 11 From the chart relating F to base thickness. the F1 factor is decreased by stress. and 1. f . adopted value of 700 kPa causes the F1 factor to FE. to the specified design tensile strength. None of these factors has against the relevant parameter. an assessment of the deflections may 50 000 mm2 leads to an increase in F3 of about 7%. while an increase in area to In some cases. FL = correction factors. f all. the objective is to limit the maximum rectangular shape. also be required. The curves in Chart 1.5%. the effects of the two loadings are Maximum stress for actual value of Es likely to be compensating rather than additive Equation B1 7 In this way. although there could be some Young’s modulus Es. against a stress factor. for both interior and edge In the design charts. tyre n FL (for loading details). 92 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .

and can be loading) is required to give that same thickness. t (mm) Thickness. If the uncertainty with the design is greater.2) range given in Table 1. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. a in Chart 1. 0. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. and k1 is 200 300 taken as 0.0 from T34 and this guide – wheel loading on stiff clay k1 layer S = 1000 Figure B8 Variation of required base thickness with k1 for a particular design Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 93 . and can be simplified as follows: n the actual performance of pavements under various types of loading. B8 The k1 Factor Step 4 The ratio of the F value from Step 2 to the The factor k1 (referred to in Section 3. ie 0.4) base thickness for a particular CBR value.1 and 1.2 n for edge loading.9 1. then an additional 45 mm thickness is 100 kN required over the value for k1 = 0. Step 3 The actual value of F1 and F2 have been computed.3. F2 = f all FE2 FH2 k3 (k3 = 1. The interior loading case is generally value of F (F1 for interior loading.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. calibration exercise has been carried out as follows: B7.05.16 in Chapter 1 may be used. this ratio is.8 0.com] @ 2018-06-21 For post spacings which are not equal in both the x B9 The k3 factor and y directions.martella@jacobs.8 results in a base which is 20 mm thicker.7.9. with sufficient accuracy.3 Design Chart for Distributed Loading Step 1 T34 has been used to obtain the required (Chart 1.90 for wheel loading. equivalent to a factor for the in effect. k3 = 1.80 for post and distributed loading. It would n the design model appear that the calibration factors k3 are reasonably n the material properties consistent. used as the basis for base design. H = 3m Guide. and is denoted as k3. and is considered to Appendix B account for uncertainties in relation to: The result of these calculations for the cases considered is shown in Figures B9 and B12. a calibration factor. H = 10m 250 Figure B9 Comparison between slab thicknesses 0.16 in Chapter 1.6 in Chapter 1 F value from Step 3 has been obtained.9 to 0. k3 = 1.05) For design purposes. the adoption of this approach would of ground conditions and effects of construction mean that the equation for the factors F1 and F2 in conditions). Since the k1 factor appears to cover more than just uncertainty in the concrete properties (eg variability In summary. an average value of spacing can be As a practical means of reducing the differences used.3. an average value of k1 from Table 1. it is recommended that the designer use Charts 1.2 of this guide would be as follows: engineering judgement in selecting the factor from the F1 = f all FE1 FS1 k3 (k3 = 1.6 0. as a ‘material factor’) is. to obtain the factor FS3 between the subgrade theory and the elastic theory. Axle loads: 100 kN Thickness.7 0. n for interior loading. t (mm) 150 250 Axle loads: 400 100 200 0 5 10 0 5 10 Required base thickness (mm) 350 CBR CBR (a) INTERIOR LOADING (b) EDGE LOADING T34 300 Guide. 300 400 Considering Example 1 in Appendix D the computed 200 kN variation of pavement thickness with k1 is shown in 200 kN 250 350 Figure B8. It will be seen that a reduction in k1 from 0. F2 for edge more critical than the edge loading case. The design chart is for distributed loading at the interior Step 2 This guide has been used to find out what of the pavement. concrete pavement–soil system.

7 √f 'c) to the value obtained in T34 loading have been obtained from the design charts from the equation f t = 0.com] @ 2018-06-21 B10 The k4 factor For this particular analysis.1 Elastic vs Subgrade Reaction Analysis This guide suggests relatively simple guidelines for T34 was based on the subgrade reaction (Winkler the extent of edge thickening. theoretical solutions It is therefore concluded that the values in Table 1. it may be comparable to (but slightly greater than) the values desirable to estimate the order of magnitude of the suggested in Table 1.5t). Table 1. along with the calculation of the n For a given width of the thickened slab the correlation factors which are included in Table 1. the slab been made using the following procedure: was 250 mm thick. having a Young’s modulus of 10 MPa.16 loading case. which the maximum stress becomes more or less constant. the allowable concrete The factor k4 adjusts the value of the characteristic stress has been taken as 4 MPa. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.41 3.13 1. a typical case using both an elastic continuum and subgrade reaction soil model. for a typical case involving analyses showed that there is relatively little difference wheel loading.438 f c2/3.11 to that of the edge thickness required from the edge 40 5. maximum stress with this width has been obtained. concrete strengths up to 50 MPa and represents the n The total width of the thickened slab has been line of best fit for the average ultimate flexural tensile increased progressively. are plotted in dimensionless form in Figure 1. Differences arising slab. This case involves a 200-kN axle between the two sets of results. analysis. Figure B10.30 in Chapter 1 and are applicable to cases in which W is B13 Differences in Base Thickness not greater than about 0. The results of the two case of edge loading. For the case considered. then the maximum stress is not greater than 110% of the stress for the slab of uniform B11 Pavement Deflections thickness (equal to the edge thickness). on a soil layer bending moments (and hence the slab stresses) are 5 m thick.438 f c2/3 is based on work by Raphael30 on depth edge thickening.martella@jacobs.03 (for various edge thickening widths) to the maximum 25 3. and reduces to no more than about 100% Table B2 Correlation factor k4 for concrete strength of the value. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.23 in Chapter 1 (ie 12. for the deflections of the base beneath the distributed loading. This is because the equation thickness is equal to the width of the constant f t = 0. f 'c ft (T34) fct k4 = ft /fct Figure B10 shows the ratio of the maximum stress 20 3.95 1.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.5 m. Coffey Geotechnics A more detailed assessment of the above in-house computer program GARP was used for recommendations for edge thickening distance has this analysis.23 have been obtained for the settlement beneath the are likely to be appropriate and can be retained as centre of the loaded area of width W.22 in maximum stress has been obtained from the FEAR Chapter 1. The results of both (220 mm for interior loading.7 times the soil layer depth.50 1. the k4 distance from the interior thickness to the edge factor is not applied. with a wheel spacing of 1.23 3. from 20 to 50 MPa. From the finite element analyses. and 320 mm for edge methods are listed in Table B2 for concrete strengths loading).12 4.94 4.43 1. and that the maximum load. To extrapolate this to include higher concrete strengths Appendix B n The required width has been taken as the value for may not provide reasonable results. The figure shows that if the total width of 50 5. and the variation of strength of concrete based on some 1500 test results. This width is Under long-term loading conditions. 94 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . It has been assumed that the transition For concrete strengths in excess of 50 MPa. Design B12 Edge Thickening Criteria B13. based on the concept Spring) soil model while the current guide is based of an effective radius or width of a soil-supported on the elastic continuum theory.74 3.23 in Chapter 1 gives distances from the from the use of these theories have been investigated edge of a panel at which thickening of the slab should by Coffey Geotechnics by carrying out analyses of commence. which would occur if the width of edge thickening was extremely large.07 stress for a slab having a constant thickness equal 32 4. flexural tensile strength of concrete calculated by n The required slab thicknesses for interior and edge Equation 2 (f 'cf = 0.96 1. and an axle load of 100 kN was n The program FEAR has been used to analyse the applied to the interior of the slab.20 the thickened edge exceeds about 13 times the interior thickness of the slab. These solutions design guides. Young’s modulus of 10 MPa analysed.

there is considerable scope for inconsistencies 0 to arise between the interpretation of the CBR values in 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 terms of the geotechnical parameters. used to derive the necessary geotechnical parameters for each method. On the basis the correlations between Ess and CBR given in this of this investigation. The comparison is 1. charts with more conservative correlations.24) and can be seen in Figure B9 difference in thickness design for wheel loads and that (H = 3 m). it would Differences between the slab thickness requirements appear that the main difference between the designs from the two approaches may also be attributable to from the new and old charts lies in the derivation of the the differences in the way in which the CBR values are geotechnical parameters from the CBR values.martella@jacobs.2 Correlations Between CBR and leads to smaller slab thicknesses than T34. 140 T34 gave a relationship between the CBR value 130 Clay 120 (1st edition and the modulus of subgrade reaction (which is a of guide) necessary component of the Westergaard theory on 110 which the previous charts were based).0 In previous applications of elastic theory to pavement 1.3 information on Ess versus CBR correlations appropriate to industrial slabs. generally are less than those using larger for the elastic continuum analysis. edge thickening for fall = 4 MPa for a 3-m-thick underlying soil layer. However. The slab thickness values using T34 (subgrade reaction theory) are also shown. of the subgrade soils to CBR.24 in Chapter 1. the variation of slab thickness any differences between the two approaches are likely within the guide for increasing CBR is more rapid than to be attributable to the differences in the underlying is suggested by either the design charts in T34 or the methods of analysis. correlations between 60 Sand CBR and Young’s modulus (long-term) have been 50 (1st edition of guide) suggested in Figure 1. unless there is evidence to support the use of higher values. However. for CBR Geotechnical Parameters values of 6 or more. the use of the 10 x CBR correlation B13. The largest difference is in using Ess = 10 x CBR for the 3-m-thick soil layer the deflection under the wheel.7 te relationship gives larger values of Ess than those given by Figure 1. CBR (%) Figure B11 Comparison of short-term Ess – CBR correlations Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 95 . 70 For the charts in this guide.6 shown in Figure B11.4 since there appears to be relatively limited detailed 1. In the case of edge loading. it is concluded that there is little guide (Figure 1. The slab thicknesses from the guide within 1% of each other.24 in Chapter 1. This 1. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. 1. There is some indication that the Short-term Youngs modulus. Ess. It can be seen that the present = = 1. While not conclusive.com] @ 2018-06-21 2.9 design.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. Ess (MPa) 80 relationship suggested by Packard64 has been used. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.24). it has been common to relate the short‑term Young’s modulus.5 e correlations are more conservative than the 10 x CBR correlation.1 Figure 1.8 via the relationship Ess = 10 x CBR (MPa). which is about 6% (Figure B12). t 1. 10 Clearly. 1.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 The results of using the 10 x CBR correlation in Appendix B e/t accordance with the design procedure in this guide Figure B10 Variation of maximum stress with width of (elastic continuum theory) are shown in Figure B12. especially for sandy soils. it is considered practical to use the 1.2 more conservative values for design (ie those from 1. and for the 40 short-term loadings these long-term moduli are divided 30 by another correlation factor (dependent on soil type) 20 to obtain the relevant short-term Young’s modulus.5 Maximum stress/Maximum stress for uniform slab with t = te 1. but does 100 Ess = 10 x CBR not provide a derivation or discussion of the origin 90 of this relationship.

or via a seismic cone penetrometer. Despite the stress and strain. Axle loads: 100 kN 250 Thickness. likely to be subjected to considerable variations in effective stress. in reality. the soil is then projects.3. For major projects.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. either by downhole or crosshole geophysical measurements. the geotechnical engineer and the pavement designer. that. t (mm) 150 n Use of the spectral analysis of surface waves Axle loads: 225 (SASW) geophysical technique to measure Raleigh 125 200 surface wave velocities and back-calculate the 100 175 distribution of small-strain shear and Young’s 0 5 10 0 5 10 moduli with depth near the soil surface. vs in the soils. when the soil is shallow in depth.3 Design Tensile Strength of Concrete each of which can have an influence on the soil stiffness. wealth of information now available. in empirical correlation) may be considered for larger that. including: pavement.martella@jacobs. In view of these problems. moisture condition and temperature. S = 1000 the pressure meter test and the dilatometer test. Ess from Charts requires a process of trial-and-error fitting using elastic theory and a computer analysis such as Figure B12 Comparison between slab thicknesses FLEA or CIRCLY. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. resulting in a potential saving in overall costs of the a number of procedures can be considered. B13. since it must be recognised surface. the use of empirical correlations conservative assessment than T34 for concrete is likely to be adequate. For such testing. especially for distributed loading. based on measurements of the surface T34 settlement distribution around a loaded area. a more accurate assessment (rather than use of an The problem is particularly difficult for the latter. and more than offsetting the cost of making n Measurement of the seismic shear wave velocity the measurements themselves. including the void ratio. from T34 and this guide – wheel loading on stiff clay n Use of downhole static testing devices. it would be strength greater than 50 MPa. Some methods are listed in Section B14. this guide provides a more routine applications. H = 10m.com] @ 2018-06-21 275 400 Es0 = 2 (1 + n) rvs2 200 kN 375 250 where 200 kN 350 n = soil Poisson’s ratio 225 325 r = mass density of soil 200 300 An allowance needs to be made for the strain level. it must be borne As the assessment of Young’s modulus Ess of the soil in mind that the accurate assessment of soil stiffness layers below the slab is a critical step in the design of remains one of the most daunting challenges facing an industrial slab. more appropriate to use site-specific measurements of the type listed above to determine the Young’s B14 Site-specific Measurements of modulus values. For strength of the concrete. This Appendix B Guide. such measurements may enable Young’s Modulus less conservative modulus values to be adopted.5 to 0. the soil modulus is not constant but is A comprehensive review65 of the above techniques dependent on many factors. is contained in the Proceedings of an International the ambient stress level. and the levels of imposed Conference on Site Characterisation. care various soil properties contained in this guide are needs to be taken in the interpretation of the results meant to provide a rough guide only to the actual when the device is at a shallow depth below the soil modulus values. t (mm) Thickness. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. H = 3m. in order to 100 kN 175 275 obtain a value relevant to pavement design. The small strain Young’s modulus Es0 is then computed as follows: 96 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . typically a reduction factor of 0. CBR CBR n Back-calculation of the modulus distribution with (a) INTERIOR LOADING (b) EDGE LOADING depth. such as layer (CBR values). it is considered Differences may also arise because of the differences appropriate to adopt a realistic and conservative in the method of assessing the design tensile approach to soil Young’s modulus assessment. Ess =10 x CBR (MPa) Guide. to directly obtain the Young’s modulus at various The three correlations between Young's modulus and depths below the surface. thus For more-accurate assessments of soil Young’s modulus.

15 = 63.9l = 0.024 √fcm + 0. TR recommends that 3410 where f y is the characteristic strength of the steel the load transfer is determined from the capacity of all (= 300 MPa for 300PLUS steel). For dowels at 300-mm centres (assuming the wheel is directly over a dowel).25 (typically half the dowel length) as this will be = 971 mm shorter than 8dd.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. n = Poisson's ratio for concrete For a 24-mm-diameter dowel in concrete with = 0.2.9l mm either side of the area of section and gs is a partial safety factor for Appendix C load centreline. Pbear = 0. the capacity of five dowel bars can be used to transfer the load of each wheel. the bearing capacity is: k = modulus of subgrade reaction Pbear = 0.15 = 400.4 Psh Pbend Figure C1 Correlation of CBR and Modulus of Note that for a 24-mm-diameter dowel across a Subgrade Reaction.9 x π 242 /4) / 1.martella@jacobs.12) for fcm > 40 MPa as not greater than 8dd). 140 For a 24-mm-diameter dowel (300PLUS steel) across 120 a 3 mm joint opening. The load-transfer 40 capacity per dowel.9 x 971 =  874 mm n Bending capacity. the bending capacity is: 100 80 Pbend = [2 x 300 x (243/6)] / 3 x 1.5 = 61.5 f cu b1 dd / gc Ecm (from AS 3600) where f cu is the characteristic cube strength of the = (r)1. k (from NAASRA66) 3-mm joint opening. and wheel spacing of 1. the capacity of all dowels within 874 mm of the load centreline are included when determining the Joints load transfer provided by the dowels.9 x dowels within a distance of 0. n Shear capacity.5 h = 230 mm for concrete). TR 3410 also provides detailed procedures for effectively transfer the load across the joint.5 x 0. dd is the diameter of the = 24001. square or as follows: diamond-shaped load plates).038) ]0.5 x (0.8 m. b1 is the effective bearing length (taken (r)1. Papp is controlled by the 20 following interaction formula: 0 1 3 4 6 8 10 15 20 30 40 60 80 100 Papp Papp California Bearing Ratio (%) + ≤ 1. and calculating the shear. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.038 MPa/mm Note that for the larger dowel diameters given in Table 1. bearing and bending capacity the capacity of individual dowels (round. = 38 kPa/mm (Figure C1 for a CBR of 5) = 0.5 x (0. l = Radius of relative stiffness (mm) n Bearing capacity. the maximum load transfer Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 97 .7 kN 60 n Combined shear and bending.6 x 300 x (0. given by: For a 24-mm-diameter dowel of 300PLUS steel l = [ Ecm h3 / (12 (1 – n2) k) ]0.4 kN.25 (f y = 300 MPa). The load transfer capacity of a dowelled joint is In terms of the load capacity of individual dowel a combination of the number of dowels that will bars. where l is the radius of relative stiffness the material (taken as 1. x is the joint opening and gs is the partial Modulus of subgrade reaction (kPa/mm) 160 safety factor as above. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.22) x 0. b1 will equal the embedment length l = [ 31 975 x 2303 / (12 (1 – 0. Psh = 0. the shear capacity is: For the wheel load example in Appendix D: Psh = 0. Pbend = (2 fy Zp) / x gs 220 where Zp = plastic section modulus of the dowel 200 (dd3/4 for square dowels and dd3/6 for round 180 dowels). Av taken as 0.com] @ 2018-06-21 Appendix C Design of Dowelled Therefore.2 (AS 3600) 40 MPa cube strength.7 kN.15 for steel).6 f y Av / gs For wheel and post loads. 0. or concrete.5 x 40 x (8 x 24) x 24 / 1.043 √fcm) for fcm ≤ 40 MPa.043√40 dowel or width of non-circular section and gc is a = 31 975 MPa partial safety factor for the material (taken as 1.

n Design bending moment.5 in TR34 was taken into account (see above calculations). adequate load transfer can be provided and the base can be designed for the interior loading case with no edge thickening required at dowelled joints.85 f 'c √(A2 / A1) Appendix C where Φ = 0. Based on the above. As the design bending moment = P x/2 where x = the joint opening: Maximum load. By comparison.62 f yp Ap) where Φ = 0. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. the bearing capacity is: Bearing capacity = 24 x (8 x 24) x 0.6 x 0. for a 24 mm diameter x 450 mm long dowel in 40 MPa concrete.8 x 300 x (243/6) / 3 = 369 kN In the design example given in Appendix D for wheel loads.com] @ 2018-06-21 capacity will be limited by the bearing capacity of 61.3 kN n Bearing capacity (from AS 3600): Design bearing stress ≤ Φ 0.5 = 62.2 dowels are required to transfer 50% of the ultimate wheel load of 150 kN (200 kN axle load x 1. For wheel spacing of 1.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.7 kN. For wider joint openings the capacity may be governed by the interaction formula.4 kN. Note that if the partial safety factor of 1. bearing and bending capacities: n Shear capacity for dowel (considered as pin) (from AS 4100): V*f ≤ Φ(0.8 and f yp = yield stress of the pin.62 x 300 x 452) = 67. the number of dowels available = 2 x 874/300 = 5 minimum. Bearing capacity = Area x Φ 0. For 24-mm-diameter dowels using 300PLUS steel: V*f ≤ 0. AS 4100 and AS 3600 give the following results for shear.85 x 40   = 94 kN.85 f 'c Setting the maximum dowel embedment length as 8 dd as above. the slab thickness for interior loading was determined to be 230 mm. M* ≤ Φ f ypS where Φ = 0.2 in Chapter 1 (for 200. 98 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . Printed / viewed by: [kevin.8 m.martella@jacobs.6 Taking A2 = A1.8 and S = plastic section modulus of the dowel/pin and x is the joint opening.5 = 300 kN ultimate x 50% per wheel). the bearing capacity would also be in close agreement at 94/1. From Table 1. P = 2 Φ f ypS/x For a 24-mm-diameter dowel (300PLUS steel) and 3-mm joint opening: P = 2 x 0.8 (0. Thus.to 240-mm-thick slab) the recommended dowels are 24 mm diameter at 300-mm centres. approximately 1.

9.5 zi / S 3 0.0182 0. tensile strength of the concrete is: The soil profile is shown in Figure D1. Wheel Loading f all = k1 k2 f 'cf Equation 1 A concrete pavement is to be designed to support Assume from Table 1.42 59.8 m Repetitions: 40 per day.34 0.6 in Chapter 1).0645 0. All areas of repetitions over the design life must be calculated – the pavement may be trafficked by the forklift. and therefore: PI = 19% n ∑ Wfi Hi Very stiff clay 3-m depth N = 35 i = 4 i = 1 PI = 19% Ese = Equation 3 n rock ∑ Wfi Hi / Esi i = 1s Figure D1 Profile of the supporting soil and the geotechnical data Table D1 The assessment of Young’s modulus of an equivalent uniform soil layer Soil layer.5-m depth N = 12 i = 2 in Table D1.75 Wfi x Hi / Esi 0.0 CBR (%) 5 – – – SPT – 12 22 35 Young’s modulus Es (MPa) 201 422 37.8 = X 4 Values Wfi from Figure 1.52 0. 5 days/week for over 20 years STEP 2 Assess tensile strength of concrete The design tensile strength of the concrete is determined from Equation 1 (Section 3.5-m depth CBR = 5 i = 1 The assessment of the subgrade and soil conditions using the data shown in Figure D1 is summarised Sand 2.42 1.25 Wfi x Hi 1.23 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 99 .16 that the value of k1 is 0.5 2. f all = 0.0 7.3.29 1.75 2.15 MPa BASE STEP 3 Assess subgrade and soil conditions Compacted fill 1. Using Table 1.54 x 0.1 in Chapter 1). No further reproduction or distribution permitted.68 0.martella@jacobs.000.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.6 in D1 Pavement Design Example 1 – Chapter 1).7.0126 Notes: 1 From Figure 1. Using long-term modulus for wheel loads will give more conservative result 2 From Figure 1. use PI = 0% for sand as noted in Figure 1.8 m. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.25 3 Wheel spacing S = 1.17 pavement design life has been assumed to be (Section 3.0 3. the number of load 200 kN with a wheel spacing of 1.86 0.53 2. The 40 x 5 x 52 x 20 years = 208.0310 0.54. Use short-term Young’s modulus if available. the k2 factor is 0.3.3. the design Appendix D 40 daily truck repetitions may occur for 5 days/week.24.25.52 Depth zi to layer centre (m) 0. and it has been estimated that an average Assuming a concrete strength of 40 MPa.75 5.30 0.5 2.17 Weighting Factor Wfi 4 0.9 x 0. 20 years.com] @ 2018-06-21 Appendix D Design Examples STEP 1 Assess loading Using Rigorous Design Method Forklift: axle load = 200 kN and wheel spacing = 1. i Step Fill Sand Stiff clay Very stiff clay Thickness Hi (m) 1. The equation to determine the Young's modulus of an equivalent uniform soil layer is from Stiff clay 2-m depth N = 22 i = 3 Equation 3 (Section 3.78 4.7 √40 = 2. In loading from a forklift truck with an axle load of order to determine the k2 factor.

50) / 2 m = 1. of a residual soil deposit 5 m deep on top of rock.1: concrete strength of 50 MPa.0 x 0. The base plate is 165 x 165 x 6 mm in size. FH3 = 1.25 x 0. and 1. should Comments the forklift axle load increase by 20%.8.8 MPa FS2 = 1. t1 = 225 say 230 mm for 200 kN axle The underlying soil profile for this pavement consists load. Using Chart 1.18 x 1.3. k4 = 1. Assuming a Using Chart 1.16 = 3.99 x 1.01 x 1.96 / 70) x 1.2: For interior loading: FE2 = 1.1 in Chapter 1.1 in Chapter 1 and Charts 1.2 Using Table 1.0 m and 1.3.25 x 1.1 and 1.3. the design tensile FE1 = 1.0126 A concrete pavement is to be designed to support The short-term equivalent Young's modulus for the post loads of 70 kN at 2.01 for H = 5 m FS3 = 1.5 in Chapter 1).14 for S = (2.1.33 for Ess = 31. The For exterior loading: average long-term Young's modulus of the residual soil F2 = f all FE2 FH2 FS2 k3 k4 is assessed to be 30 MPa. Therefore.0 MPa 8 x 230 = 1840 mm. This results in about a 4% reduction in f all and the interior base thickness From Chart 1.75 m Should the number of forklift trucks increase by 50%.8 MPa.99 for H = 9 m Using Chart 1.3: of 350 mm will taper to 230 mm over a distance of FE3 = 1.8.16 for f 'c = 40 MPa For post loading it is assumed that k1 = 0.96 MPa FH1 = 0. \F3 = 1000 (3.05 x 1.01 for H = 5 m FS3 = 1.30 + 0. the interior base The interior and edge post loading conditions indicate thickness becomes 250 mm.15 x 1.5 m For interior loading: F1 = f all FE1 FH1 FS1 k3 k4 Equation 6 STEP 2 Assess tensile strength of concrete The design tensile strength of the concrete is Referring to Equation 6 in Section 3. = 2.martella@jacobs.0 + 1.8 Appendix D (Table 1.8 MPa strength of the concrete is: FS1 = 1.8.3: \F2 = 2.2).75 m Comments \F3 = 1000 (3.05 x 1. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.01 x 1. Referring to Equation 6 in Section 3.98 for H = 9 m \F1 = 2.9 the k2 factor becomes 0.75 D2 Pavement Design Example 2 – Ese = = 31.3. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.04 x 1.85 STEP 3 Assess subgrade and soil conditions From Chart 1.0 MPa From Chart 1.and 290-mm-thick base is required analysis shows that the number of axle load cycles is respectively.4 The interior and edge loading conditions indicate that From Chart 1.29 + 1. the posts away from edges to ensure a 150-mm-thick 100 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .8 m F3 = 1000 (fall / P) FE3 FH3 FS3 Equation 7 FH2 = 0.52.8 x 1.05 The base thickness may now be determined based on k4 = 1. Alternatively.0 + 1. a 230.25 for Ess = 31. t2 = 350 mm for 200 kN axle load.33 x 0. This simple sensitivity that a 150.2 x 1.7 √50 = 3. STEP 4 Calculate required base thickness The base thickness may now be determined based STEP 1 Assess loading on the interior and edge loading conditions (refer to Post loading: load per post = 70 kN and post spacing Section 3.16 as above the interior and edge loading conditions.25 for Es = 30. It would be an economical solution to locate not as critical as the magnitude of the axle load.96 / 70) x 1.14 = 81.59 FE3 = 1. FH3 = 1.0.50) / 2 m = 1. Using Table 1.15 x 1. increases from 225 mm to 230 mm.1 in Chapter 1.23 (Section 3. the base thickness is 150 mm.16 = 3.0310 + 0.5-m centres in the orthogonal direction. e.8 MPa Post Loading 0. for edge base thickening is 8t for a stiff soil support. the base thickness is 290 mm.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.and 350-mm-thick base is required respectively.05 for S = 1. the edge thickening Using Chart 1.3.2.16) and the k2 factor is 1.98 x 1. STEP 4 Calculate required base thickness k3 = 1. the For edge loading: recommended distance. determined from Equation 1.18 for Es = 30.22.0645 + 0.14 = 76.14 for S = (2.0182 + 0.04 for S = 1.com] @ 2018-06-21 1. k3 = 1.8 m f all = 0.68 + 0.3.0-m centres in one direction 9-m-deep layer is taken as 31.8.

8.2111 Notes: 1 20qc 2 bEs 3 Loading width W = 4. Punching shear should be checked as detailed in The allowable bearing stress (refer to Section 3.25 1.61 MPa Distributed Loading (bh = 1 for square base plate) A storage warehouse pavement is to be designed to ≤ 0.13 Weighting Factor Wfi 4 0.3. The base plate consists Chapter 1) is Φ x 0. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. Figure D2 shows the soil capacity greatly exceeds the post load. of a 165-mm-square. and it has u = 4 (165 + 135) = 1200 mm been determined from the building owner that over the Therefore.57 MPa.5 m between adjacent stacks.95 0.5 Esi (short-term) 30 1 Esi (long-term) 30 18 2 Depth zi to layer centre (m) 1.3. BASE Determine the base thickness and the long-term Compacted granular fill 2-m depth CBR = 12 i = 1 deflection below each stack.0 m = X 4 Values Wfi from Figure 1. Referring to Section 3.40 MPa – governs support stacked rolls of reinforcing mesh 4 m wide Appendix D d = 0. profile below the pavement based on a geotechnical survey. The bearing stresses without any load factor and Young's modulus of 30. 6-mm-thick plate.23 in Chapter 1 for the definition of interior Check concrete bearing stresses under post base and edge loading.85 x 50 = 25.0 CBR 12 – qc (MPa) – 1. Vuo = fcv u d Equation 11 where: D3 Pavement Design Example 3 – fcv = 0.0633 0. e = 8 x 150 = 1200 mm.8. Vuo = 2.7 in Section 3. i Step Fill Medium-stiff clay Thickness Hi (m) 2. a concrete bearing type distress is therefore unlikely to occur.8.com] @ 2018-06-21 base is used throughout.4 x 1200 x 135 / 1000 = 389 kN life of the pavement the stacks may be removed and and ΦVuo = 0.5 zi / W 3 0.5 MPa.3.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.0 4.0 5.6 in with an aisle width of 2.23 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 101 .3.76 Wfi x Hi 1. STEP 1 Assess loading Medium stiff clay 5-m depth qc = 1. The punching shear replaced about 1000 times.90 3.8.85 f 'c or 0. The shear The allowable stress greatly exceeds the unfactored capacity of the base is: design bearing stress.000 / 165 x 165) = 2. edge distance required = 8t for plate.6 in Chapter 1.5 STEP 6 Check bearing stress under posts and Table 1.6 x 0.martella@jacobs.5-m-wide aisles between loaded areas. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.5 MPa i = 2 Distributed load = 30 kPa over 4-m width with rock 2. assuming no grout pad is: STEP 5 Check punching shear resistance (70.9 x 150 = 135 mm from Section 3. Figure D2 Profile of the supporting soil and the geotechnical data Table D2 The assessment of Young’s modulus of an equivalent uniform soil layer Soil layer. Chapter 1 The design distributed loading is 30 kPa.17 (1 + 2/1) √50 = 3.8 x 389 = 311 kN.34 √50 = 2.80 Wfi x Hi / Esi 0.

9.3 the short-term Young's modulus of the natural clay ws = dimensionless deflection factor calculated is approximately 20 qc (where qc is the static cone from Figure 1.4 for the aisle area: D4 Pavement Design Example 4 – FE4 = 1.00 = 101 applying a wheel loading nearby.22 for Es = 20. the W = 4 m long-term Young's modulus of the fill is about 30 MPa Es = 20.8 MPa Combined Loading FH4 = 0. Using Chart 1.4. ws = 0.8 (long-term value) Appendix D for a CBR of 12. The To obtain ws from Figure 1.59 / 30) x 1.19 (Section 3.20 ns = 0. is calculated from: b is 0. The value of k1 is 0.0633 + 0.043 √40) The base thickness may now be determined based = 31.80 Ese = = 20. Therefore.96 x 1.16). the design tensile Equation 12 is applicable to cases in which W is not strength of the concrete from Equation 1 is: greater than about 0.4 for the stacked loading area: Therefore: FE4 = 1. From Chart 1. established at the design stage. penetration resistance) or 20 x 1.5 = 30 MPa.8 (Table 1. and Lc = t [ ] 0.5 x (0.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.3.3 ) F4 = 1000 (fall / P) FE4 FH4 FS4 Equation 8 From Figure 1.32) 0.2111 (r)1.043 √fcm) for fcm ≤ 40 MPa. In order to STEP 5 Calculate long-term deflection below each determine the k2 factor.4 and Equation 8 to calculate the stress factor 31975   0. and hence k2 = 0.30.1 mm FH4 = 0.22 x 0.024 √fcm + 0.  20.03 x 4 (1 – 0.5 x (0.8 x 0.22 for Es = 20.com] @ 2018-06-21 STEP 2 Assess tensile strength of concrete to accommodate the increased load.8 (1 – 0. From Chart 1.5 m adopting the post loading example in Section D2 and \F4 = 1000 (2. it The design tensile strength of the concrete is is imperative that the design loads are accurately determined from Equation 1.0051 m or 5.8 MPa Δ = 0.0 range from about 4.5 m 102 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .96 for H = 7 m Comments FS4 = 0.90 + 3.00 for W = 2.22 x 0.4.30. from Equation 5 and Table 1.7 to 5. for H = 7 m.8 = 0. Also.88 for W = 4 m As ns may vary from 0. or (r)1.975 MPa on the stacked loading and aisle conditions by using H = 7 m Chart 1. the settlement could \F4 = 1000 (2.30.225 m 1.97 / 20.6 x 30 = 18 MPa. Assuming a concrete strength of 40 MPa. long-term value of the natural clay is b Ess. the base thickness is 120 mm. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.96 x 0.59 MPa As W ≤ 4.4.225 [ 2 ] = 2. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.03 MPa (ie 30 kPa) medium-stiff clay on top of rock. f all = 0.5 x (0.4 to determine the base thickness. the number of repetitions is stack 1000. use Equation 12 to calculate the deflection: STEP 3 Assess subgrade and soil conditions Δ = P W (1 – ns2) ws / Es Equation 12 The underlying soil profile for this pavement consists where: of a 2-m-deep compacted fill overlying 5 m of natural P = 0.33 Equation 13 Es(1 – ns2) the equivalent Young's modulus of the soil from where: Equation 3 is: t = 0.4 mm.17). From Figure 1. Esl (long-term) = 0.8 MPa Ec = Young's modulus of the concrete (from AS 3600 0.2 in Chapter 1).97 Using Chart 1.7 √40 = 2.24.2 to 0.73 (Table 1. Ec Therefore.7 x 7 m = 4. Comments STEP 1 Calculate base thickness from wheel loading only The base thickness is 225 mm.9.7.7 times the soil layer depth or 0.73 x 0. Increasing the loading case are as follows: concrete strength by one grade will not be sufficient n Axle load = 100 kN n Wheel spacing of 1.33 Lc = 0.88 = 89.6 from Table 1.61 F4 and then Chart 1. Should the loading increase to 35 kPa (ie 17% increase). the characteristic length.martella@jacobs.12) for fcm > 40 MPa STEP 4 Calculate required base thickness = (2400)1. the pavement The assumed loading conditions for the wheel only thickness is 300 mm (ie 33% increase).59 / 30) x 1. the base thickness is 225 mm. where Lc.96 for H = 7 m The following example has been developed by FS4 = 1.

58 n Characteristic compressive strength of concrete.000 f 'cf = 0.41 x 1.7 √ f 'c and t3interior = 155 mm f all = 0.4 f 'cf = 0. Q1 is assessed to be 0.5 m.00 x 1.5 / 0.54 from Table 1.14 = 81.00 for S = 1.1 in Chapter 1) FH3 = 1. t2 = 0.00 x 1. t2combined = 305 mm (95 mm more than f all = k1 k2 f 'cf wheel loading only) Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 103 .58 = 2.9 from Table 1.5 / 0.8 from Table 1.2: 1 FC1 = FE2 = 1.75 m k2 = 0.0 (no load repetitions) n Load repetitions – 20/day for 20 years = 146. For edge loading: between the post and the wheel is 0.3: where: FE3 = 1.0 m 1 = = 0. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.0 + 1. n Post spacing 1.3.0 + 1.21 = 2.5 m in one direction and 2.25 for interior loading and Es = 30 MPa where: FH3 = 1.0 m k2 = 1.18 x 1.26 x 0. 1 + 1.1.3 k4 = 1. P = 70 kN For the wheel loading only case.63 1 + 0.47 The design tensile strength of concrete is: from Chart 1.01 for H = 5 m k4 = 1.995 x 1. Q2 is assessed to be 1.00 x 1.26 F1combined = F1 x FC1 = 4.41 x 0.16 FS3 = 1.18 for edge loading and Es = 30 MPa k3 = 1.85 from Chart 1.0 m in thus S / t2 = 0. For interior loading: f 'c = 50 MPa F3interior = 1000 (f all / P) FE3 FH3 FS3 The design tensile strength of concrete is: from Chart 1.85 (70 / 100) \F2 = 2.22 Using Figure 1.2.01 x 1.8.8 x 1.63 = 2.9 FE1 = 1.5) / 2 = 1.5 m STEP 3 Assess the effect of the post loading on \F1 = 2.2 from Table 1.4 the other direction Using Figure 1.62 x 0. k3 = 1.5 m = = 0.2 (Section 3.33 for Es = 40 MPa and t3edge = 290 mm FH1 = 1.5) / 2 = 1.15 m.25 x 1.9 x 0.2 x 1.00 for H = 5 m FS1 = 1.05 (70 / 100) f 'c = 50 MPa F2combined = F2 x FC2 = 4.62 the wheel loading location and t1 = 150 mm Assume the design centre to centre distance. t1combined = 185 mm (35 mm more than STEP 2 Calculate base thickness from post wheel loading only) loading only For edge loading: n Post load.7 √50 = 2.14 for S = (2.91 and t2 = 210 mm from Chart 1.41 x 1.05 x 1.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.15 = 3. F2 = f all FE2 FH2 FS2 k3 k4 For interior loading: where: For the wheel loading only case.16 n Equivalent soil layer thickness of 5.96 / 70) x 1.7 √50 = 3.3.33 x 1.00 for S = 1.54 x 0.com] @ 2018-06-21 n Equivalent soil short-term Young's modulus of where: 40 MPa k1 = 0. t1 = 0.27.8.14 = 76.7 √ f 'c during design life f all = 0.41 for Es = 40 MPa 1 + Q1 (PPost / PAxle) FH2 = 0.2 from Table 1.75 m from Chart 1. S.1: \F3 = 1000 x (3.21 m.14 for S = (2.27.995 for H = 5 m 1 FS2 = 1.96 MPa n Characteristic compressive strength of concrete.05 n Post base plate area is 165 mm x 165 mm 1 FC2 = n Equivalent soil long-term Young's modulus of 30 MPa 1 + Q2 (PPost / PAxle) n Equivalent soil layer thickness of 5.17 \F3 = 1000 x (3.00 x 0.01 for H = 5 m k1 = 0.2 = 4.22 FS3 = 1.01 x 1.05 (Section 3.96 / 70) x 1.1 Chapter 1 Design) thus S / t1 = 0.3: f all = k1 k2 f 'cf FE3 = 1.martella@jacobs. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.2 = 4.41 MPa For edge loading: Appendix D For interior loading: F3edge = 1000 (f all / P) FE3 FH3 FS3 F1 = f all FE1 FH1 FS1 k3 k4 from Chart 1.

Printed / viewed by: [kevin.3. Q3 is assessed to be 0.155 m.29 m. t3combined = 360 mm (70 mm more than post loading only) STEP 5 Determine required base thickness for combined loading STEP Case Interior Edge 1 Wheel loading only t1 150 mm t2 210 mm 2 Post loading only t3interior 155 mm t3edge 290 mm 3 Effect of post on wheel location t1combined 185 mm t2combined 305 mm 4 Effect of wheel on post location t3combined 170 mm t3combined 360 mm Comments The design process indicates a slab thickness of 185 mm should be adopted for the interior of the slab and 360 mm for any free edge.87 1 + 0. Q3 is assessed to be 0.175 1 FC3 = 1 + Q3 (PAxle / PPost) 1 = = 0.9 x 0. 104 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .com] @ 2018-06-21 STEP 4 Assess the effect of the wheel loading on the post loading location For interior loading: For the post loading only case.72 D Using Figure 1.10 1 FC3 = 1 + Q3 (PAxle / PPost) 1 = = 0. t3interior = 0. thus S / t1 = 0.4 x 0.5 / 0.87 = 70.5 from Chart 1.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.28.martella@jacobs.5 / 0.28.29 = 1.80 = 61. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. t3edge = 0.10 (100 / 70) F3combined = F3interior x FC3 = 81. thus S / t2 = 0.155 = 3. t3combined = 170 mm (15 mm more than post loading only) Appendix For edge loading: For the post loading only case.3.2 Using Figure 1.80 1 + 0.175 (100 / 70) F3combined = F3edge x FC3 = 76.8 from Chart 1.

sand-filled polyester.2R-29)68 Severity of Total nominal Typical but not exclusive uses chemical thickness range of protective systems in order of environment of coating Typical protective barrier systems severity Mild Under 1 mm Polyvinyl butyral. procured pavements during continuous neoprene sheet. Over 6 mm n Asphalt membrane covered strong alkalies. salt solutions. chlorinated rubber.5–6 mm Glass-reinforced epoxy. Appendix E The effect of various chemicals on concrete is given in the Reinforced Concrete Design handbook 67. In most cases. dense concrete. n Protect concrete in contact with vinyl. n Protect concrete from abrasion sand-filler polyurethane. Table E1 Protective barrier systems (after ACI 201. coal-tar epoxy. glass. coal tar. and salt solutions with acid-proof brick using a n Protect concrete from concentrated chemical‑resistant mortar acids or combinations of acids and solvents Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 105 . chemical solutions having a pH as coal-tar urethane low as 4. neoprene.com] @ 2018-06-21 Appendix E Effect of Chemicals on Concrete Pavements and Type of Barrier Systems Many substances will attack concrete. depending on the chemical Intermediate 3–9 mm Sand-filled epoxy. organic acids.5–7 mm n Sand-filledepoxy system topcoated continuous or intermittent immersion. with a pigmented but unfilled epoxy exposure to water. leading to deterioration of the bond of the matrix causing loss of strength and/or the ability of the concrete to protect the reinforcement from corrosion. The properties of various generic types of coatings to protect concrete are summarised in Table E1. In the case of intermittent or low-level concentration of an aggressive agent. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. then a protective coating is necessary. the rate of attack can be slowed by using an impermeable. dairy. the specification of a suitable concrete can minimise the effect of attack.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. polyurethane.martella@jacobs. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. strong alkalies Severe Composite systems: n Protect concrete tanks during 0. epoxy. plasticised PVC sheet exposure to dilute material (pH is below 3). bituminous and intermittent exposure to dilute materials acids in chemical. In most cases. dilute acids. Thus concrete pavements not in contact with liquids are not usually subject to chemical attack. n Improve freeze-thaw resistance acrylic. n Protect concrete tanks and reinforced polyester. the aggressive agent has to be in liquid form to penetrate the concrete and attack it. Where continuous exposure and/or a high level of concentration of the aggressive agent cannot be avoided. styrene-acrylic copolymer n Prevent staining of concrete asphalt. and food‑processing plants Severe 0.

The minimum permissible stresses very smooth subbase) and 2. Consider a base (or pavement) length L (m) between The most convenient type of reinforcement for jointed joints or base edges which are free to move due to concrete pavements is welded wire mesh.10 and 0. μ = 1.0537 t L (mm2/m) Equation F3 at midspan (ie to hold a potential crack closed) Example: Assuming a base thickness of 200 mm according to subgrade-drag theory is: (t = 200) and a control joint spacing of 16 m (L = 16). f s. As Reinforcement fs Base weight For design purposes it is assumed that where a crack occurs. the friction between the the reinforcement immediately after the formation of base and subgrade/subbase will restrict the shrinkage a crack. the stress in the concrete has diminished to Potential crack Friction.086%.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. some further points to consider include: The allowable steel stress. then: calculations). with 0. Whether of a bound or unbound type. then steel reinforcement must resist the force.018 t L kN per metre width of base (where t is in This represents a steel percentage of 0. and typically a constant f s is taken as 0.0 (for a f sy of 500 MPa. the maximum value of between these two limits.67 f sy is recommended.75 f sy. f s (MPa) is the allowable steel stress in tension.com] @ 2018-06-21 Control joint spacing. Note that AS 3600 on subgrade-drag theory. mm and L is in metres) According to Malisch69 most highway departments use reinforcement percentages between 0. If in pavements subjected to heavy truck traffic.67 x 500 = 335 MPa concrete base W (kg/m3) Figure F1. and density of f s = 0. L Appendix F Determination of Control joint Control joint L/2 Amount of Shrinkage Longitudinal steel area.15% Assuming that the tensile strength of the concrete is and this has been found to provide satisfactory service zero. rather than shrinkage contraction or thermal expansion.0 (for a very rough for reinforcement in pavements varies for each subbase). and ACI 36011 recommends that to avoid the subbase roughness will usually be somewhere unacceptable crack widths. f sy Welded wire and shear at the base/subbase interface and is mesh complying with AS/NZS 4671 has a minimum generally considered to be between 1. width plain or deformed bars or cold worked bars. is 360 MPa (0.5 is adopted for design.75 should be considered by estimate the actual value and does not take into the designer to limit the width of cracks. L then: F = W g Btμ Equation F1  2 As = 0.67 to reinforcement required to control cracking due to the 0. ACI 360 also suggests that value of 1. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.5 and B = 1 m F = 0. µ zero and that the entire stress must be taken up by the Induced crack steel reinforcement. As (mm2). As = 18 t L / f s mm2/m width of base Equation F2 When determining the appropriate reinforcement ratio where t is in mm and L is in metres to use. thickness t (mm) of base.martella@jacobs. should not exceed the n The coefficient of friction is a combination of friction yield stress of the reinforcement. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.67 f sy = 0.75 f sy. then Substituting into Equation F2: the force F (kN) required to prevent a crack opening As = 18 t L /335 = 0. Shrinkage reinforcement will not Figure F1 Forces developed in a base due to shrinkage prevent cracking.72 f sy) for a nominal bar movement causing tension in the concrete. The most common method of determining the area of suggests that f s should be in the range of 0. authority. diameter of 10 mm. The PCA9 account variations that may result from base 106 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . f s. B (m) of the panel (sometimes taken as 1 m for ease of Assuming welded wire mesh is used. then ACI 31870 requires a minimum of 0. therefore a more conservative allowable Appendix F shrinkage in a concrete floor or pavement is based stress of 0. This assumes that as the states that the maximum tensile stress permitted in concrete dries and contracts. per metre width of and temperature reinforcement. If the coefficient of friction between the base and the subbase is μ.0537 x 200 x 16 = 172 mm2/ m (ie SL72 mesh) Substituting W g = 24 kN/m3. but will assist in controlling the width of any cracks that do form.14% for shrinkage the required area of steel.18% required base is: where welded wire reinforcement is used. This may under values even less than 0.

If the ends are not restrained. Appendix n possibly causing yielding and unacceptably wide cracks.14% instead of 0. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. n The lighter reinforcement generally given by the In practice. the same amount of steel required at subgrade-drag theory method has a greater risk midspan is usually carried through the length of the of displacement or deformation during concrete panel. eg the ends of the pavement are tied into special ground beams.15% range. more heavily reinforced floors will generally develop a greater number of cracks.2. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 107 .10% could be used for say reinforcement in pavements where the length (or joint spacing) is similar to a jointed unreinforced pavement type (Section 2.5 in Chapter 1) where some minimum reinforcement may still be advisable to control or minimise the effect of cracking Section 3. crack spacing will increase and the crack width will widen near slab ends. concrete cover should be avoided. the lack open (eg misaligned dowel bars or 'dowel lockup') of published data on floor performance at different or sawn contraction joints do not initiate cracking. F In view of the above. the reinforcement is placed parallel to the longitudinal direction. but the widths will be smaller.10% results in the reinforcement of the steel yielding and cracks widening if joints being increased from SL82 to SL92.martella@jacobs. Any activity that may affect its location design for jointed reinforced pavements is within the slab or decrease the minimum required conservative and has an adequate factor of safety.10 to 0. thereby increasing the steel stress at a crack. but notes that this may range up to 0.5% as typical.14% which is near the upper end of the typical 0. the use n Higher reinforcement percentages reduce the risk of 0. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.com] @ 2018-06-21 thickness or early loading eg the additional weight The amount of steel required to keep a potential from early application of post loads will restrict crack tightly closed is a maximum at mid panel. In this way it can be seen that reinforcement placement. Thermal effects are not incorporated into the subgrade-drag theory. it is recommended that to ensure satisfactory performance. For example. reinforcement percentages69 suggests a more the spacing between working joints may double. if dowelled joints do not more heavily reinforced pavements adds cost. For continuously reinforced pavements and where sawcut contraction joints are to be eliminated. conservative approach should be adopted.7%. the PCA9 suggests a minimum steel percentage of about 0. For lengths longer than about 25 m. and diminishes linearly to zero at the panel's end. For the earlier example of a 200-mm-thick base.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. While the use of malfunction. For long narrow slabs such as aisles. shrinkage movements. The lower 0.1 in Chapter 1. the minimum reinforcement percentage for pavements should generally be a more conservative 0. with minimum steel percentages placed in the transverse direction.4. This will induce closely spaced cracks of minimum width provided that the ends of the pavement are restrained. As a general rule. the subgrade-drag theory will give higher percentages and these should then be used.

further deterioration in the subgrade. Sealant G1 Surface Deterioration failure is generally due to incorrect detailing of the joint to accommodate the performance of the sealant. or air movement in the building. a the surface whilst bleed water is still present. Under repetitive loading. shrinks and induces these operations environmental issues such as such curling. the fretting of the crack shoulders. It can also be caused by small-diameter. a reasonable understanding of the of Concrete Slabs72.72. poor finishing and curing. A summary Avoiding Surface Imperfections in Concrete73 and of the effect of chemicals on concrete and surface ACI 3026. It results from Surface cracking is generally attributable to one or either the differential drying shrinkage or temperature more of the following: inadequate concrete quality. inherently weak because of low concrete characteristic strength. Although Chapter 2). 108 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . properties of concrete by the designer. and low humidity can make the problem worse. may be increased. strong direct sunlight. that exceed the flexural strength of the concrete Cracking of pavements is generally limited to surface and a wide crack may appear on the surface of the cracks which may extend a few millimetres deep pavement. Fretting is generally caused by either poor joint design and weak concrete or a combination of both. of failure is a poor understanding of the design Nevertheless. or from 'pumping' action occurs in the pavement. drying more quickly. high ambient temperatures. In severe cases. or Surface deterioration of an industrial pavement may be to the sealant having exceeded its expected life. traffic. In classed under five sub-headings: addition. solid wheels travelling across the joint. leading to some 'soft' This problem usually arises from premature finishing of spots in the subgrade. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. Impact damage is localised damage of the surface the pavement will crack (refer to Section 3. The poor placing. where pavements are laid on membranes the problem wind. the general surface of the pavement. they are aesthetically undesirable and in assumptions relating to the type of loading. All of them can falls/grades and drainage traps. The effects of pavement defects arise from a combination of poor chemical spillage can be aggravated by inadequate design and construction techniques. finishing or curing techniques.martella@jacobs. usually in the form of uncontrolled loading on a 'weak' surface. and are discussed further in Chemical attack of the surface may occur. See also Designing Floor Slabs on Grade74. Appendix G Surface deterioration and joint defects are the most Dusting is the appearance of fine sand and cement common forms of distress occurring in industrial floors. treatments/coatings that may be used to protect the Designers should be aware that most of these concrete are covered elsewhere68. The surface may be cracking. even at moderate speeds. specification and good construction practices. In terms of differential drying shrinkage. leading to inadequate curing. the cause of this type and rarely beyond the plane of the top reinforcement. be avoided by appropriate detailing. all pavements may be designed to resist impact loads. Poor subgrade preparation. service provide a potential for surface deterioration by Other types of problem areas are restraint cracking. powder on the surface of the floor which is disturbed Other defects worth highlighting are: by brooming. popouts and blisters. During surface. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. In some cases.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.2.2 in due to heavy objects falling onto the surface. Edge curling is identified as a measurable lifting this type of damage is commonly due to low-strength of the edges and corners of a panel in relation to concrete and poor curing procedures. gradient between the top and bottom surfaces.com] @ 2018-06-21 Appendix G Distress of Industrial G2 Joint Failure Pavements Joint failure usually falls into one of two categories: fretting (or ravelling) and sealant breakdown. This is discussed further in Curling Nonetheless. an incorrect joint type or layout can result in Abrasion of the surface is caused by repetitive wheel pavement distress. specifier and Structural overload occasionally occurs when a contractor can measurably reduce the incidence of pavement may be subjected to concentrated loads cracking. or the surface has G3 Other Defects been 'softened' by chemical attack.

15 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0.8 n a change from Grade 40 to Grade 25 concrete will result in an increase in wear of about 20%. The relative effect of -1.6 consideration should also be given to the methods of Abrasion depth (mm) construction. such as polyurethane or epoxy.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.com] @ 2018-06-21 Appendix H Effect of Various The repeated power trowel finish giving the results shown in Figure H2 used a solid disc power trowel Factors on Abrasion Resistance machine and consisted of three periods of power trowelling separated to allow the bleed water to reach the surface and evaporate. but the commentary to AS 3600 states that -0.0 and 30 minutes after commencement of testing. The extent of abrasion Time (minutes) was measured by a micrometer at intervals of 5.2 Aston75 and the Cement and Concrete Association of Figure H1 Water-cement ratio's effect on abrasion New Zealand 76. has Repeated power trowel Power trowel and the greatest influence on abrasion resistance.0 W/C = 0. The study Abrasion depth (mm) also found that: -0. -1.2 increase the wear by 3 to 4 times.4 especially the use of repeated power trowelling. n repeated power trowelling is an effective finishing Figure H2 Finishing method's effect on abrasion technique to improve abrasion resistance. such as the finishing process. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. and n surface hardeners seemed to provide initial improvement but once the hardener layer was penetrated.martella@jacobs. Curing -0. 10. n failure to cure the base compared to covering with polyethylene sheeting can result in more than double the wear. resistance – power trowel finishing and polyethylene The accelerated abrasion test method adopted in the sheet curing NZ research project allowed a reliable determination of surface wear against time. were found to significantly enhance the abrasion resistance. This data is based on work carried out by the University of -1.2 conditions. Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 109 .0 Abrasion resistance of industrial pavements is not solely dependent on the compressive strength of -0.6 vacuum dewatering by curing then concrete mix proportions.65 each of these is illustrated in Figures H1 to H5.0 Power trowel n not using the appropriate finishing technique can Hand trowel -1. the abrasion resistance reverted to that of an untreated concrete. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. Time (minutes) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0.8 W/C = 0.2 concrete.52 effect on abrasion resistance. and these are plotted in Figures H1 to H5 for various test -0.44 Appendix H and the type of surface treatment also have a major W/C = 0. -0.65 and polyethylene sheet curing n the use of surface treatments. AS 3600 requires a minimum strength grade for -0. The results show that the finishing technique. followed -0. resistance – water cement ratio of 0.4 specific traffic conditions and exposure classifications.

4 Natural No shake -0.65. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.2 Metallic -0. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.0 -0. and polyethylene sheet curing Time (minutes) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0.com] @ 2018-06-21 Time (minutes) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0.2 Figure H4 Liquid treatment's effect on abrasion resistance – water cement ratio of 0.4 90% efficient resin membrane -0. repeated power trowel finishing.0 -0.martella@jacobs. repeated power trowel finishing.65 and repeated Appendix H power trowel finishing Time (minutes) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0.2 Figure H5 Dryshake treatment's effect on abrasion resistance – water cement ratio of 0.8 -1.8 -1.2 -0.4 Polyurethane coating Acrylic coating -0.2 Epoxy coating -0.0 -0.6 Polyethene sheet Wet hessian Abrasion depth (mm) -0.0 -1.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.6 Sodium silicate No treatment Abrasion depth (mm) -0.6 Abrasion depth (mm) -0.0 -1.8 Air curing -1. and 90% efficiency resin membrane curing 110 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements .65.0 -1.2 Figure H3 Curing method's effect on abrasion resistance – water cement ratio of 0.

Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.
Printed / viewed by: [kevin.martella@jacobs.com] @ 2018-06-21

Appendix I Proforma for Design
Design Quality Audit – Sheet 1
Quality Audit
Design Team: Alpha
Project Number: 9305
Start Date: 3/3/09
Auditor: John Checker
Client: ABC Builder and Architect
Project Title: Warehouse for Smart Shoes
This Appendix outlines a suggested design quality audit
Calculations Identifier: Document APC.DOC –
procedure for designers to use in conjunction with their
14 pages long dated 14/5/09
quality procedure manuals. It is recommended that an
Specification: Document APS.DOC – 12 pages long
engineer not involved in the design process carries out
Drawing Nos:
the audit based on the calculation sheets, specification
Architectural A1a. A2b, A3 to A6
and construction drawings. The basis of the audit is to
Structural S1b, S2c, S3a, S4 to S6, S7b
check that information received and decisions made
Civil C1d & C2a
by the engineer are referenced to known standards,
Appendix

I
technical data sheets and correspondence. The text
typed in script in the examples represents typical
responses to the audit.

Design Quality Audit – Sheet 2

Project Number: 9305
Sheet 1 Completed (Y/N) Yes
Auditor: John Checker

Design Loads
Source: Internal Report LSM.DOC
Sighted at: File 9305
Wheel/Axles: 15 tonne maximum
Storage Rack: Not applicable
UDL: Not applicable
Load repetitions: 35 per day, 5 days per week
Factor of Safety: 1.0

Subgrade Properties
Geotechnical Survey (YES/NO and Report No.):
Yes – Report No. GTR943.01
CBR Value: Range 10 to 15% – used 10%
SRT Values: Not derived
CPT Values: Not derived
Es: Calculated at 15 MPa
Other Information: No groundwater table data.
Durability
Abrasion Resistance Requirements: 32 MPa
selected from AS 3600
Corrosion Resistance Requirements: Nil
Freeze/Thaw Resistance Requirements: Nil
Chemical Attack Requirements: Nil

Concrete Properties
Flexural Strength (Min.): 4.25 MPa at 28 days
Compressive Strength (Min.): 32 MPa at 28 days
(f 'c)
Shrinkage Strain (Max.): 650 mm at 56 days

Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements 111

Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.
Printed / viewed by: [kevin.martella@jacobs.com] @ 2018-06-21

Design Quality Audit – Sheet 3

Project Number: 9305
Sheet 2 completed (Y/N): Yes
Auditor: John Checker

Selection of Pavement Details
Maximum contraction joint spacing: 5.0 m
Source: Page 2 of calculations – page dated
11/5/09
Sighted at: 6/6/09
Location of isolation joints: Drawing 53a
Source: Page 9 of calculations – page dated
13/5/09
Sighted at: 6/6/09
Location of expansion joints: Drawing 53a Appendix

I
Source: Page 7 of calculations – page dated
13/5/09
Sighted at: 6/6/09
Location of construction joints: Drawing 53a
Source: Page 3 of calculations – page dated
13/5/09
Sighted at: 6/6/09
Edge thickening: Yes at 8t – see drawing S4
Source: Page 6 of calculations – page dated
12/5/09
Sighted at: 6/6/09
Joint sealants: Type XXX – for location see drawing
S2c
Source: Page 2 of calculations – page dated
11/5/09
Sighted at: 6/6/09
Surface finish: Power floated and lightly broomed
Source: Page 2 of calculations – page dated
11/5/09
Sighted at: 6/6/09
Surface tolerance: Not specified
Source:
Sighted at:
Surface coatings: Not specified
Source:
Sighted at:
Concrete base thickness: 180 mm – Drawing 52b
Source: Page 12 of calculations – page dated
14/5/09
Sighted at: 6/6/09
Subbase thickness: 100 mm – Drawing 52b
Source: Page 12 of calculations – page dated
14/5/09
Sighted at: 6/6/09

112 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements

Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. No further reproduction or distribution permitted.
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n ASTM C779/C779M – 05 Standard Test Method No. n Chisholm D H The Abrasion Resistance of Industrial Concrete Floor Slabs Cement and Thickness Design Concrete Association of New Zealand. April 1991. Part 5. Vol. n Gehring D 'Constructing a Superflat Floor Slab' n Kettle R and Sadegzadeh M 'The Influence of Concrete International Vol. No further reproduction or distribution permitted. Indeterminate Structures. April 1991. 16. for securing and testing cores from hardened concrete for compressive strength. June 1994. 1982. August 1988. USA. 67. 5. and No. May 1987.martella@jacobs. n Ytterberg C N 'The Waviness Index Compared with n Cracknell D W 'The Analysis of Prestressed Other Floor Tolerance Systems – Part 2' Concrete Concrete Statically Indeterminate Structures' International Vol. Concrete International Vol. Screeds and Toppings – Surfaces 2008. Testing n Pedersen N 'Wear Resistant Concrete for n AS 1012. 8. May 1991. November 1994. April 1991. Additions and Other Factors on the Abrasion n Hodgkinson J R Thickness Design for Concrete Resistance of Industrial Concrete Floors British Road Pavements (TN 46). Las Vegas. Pavement Surface No. Construction Procedures on Abrasion Resistance' n 'Overtopping of Industrial Floors' New Zealand Katherine and Bryan Mather International Concrete Construction Vol. 1968. Decorative Barrier Systems for Concrete ACI n Davis E H and Poulos H G 'The Use of Elastic Theory Manual of Concrete Practice. October 1989. 2. 27 July 1994. 35. Dampproofing. 6.com] @ 2018-06-21 n Fibres in Concrete Seminar Cement and Concrete Prestressed Pavements Association of Australia. n Sindel J A 'A Design Procedure for Post-tensioned Concrete Pavements' Concrete International Vol. 4. Performance' Conference Papers. 4. Failure and Repair (Bibliography) British Cement Association. Printed / viewed by: [kevin. July 1990. Lasting Industrial Floors' Conference Papers. Waterproofing. Assessment 2nd CANMET/ACI International n Crisp B C 'Surface Requirements for Long Symposium. June 1995. CIA Biennial Randwick. Burley E and Wood L A 'A Report 08.14 Methods of testing concrete – Method Pavements' Concrete International Vol. Association of Australia. 1987. Method for the Design of Ground Slabs Loaded n ACI Committee 515 A Guide to the Use of by Point Loads' The Structural Engineer Vol. Protective. No. Symposium on Prestressed Concrete Statically n Milne C Amway of Australia Warehouse Expansion. for Settlement Prediction under Three-Dimensional n Chaplin R G The Influence of GGBS and PFA Conditions' Geotechnique 18:67–91. June 1989. 1990.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd. 1997. No. No. July 1990. Control Revisited' New Zealand Concrete n Tyo B 'Surface Treatments for Industrial Floors' Construction Vol.35. 10. April 1991. No. NSW. n Holland J 'Design and Construction of a State- n ACI 360 Chapter 9 Design of post-tensioned slabs- of-the-Art Superflat Floor' Concrete International on-ground ACI Manual of Concrete Practice.10. 116 Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements . Conference Brisbane. 13. Standards n Phelan W S and Scott M L 'Tipping Floors Require Australia. Floor Systems Seminar. 95/January 96. 19. CIA n Chisholm D H 'Concrete Floor Slabs – Shrinkage Conference Brisbane. September 1951. 13. No. Cement and Concrete Cement Association. n Acton J T C Compaction Techniques for On-site n Munn R L and Dumitru I High Performance Concrete Cement and Concrete Association of Concrete Floor Construction and Performance Australia Technical Paper (WA/TP88). 1995. 11 April 1997 n Vorobieff G Post-Tensioned Slabs-on-Ground n Hannant D 'Fibres in Industrial Ground-Floor Slabs' Cement and Concrete Association of Australia New Zealand Concrete Construction. April 1990. February 1983. Part 4. 5. for Abrasion Resistance for Horizontal Concrete n Young J C Floors. 36. 11. December Technical Paper (TP/F49) October. Construction of a Superflat Floor The Association of n Sindel J A 'Take Control of Your Pavement's Consulting Engineers. Tough Toppings' Concrete Construction Vol. 2009. Conference ACI-SP100 71. 1991. Technical n Fatemi-Ardakani A.

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com] @ 2018-06-21 . No further reproduction or distribution permitted. Printed / viewed by: [kevin.martella@jacobs.Copyrighted material licensed to Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd^Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd.