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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

Rationale

The need to be proficient in the use of English among non-native speakers

has become a global phenomenon. Today, educators are faced with the

challenge of addressing the needs of the growing number of students whose

primary language is not English (Gibbons, 2003). While mastering other skills

and content in other subject areas, there is the necessity for these learners to

gain proficiency in English.It is surprising to note that even in the United States

of America where immigrants continue to increase in number, studies show

that this is a predicament (Berriz, 2006; Spanos, 2006; Reyhner & Davison,

1992). Public schools in the U.S. have been developing instruction for their

students learning English as a second language for the past 25 years and the

challenge has remained. One such strategy for instruction identified by Blake

and Van Sickle (2001) is code-switching from the local dialect to standard

teaching, which seemed to work well as the students improved their academic

achievement in science and mathematics. This may not be true, however, for

other states which do not adhere to code-switching and find immersion or

sheltered-approach as workable (Rossell, 2005).

The quest for the “right” approach seems elusive as they continue to

experiment with other formulas to meet the growing and changing needs of

learners.In South Africa, Miller, Bradbury and Pedley (1998) studied the

academic performance of students in mathematics and English. Their findings

show that the second language, which is English, rather than being the direct

cause of under-preparedness of university students, serves to compound or

exacerbate a more fundamental educational or cognitive problem.

Mathematical concepts are acquired through language and the problem arising

from the use of the language has truly affected the learning of these concepts.

Although there are rich sources of data for English as a Second Language

across the curriculum, there is still a dearth in literature concerning the use of

English in in teaching other subjects. . The need to answer the challenge of

both attaining mastery of the content and the English language is an issue that

teachers should address.Furthermore, do they really believe that being

proficient in English would help them teach effectively?

The attitudes of teachers come to the fore as they reflect upon the

language that they use in teaching. Consciously or unconsciously, their

attitudes play a crucial role in language’s “growth or decay, restoration or

destruction” (Baker, 1988). Their attitudes, too, as part of their cultural

orientation, influence heavily their younger students (Shameem, 2004).After

World War Two, the spread of English has become more visible as a result of

sociopolitical and economic events. In addition to its dominance in colonized

areas of the world, it began to spread in non-colonized countries and

eventually English has become the world-wide lingua franca, a language used

for communication between people whose first languages differ (Holmes,

1997). The unique case of the English language often attributed to its being the

predominant language of international diplomacy, business, commerce,

popular media, education, science and technology in the twentieth and

twenty-first century (Fishman 1992; Master, 1998).

Today, for transmission of information, English is mainly used,

accelerating its spread and making it the international language of knowledge

and information, which are recognized as the tools of political and economic

power of our age. This being the case, it is no wonder that English is becoming

more and more integrated into the field of education all over the world. The

overwhelming spread of English necessitates countries to review their

language policies in connection with education. The two outstanding

phenomena in this respect are English-medium instruction and the teaching of

English as a second/foreign language. The former is known to be prevalent in

former colonies of Britain and U.S., where English had an official/semi-official

status at some or all levels of education. Although there is now a tendency to

revert back to the education-in-the-mother tongue in some of these countries

due to social and political restructuring subsequent to political independence,

English-medium instruction perpetuates. (Evans, 2002; Flowerdew; 1998;

Rahman; 1997; Ramanthan, 1999; Tickoo, 1996).

English, since its introduction by Americans in the Philippines in the last

century, has generally been considered to have had a good foothold in the

country until in recent decades. There was a time where even elementary

graduates could still speak in straight English unlike most college

level-students in Philippine universities. In fact, let it be said that English

language proficiency in the country is on the wane due to a variety of factors.

Some of these include lack of reliable models of English users in schools

and/or inadequately trained teachers, lack of materials, lack of motivation and

language anxiety. There are those who do not seem to have the confidence

to use the language even if their grades on the subjects are good.

The Philippines has been, until recently, considered as a bastion of the

English language in Southeast Asia. Students in the Philippines have been

studying English from kindergarten up to the tertiary level. Yet, nowadays

teachers from all levels of the education ladder have been complaining of poor

English skills among Filipinos, especially among the younger generation.

English instruction, especially in the public schools, has been observed to

have vastly deteriorated in the past decades. This is ironic considering that

Americans initiated and strengthened the English language in the Philippines.

It is often said during the American period, Filipinos straight from Grade Six

could confidently communicate in good English; even those who only

managed to finish only a few grades in Elementary school could speak and

write better than most of today’s college graduates.

This brings the researcher to the question, how effective is English as a

medium of instruction, especially in the far-flung rural areas where exposure to

English media is almost none? What are teachers to do, given the problem?

It is for these reasons that the present research was conducted.

Theoretical Framework

This study is based on Cummins’ Theory on the role of language

proficiency. Cummins Theory explains that, by using the first language as the

medium of instruction, bilinguals can easily learn and acquire academic skills.

It also emphasized the purpose of language proficiency assessment in

bilingual education which is the placement of students to classes taught

through the language which will best promote learning. This theory supports

depending on the context in which it occurs. level of academic proficiency in the native language. Developing fluency in more technical. Basic Interpersonal Communications skills (BICS) and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) have directly influenced classroom instruction. gestures. Jim Cummins’s language acquisition theories have directly influenced classroom instruction. context-embedded communication and context-reduced communication. Examples of . Later. Cummins expanded the concept of conversational and academic language to include two distinct types of communication. such as objects. and the degree of support provided. which help make the information comprehensible. Context-embedded communication provides several communicative supports to the listener or reader. Cummins distinguishes between two types of language. or vocal inflections. Research has shown that the average student can develop conversational fluency within two to five years. age and time of arrival at school. academic language can take from four to seven years depending on many variables such as language proficiency level. This distinction had led teachers to a better understanding of language ability and expectations.the idea that with the use of instructional medium the students could easily learn and there is a high possibility that the students could understand better and it results to a high performance of the students.

Cummins’s language acquisition theories break language down into categories that are very critical for teachers to understand. His theories can be summarized as: • Second language learners become proficient in Basic Interpersonal Communication years before becoming proficient in Cognitive Academic Language. Cognitively undemanding communication requires a minimal amount of abstract or critical thinking. a math lesson. which provides no visual clues. or a multiple-choice test. such as a social studies lecture. Cummins distinguished between the different cognitive demands that communication can place on the learner. .context-embedded communication are a one-to-one social conversation with physical gestures. According to Cummins. Examples of cognitively demanding communication are academic content lessons. Similarly. or a note left on a refrigerator. or simple yes/no questions in the classroom. Examples are a phone conversation. language can be cognitively undemanding or cognitively demanding. Examples of cognitively undemanding communication are a conversation on the playground. Context-reduced communication provides fewer communicative clues to support understanding. Cognitively demanding communication requires a learner to analyze and synthesize information quickly and contains abstract or specialized concepts. or storytelling activities that include visual props.

What is the profile of the respondents in terms of a.HIghest Educational Attainment 2.Subjects taught d. Is there a significant relationship between the respondents’ profile and their perception of the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction? Null Hypothesis . Context-embedded Communication is easier to understand than Context-reduced Communication.What are the respondents’ perceptions regarding the effectiveness of the English language as a medium of instruction? 3. • The ease of understanding language also depends on whether the language is cognitively demanding or undemanding Statement of the Problem The proposed research aimed to determine the effectiveness of the English language as a medium of instruction as perceived by the teachers of Sultan Labay Moriatao-bae Technical Vocational School. Specifically.Age b. this study sought to answer the following questions: 1.Gender c. • The ease of understanding language depends on the context in which it is used.

Conceptual Framework This research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of English language as medium of instruction among teachers at Sultan Labay Moriatao-bae High School. gender.Ho1: There is no significant relationship between the respondents’ profile and their perception of the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction. Pearson’s r was used to determine the relationships between the study’s variables. Independent Variables Dependent Variable Profile of the . highest educational attainment. and subjects handled while the dependent variables were the respondents’ perceptions regarding English as a medium of instruction. The independent variables are the respondents’ age.

Schematic Diagram Showing the Variables of the Study Scope and Limitations This study limited itself to determining the effectiveness of the English language as a medium of instruction as perceived by the teachers of . Figure 1.

Sultan Labay Moriatao-bae Technical Vocational School. they are also there to help the students become more prepared for the rigors of higher level instruction. Significance of the Study This study hopes to be a valuable addition to the growing number of studies regarding the English language and its effectiveness as a medium of instruction. For teachers in other subjects. which in turn. school administrators.. In addition to the part of the questionnaire dealing with the respondents’ personal profile only the relationship between the respondents’ profile and their perceptions towards the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction was probed. also delivered in English. and it is hoped that they also see the need to improve their language skills in school so that they will become more . Students will benefit from the improved instruction. The study will be of significance to curriculum planners. The study also limited itself to using teachers as respondents since the topic dealt with the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction. which means that the validity of the study would be compromised if the students were involved as respondents. will help students become more competent and more confident users of the English language. The results might motivate them to improve their English skills as well. and English teachers since the results of the study may help them to conceptualize and implement measures to improve English language instruction in rural areas and learning among the students and help improve the quality of instruction in English in the country. this study might be an eye opener for them because they are not only there to teach the students in order to help them pass the subjects. particularly those Filipino students in the secondary level.

English-medium Instruction (EMI): Refers to instruction of academic subjects through the medium of English. opinions. Secondary Education: Secondary education refers to education after the elementary grades. within the boundaries of the present study instructional process has been used to refer to learning of the subject matter. linguistic skills and teacher’s teaching performance. In the Philippines. Future researchers wishing to conduct studies regarding English language anxiety will find this proposed study a good reference. Definition of Terms The researcher found it necessary to define the following terms to help the reader further understand the study. with the implementation of the K-12 . intentions. Instructional Process: Although instructional process is a broad term that covers various aspects of instruction.prepared for the demands of a more globalized workplace and become more employable like their urban counterparts. Attitudes. Perceptions: Refer to evaluative concepts encompassing opinions and beliefs. evaluative beliefs are interrelated concepts that have been areas of study for social psychologists. beliefs.

and by far the most volatile issue has been the use of English learner’s primary language for instruction: Should English learners be taught skills in English which is just their second language (ESL) from the onset of their schooling. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Related Literature Language of instruction has been the topic of greatest controversy in the education of English Language learners. 2010) There is an alarming rate of students who get low grades in the content areas. To understand the relationship between language . or should they be taught academic skills in their home language or their mother tongue? (Martin. 1995). 1991). particularly in the subjects of Sciences and Mathematics. Many studies have been conducted to know the different factors affecting their level of achievements. et al. One of these is the Language factor (Lopez. Language ability of both the teacher and learner has been acknowledged to pass potential and actual barriers to learning in all content areas (Moralida.

In teaching any subject in the content area. English Medium Instruction There appears to be a fast-moving worldwide shift. a certain mastery of the English language has to precede the understanding of the subject. Results tend to support the use of the students’ native language to reinforce concepts and skills and discuss difficulties as well as exploring the new information being given under each new lesson. one needs to know the main components of the language as it is used in the classroom. It is of great importance for teachers to evaluate the methods and techniques used in the process of teaching his subject. The students tend to shy from reciting and asking questions because of their limited vocabulary skills. in non-anglophone countries. the first question in hand is: “Does the ability of speaking and understanding English affect the achievement of my students?” Exact scenario in schools most often shows that students perform poorly in the content areas because of language barriers. from English being taught as a foreign language (EFL) to English being the medium of instruction (EMI) for academic subjects such as science. According to Dearden (2013) a working definition of EMI is: The use of the English language to teach academic subjects in countries or jurisdictions where the first language (L1) of the majority of the population is not English. In evaluating this method. mathematics. geography and medicine.and the subject. Whereas . This definition is important in that it provides a conceptual separation between EMI and content and language integrated learning (CLIL).

We do not know enough with regard to the consequences of using English rather than the first language (L1) on teaching. for example. Whereas CLIL has a clear objective of furthering both content and language as declared in its title. EMI is increasingly being used in universities. secondary schools and even primary schools. EMI has no specific contextual origin. assessing. many states throughout the world where English is not the predominant language encourage or mandate the use of English as the normal medium of instruction. Whereas CLIL does not mention which second. additional or foreign language (L2) academic subjects are to be studied in. EMI makes it quite clear that the language of education is English. This phenomenon has very important implications for the education of young people. EMI does not (necessarily) have that objective.CLIL is contextually situated (with its origins in the European ideal of plurilingual competence for EU citizens). Yet little empirical research has been conducted into why and when EMI is being introduced and how it is delivered. and teacher professional development An English-medium education system is one that uses English as the primary medium of instruction—particularly where English is not the mother tongue of the students. English is very dominant in the world of computing. . A working knowledge of English is perceived as being valuable. learning. As a result. with all the geopolitical and sociocultural implications that this may entail.

Tagalog was launched as the national language. Health Educational. and the judiciary courts.” . Technology. Meanwhile. Soon. and Social Studies. Physical Education. History points out that English has been used as the medium of instruction since the American regime. business industry. It is maintained as the language of wider communication. 52. This constitutional mandate was followed by the Bilingual Policy by virtue of Department of Education and Culture which specified the use of the national language. series of 1987 which ordered the use of Filipino and English as the media of instruction at all levels where the citizens are expected to possess skills in English in order to meet the needs of the country in the community of nations. It continues to be the language of worship. In the 1935 Constitution. the function of English is for utilitarian purposes mainly in the domains of the school. The medium of communication in the government especially in Philippine schools has brought about confusion from the national officials down to the common tao. and Mathematics as provided in the bilingual policy. as the medium of instruction in such domains as Work Education. as well as entertainment. and as the language of instruction at all levels for Science. It is the language of international relations for the Philippines. this was superseded by Department Order No. Pascasio (1981) gave this answer to the question of requiring English competency among Filipino students: “To majority of the educated Filipinos. of trade. Filipino. English was for the use in Science and Mathematics and as a subject.

etc. Enhanced learning through two languages to achieve quality education as called for by the 1987 Constitution. . s. without compromising their cultural values. consistent with the 1987 constitutional mandate. 52.” Some Philippine educators attribute the poor performance of students to the fact that they have to study most of their subjects in the second language such that several attempts have been made to utilize Filipino in all subject areas especially Mathematics. The need for English in world communication is given stress in the words of Lyons (1983): “Foreign students will have to interact with members of the host culture on the superficial level of shops.1987. promulgated its policy on Bilingualism thru its Department Orde r No. The propagation of Filipino as a language of literacy..” The goals of the Bilingual Education Policy shall be: 1. with their co-researchers. 2. and on the more important academic levels of lectures. The policy states that “Bilingual Education aims at the achievement of competence in both Filipino and English at the national level. through the teaching of both languages and their use as media of instruction at all levels. seminars. etc. Philippine Education Policy on Bilingualism The Department of Education Culture and Sports. libraries. with professors in their offices and laboratories. restaurants. There is a need to find some way how they can make sufficient behavioral adaptations to attain their goals.

The requirements of the new GEC are embodied in the CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) No. 2. Series of 1987. 59. Literature subjects may be taught in Filipino. public and private. Language courses. English or any other language as long as there are enough instructional . the following are the guidelines vis-a-vis medium of instruction.3. should be taught in that language. This Act provides that the CHED shall be independent and separate from the DECS and shall cover both public and private institutions of higher education as well as degree-granting programs in all post-secondary educational institutions. Listed under miscellaneous of this CMO is its language policy which is as follows: In consonance with the Bilingual Education Policy underlined in DECS Order No. whether Filipino or English. 52. 4. In 1994. that is to say its continuing intellectualization. 1996. Republic Act No. and the maintenance of English as an international language for the Philippines and as a non-exclusive language of science and technology. One of the first steps undertaken by CHED was to update the General Education Curriculum of tertiary courses leading to an initial bachelor's degree. The cultivation and elaboration of Filipino as a language of scholarly discourse. The development of Filipino as a linguistic symbol of national unity and identity. 7722 (Higher Education Act of 1994) was signed creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). At the discretion of the HEI. s. to wit: 1.

but also in maintaining Filipino as the medium of communication among citizens speaking different languages. The above DECS and CHED policies on Bilingual Education aim at teaching English in all levels of school to produce highly literate and skilled workers without obstructing the growth and development of a common national language. establishing a bilingual learning environment is particularly popular in the countries where English is not the native language. 2001). Actually. Today these policies has succeeded not only in generating widespread use of English as the medium of communication in government and business. teachers. 1972:1). and considered extremely efficient and successful by many second language acquisition (SLA) researchers. Cook.Courses in the Humanities and Social Sciences should preferably be taught in Filipino. In keeping with the immersion approach characterized by Swain & Lapkin (1982). the Canadian Immersion Programs were the most highly acclaimed language learning programs. Bilingual education has been defined as “schooling provided fully or partly in a second language with a view to making students proficient in the first language and fully guaranteeing their educational development” (Stern. For example. and parents (Brown. instruction is given in the .materials for the same and both students and instructors/professors are competent in the language. many more children in the world are educated in a second or foreign language in addition to their first language. 1994. Bilingualism and The EMI Trend Among many trends for promoting English learning.

2009. Long. Zabore. 2002. with a multilingual population. 1983. Infante. 2008. Although BE is still controversial. Krashen & Terrell. the integration of content and language has long been used both in content-based instruction (CBI) and in bilingual education (BE) programs. In the United States. 1982. 2009) of CLIL learners’ productive skills. Previous literature contextualized mostly in different educational levels of European countries has presented both favorable effects (Alonso. 2000). Lightbown & Spada. 2007. Swain. Huttner. 2002. English Medium Instruction (EMI) as a most dominant mode of CLIL has since been widely implemented and promoted throughout the world as business communication and academic exchange are becoming increasingly globalized. Dalton-Puffer.target language from kindergarten on or else begins sometime during elementary school. 2008. Originally intended as an “European need” for the development of plurilingual and pluricultural competence of the future European citizens. 2010. Loreanc-Paszylk. 2006. Many researchers have suggested that a second language is most successfully acquired when the conditions are similar to those present in first language acquisition (Krashen. Casal & 145 Moore. Marsh. and lexical richness. the pedagogical approach of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) was created which combined and stressed both content subject learning and acquisition of an additional language (Coyle. Grisalena & Campo. Lorenzo. 2008) as well as less than favorable effects (Airey. 2006). receptive skills. Benvenuto & Lastrucci. 1990. EMI programs and projects have also been mushrooming beyond the European territory shortly . Schindelegger & Smit. 2009. research has clearly revealed that it is at least as efficient as monolingual education when properly implemented. Darn.

Mackenzie.after a trial period of CLIL and its variant modes in Europe. El-Dash and Busnardo (2001) conducted a study on Brazilian attitudes toward English.Using direct and indirect measures of attitude (subjective vitality questionnaire and a matched-guise instrument). interests and outlook affect the attitudes of the students towards the English language. a number of CLIL studies conducted in Asian contexts (Lee & Chang. Since the study was conducted among non-EFL majors. The study suggested the adoption of a variety of methods that would meet the needs of the teachers and students. for example. For example. Sasajima. 2011). 2008. Favoring the English language over the native Portuguese is . & Reilly. 2008. Ikeda. the findings show that different language skills. The study revealed that the past learning processes affected the perspectives in English learning and the fears of the students. presented rather conservative and apprehensive perspectives of the CLIL approach in terms of teacher readiness and its replacement of the conventional approach. teaching methods. Related Studies Warden and Lin’s (1998) study of Taiwanese students’ attitudes made use of the Likert type scale combined with open-ended questions. 2008. Hemmi. and showing relevance of English in the global educational setting. Marsh & Hood. while recognizing the relative advantages of CLIL as a means to intriguing motivation. Results reveal that the majority of adolescents favor English to the Portuguese language in terms of status and solidarity. developing multiple intelligences.

In her study of college readers in Spanish and English. Students and teachers prefer the use of English as the medium of instruction with the teachers finding English as a more comfortable language for explaining ideas and concepts. However. The students’ attitudes were influenced by their integrative motivation as they can easily identify themselves with the culture. a study by Kamhi-Stein (2003b) suggests that the reader’s views of their home language and beliefs about reading may play an important role in reading.attributed to the general perception of English as a prestigious international language and as symbolic use among adolescent peer group. Teachers further noted that English is an intellectualized language and a valuable tool to source information technology. age. Similar studies in the Philippines made by Amamio (2000) on attitudes of students. teachers and parents toward English and Filipino as media of instruction provided an interesting comparison. research regarding language . findings show that attitudes seem to affect the reading behavior of the participants. results show that the students favor English. In a third study conducted by Borromeo-Samonte (1981) on the attitudes of Filipino college students towards English. teacher influence and peer group influence. In the field of reading. The study also showed that the attitudes were conditioned by the choice of profession/vocation. the parents preferred Filipino because “it is a language in which they can think and express themselves” and it is a language that they understand and through which they themselves are better understood.In sum. Student performance and attitudes were influenced by motivation.

Ajman. undertaken at six universities located in major cities of Abu Dhabi. The study. while preserving their national identity and indigenous culture. Dubai. The study has implications for language education policy issues in the Gulf and advocates bilingual education as a means to improving students’ mastery of English. with special focus on the situation in the United Arab Emirates. and Ras Al Khaimah. It would benefit the teachers and the policy makers to identify the attitudes of teachers towards the language they use in their fields of specialization Belhiah and El-Hami’s study explores the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in the Arabian/Persian Gulf. Sharjah. A total of 500 students and 100 teachers responded via survey questionnaires and structured interviews about the effectiveness of EMI. . This paper suggests implementing a bilingual curriculum in which instruction is delivered in English and Arabic in order to enhance students’ linguistic and biliteracy skills. Results suggest that the current EMI situation leaves much to be desired with students struggling to learn the subject matter due to their low-proficiency in English. examines students’ and teachers’ perceptions about the use of English to teach subject matter.attitudes has yielded information that is valuable in determining the language to be used as the medium of instruction. Al Ain.

CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY .

Research Locale The study was conducted in Sultan Labay Moriatao-bae Technical Vocational High School in Masiu. Only 30 teachers were chosen. It is one of the leading public schools in the area. Respondents The respondents for this proposed study were the high school teachers of Sultan Labay Moriatao-bae Technical Vocational High School in Masiu. producing graduates geared to pursue jobs and careers in the technical-vocational sector. Lanao del Sur. Sampling Procedure The research sample will be obtained using purposive sampling.. Lanao del Sur.Research Design The proposed research was descriptive correlation in terms of design since it attempted to obtain data from the chosen research instrument. the rest were reluctant to participate. It was intended that all of the teachers in the school would be chosen as respondents however only ten expressed their willingness to be respondents. They were considered because they were the only ones willing to become the respondents for the study and they reported using English as a medium of instruction in their classrooms. .who are teaching in Academic Year 2017-2018. because the respondents were from a deliberately or purposely chosen group.

Pearson’s r was used to determine the relationships between the variables. the respondents were briefly oriented on how it was to be answered. The questionnaires were administered and retrieved the same day. Before the questionnaire was administered. .Instrument For this study. Finally. To ensure the validity of the instrument. it was tested on twenty non-respondents in another school. At the same time. after which conclusions and recommendations were drawn. a self made questionnaire was used. Methods and Tools of Data Analysis Frequency and percentage were used to tabulate the data for presentation and interpretation. The teachers when then briefly oriented about the study and the questionnaire. the researcher obtained permission from the teachers to be the respondents. Data Gathering Procedure The researchers first obtained permission from the Principal of the school to conduct the study. Help was given when needed during the conduct of the survey. The first part contained questions about the personal profile of the respondents while the second part contained Likert scale questions that intended to obtain the respondents’ perceptions on the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction in their school. while weighted mean was used to determine the extent of effectiveness of English as perceived by the respondents. The data was tabulated. analyzed and interpreted.

ANALYSIS. AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents and discusses the gathered data. CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION. The presentation is arranged according to the order given in the Statement of the Problem. The researchers had difficulty securing respondents perhaps because the teachers were not feeling confident enough to participate. TABLE 1 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According To Their Sex or Gender Sex/Gender FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE MALE 23 77% FEMALE 7 23% TOTAL 30 100% Table 1 indicates the frequency distribution and percentage of the sex and gender of the respondents. all handling Grade 9/3rd Year who participated in the study as respondents. As revealed. majority or 77% of the respondents . Respondents’ Profile There were only ten (10) teachers in the local. its analysis and interpretation.

TABLE 2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to Age Age FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 21-25 5 17% 26-30 10 33% 31-35 9 30% 35 and above 6 20% TOTAL 30 100% Table 2 reveals the ages of the respondents. In addition. from the young to the old.were female while 7 or 23% of the respondents were females. it can be predicted that female teachers have positive perceptions regarding the use of English as a medium of instruction. This is not surprising since this is also the case in other researches. It can also be implied that since females are also perceived to be good with language. Another 30% of the respondents were between 31-35 years old while still another20% were between 35 and above years old. it can be implied that there are more women teachers than males especially in the lower levels of the academic ladder. In short. qualities that go well with teaching. It can be seen from the table that 17% or 5 respondents were between 21-25 years old. The finding implies that the teachers of the school are of varied ages. Teaching is often considered as a feminine line of work because of the patience it entails. while 33% or 10 of the respondents had ages between 26-30 years old. society views teaching as suitable for females because females are often thought of as more nurturing and caring. with many between 26-30 .

years old. This can imply that most of the teachers in the school have had much teaching experience as evidenced by their ages. As shown on the table 33% of the respondents handled English subjects while 17% handled mathematics. TABLE 3 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to Subjects Handled Subject FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE English 10 33% Mathematics 5 17% Science 6 20% TLE 9 30% TOTAL 30 100% Table 3 shows the subjects handled by the respondents in the Sultan Labay Moriatao-bae Technical Vocational High School. This is followed by 20% of the respondents who were science teachers while the remaining 30% were Technical and Livelihood Education teachers. The data implies that there are more English teachers included in the sample. and this will give an interesting finding regarding their perception on the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction. It is to be taken note that Filipino teachers were not considered as respondents as they do not use .

The data implies that while there were master’s degree holders in the school faculty. The remaining 36% are holders of Master’s degrees. there seems to be not so much interest in getting PhDs unlike in other institutions where it is seen as a ticket to career advancement. Effectiveness of English as A Medium of Instruction The respondents answered a questionnaire which sought to obtain their perceptions regarding the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction.English as their medium of instruction in their classrooms. and hence usually most teachers are eager and determined to get their higher degrees since they would want to be promoted. Their responses are contained in the tables below. The same also goes for the Arabic teachers. TABLE 4 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to Highest Educational Attainment Sex/Gender FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE BS/AB 10 33% CPRT 9 30% MA/MSc 11 36% TOTAL 30 100% Table 4 shows the educational attainment of the respondents. As can be seen on the above table. 33% of the respondents are holders of Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts degrees while 30% are holders of Certificates of Professional Teaching. None had doctoral units or degrees. .

Average Mean 2.25 – 4.02 0.790).779 Often English during oral recitations.974 Often assignments in English.50 0.52 – 3.742 Seldom reading/Internet materials to add to their learning.75  Never Table 5 shows the mean and descriptive rating of the teachers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction in terms of their use of it as a classroom teacher.39.11 0. 3. I encourage students to make use of 2.827 Often answer their quizzes.845 Often are mostly in English.00  Always 2.17 0.93 Often Scaling.10 0. SD= 0.76 – 2.51  Seldom 1.772 Often the effort to use English.770 Often English.18 0.98 0. My teaching materials that I use in class 3. I encourage my students to use English 2. It can be seen that the respondents always try to use English to teach their classes (M=3. I praise my students whenever they take 3. I encourage my students to use English to 3.29 0.05 0.829 Often English. My lesson plans are almost always in 3. Table 5 Mean.790 Always my best to use English when I teach inside the classroom.00 – 1.905 Seldom outside the classroom.27  Often 1. I take steps to improve my level of 3. I try 3. Rank and Descriptive rating of the Respondents in terms of Effectiveness of English As A Medium of Instruction: As A Teacher Using the Language in Class Indicator Mea Standar Descriptive n d Rating Deviati on Since I’m in a high school classroom. I encourage my students to answer me in 3. while the .39 0. I instruct my students to write their 2.

” Based on the data. and often praised them for using English in class. as teachers in the classroom. it can be implied further that the teachers perceive that for them. However.other indicators that garnered means and standard deviations that were descriptively rated as “often” indicates or implies that the teachers in the study often encouraged students to use English in class during oral recitations. since they have indicated that they often use the language in planning their lessons and teaching their classes. Teachers further noted that English is an intellectualized language and a valuable tool to source information technology. and often try to improve their level of command of the language. However. Students and teachers prefer the use of English as the medium of instruction with the teachers finding English as a more comfortable language for explaining ideas and concepts. often write their lesson plans in English. based on the data on the table. English as a medium of instruction is often effective for them. that they seldom encouraged the students to use English outside the classroom and seldom have them access or use materials in English from books or the Internet to supplement their learning. it can also be implied.93 with a descriptive rating of “often. The average mean for this set of indicators is 2. They often use teaching materials in English. teachers and parents toward English and Filipino as media of instruction provided an interesting comparison. often encouraged students to write their assignments and quizzes in English. The results in the present study reflect the results of the study conducted by Amamio (2000) on attitudes of students. it is also interesting to note that they seldom encouraged their students to look for or read additional materials in their subjects that are in .

far-flung area in the second district in Lanao del Sur. This can be explained by the fact that the school’s location is in a rural. Other than teachers and school officials.16 0. Then there is the fact that very often. there is very little access to additional books for reading or even Internet access.982 Agree doing well in class because of the language barrier. My students ask me to translate my 3.978 Agree instructions for quizzes. the only opportunity for these students to use English is in the classrooms.e. school grounds.766 Strongly Agree hard time understanding their lessons if I use English all the time in class. Rank and Descriptive rating of the Respondents in terms of Effectiveness of English As A Medium of Instruction: Impact on the Students Mean Standard Descriptive Deviation Rating Indicator I feel that my students are having a 3. there is almost no one to communicate in English with in the area.876 Agree .English and also seldom encouraged students to use the language outside the classroom. they aren’t ready to do academic work in English Students need extra learning in 3.02 0..21 0. the hallways. or even at home. Most of the families there may not be able to afford these things for their children. assignments. I. Table 6 Mean.33 0. My students are having difficulty 3. etc.

33. and descriptive ratings of the respondents’ perceptions of the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction in terms of its impact on the students.88 1.76 – 2.58 1.96 1.35 1.766). their students turn to the vernacular when they . My students need to exert extra effort 2. standard deviation.96 0.091 Agree discussing the subject matter in class using English. they feel that their students are not ready to do academic work in English. My students have difficulties in 2.064 Agree to improve their English.90 Agree Scaling. their students are not happy that they are made to answer questions in English. 3. My students are improving in terms of 2. My students are not happy when I ask 2. Disagree Average Mean 2. This is followed by them agreeing with the statements that indicate that they have to translate instructions and directions into the vernacular from English. SD= 0.226 Strongly English proficiency. As can be seen on the table. the respondents strongly agreed with the statement “I feel that my students are having a hard time understanding their lessons if I use English all the time in class” (M= 3.037 Agree them to answer my questions in English.00 – 1. My students are having difficulties 2. My students use Meranao when they 2.25 – 4.51  Disagree 1.066 Agree feel they cannot express themselves in English anymore.75  Strongly DIsagree Table 6 shows the mean.00  Strongly Agree 2.27  Agree 1.English to help them perform well in class.86 1.974 Agree absorbing the subject matter and the textbook/reading material because they are poor in English.52 – 3.

The average mean for this set of indicators is 2. By mastering the concepts using their first language. Basic Interpersonal .cannot express themselves anymore. by using the first language as the medium of instruction. However. It also emphasized the purpose of language proficiency assessment in bilingual education which is the placement of students to classes taught through the language which will best promote learning.” The results have many implications. English. Firstly. The results also suggest that in terms of English. in this case. the students of the teachers in the sample lack both BICS and CALP. This theory supports the idea that with the use of instructional medium the students could easily learn and there is a high possibility that the students could understand better and it results to a high performance of the students. bilinguals can easily learn and acquire academic skills. then it is possible that there will be no difficulty of transfer of knowledge once the students learn a second language. among others. they strongly disagreed that their students are improving in terms of using the English language despite using it as a medium of instruction. Their agreeing that their students need extra reinforcements to their learning the language also points out to the difficulties of the students in English.90 described as “Agree. It can be also implied that Mother Tongue Based Learning should have happened first to these students in their primary years. Cummins’ Theory explains that. the data points out that the respondents’ students do not the level of English that is need to both survive in an all-English environment as well as to successfully do academic tasks in school.

Results tend to support the use of the students’ native language to reinforce concepts and skills and discuss difficulties as well as exploring the new information being given under each new lesson.Communications skills (BICS) and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) are what a student needs to have in order to survive inside and outside the classroom. they have not been able to develop a good level of proficiency in English because so many of the abovementioned variables are missing or are not present. Research has shown that the average student can develop conversational fluency within two to five years. at the secondary level. level of academic proficiency in the native language. In the case of the respondents’ students. academic language can take from four to seven years depending on many variables such as language proficiency level. Developing fluency in more technical. they are having difficulties in school tasks. and the degree of support provided. The students tend to shy from reciting and asking questions because of their limited vocabulary skills. age and time of arrival at school. and so. . Exact scenario in schools most often shows that students perform poorly in the content areas because of language barriers. The students of the teachers in the study did not perhaps have the opportunities needed by them in order to obtain BICS and CALP.

252 0. As shown on the table. It is the up to future researchers to include aspects of the profile not included in the present study to find out if these have a bearing on the variable. Table 7 Relationship Between Respondents’ Profile and Perceptions of the Effectiveness of English as A Medium of Instruction As A Teacher Relationship Pearson’s r p-value Remarks 0.045 0. Hence. The finding implies that the aspects of the teachers’ profile covered in this study do not have a bearing with the respondents’ perceptions regarding trhe effectiviness of English as a medium of instruction.907 Not Highest Educational significan Attainment t Table 7 shows the results of the hypothesis testing which sought to determine the relationship between respondents’ profile and perceptions of the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction.657 Not Age significan t Peerceptions of 0. .05 level of significance. The null hypothesis is not rejected. it can be said that there is no significant relationship between the respondents’ profile and perceptions of the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction.755 Not Gender significan Effectiveness of English as A t Medium of 0.017 0.064 0.078 Not Subjects Handled significan Instruction: As Teacher t 0. it can be seen that all p-values are greater than 0.

05 level of significance. The finding implies that the aspects of the teachers’ profile covered in this study do not have a bearing with the respondents’ perceptions regarding tthe .054 0. The null hypothesis is not rejected.732 Not Effectiveness of Gender significan English as A t Medium of 0.517 Not Age significan t Peerceptions of 0. it can be seen that all p-values are greater than 0.088 0.025 0.644 Not Highest Educational significan Attainment t Table 8 shows the results of the hypothesis testing which sought to determine the relationship between respondents’ profile and perceptions of the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction. As shown on the table. Hence.078 Not Instruction: Subjects Handled significan Impact on t Students 0.. it can be said that there is no significant relationship between the respondents’ profile and perceptions of the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction in terms of its impact on the students. Table 8 Relationship Between Respondents’ Profile and Perceptions of the Effectiveness of English as A Medium of Instruction: Impact on Students Relationship Pearson’s r p-value Remarks 0.252 0.

Frequency and percentage. It is the up to future researchers to include aspects of the profile not included in the present study to find out if these have a bearing on the variable. They filled out a self made questionnaire that served as the primary source of the data. Majority of the respondents are female (77%). AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The research aimed to determine the effectiveness of the English language as a medium of instruction as perceived by the teachers of Sultan Labay Moriatao-bae Technical Vocational School. . and Pearson’s r were used to statistically treat the gathered data from the research instrument. CONCLUSIONS. CHAPTER V SUMMARY. weighted mean. Findings The results of the study yielded the following findings: 1.effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction in terms of its impact on the students. Thirty teachers in the chosen locale served as the study’s respondents. The study used descriptive correlation as its research design.

2. 7. 4. while none had finished PhDs. It was found that there was no significant relationship between the respondents’ profile and their perception of English as a medium of instruction as teachers in the classroom. Many (36%) are holders of MA/MSc degrees. It was found that there was no significant relationship between the respondents’ profile and their perception of English as a medium of instruction specifically its impact on their students. the respondents’ answer point to their wide use on the language in conducting their classes and related activities. Many (33%) of the respondents are within the age ranges of 26-30 years old. the respondents’ answer point to their wide use on the language in conducting their classes and related activities. Conclusions . 6. 8. Regarding their perception of English as a medium of instruction as teachers in the classroom. Many (33%) of the respondents are English teachers. 3.the difficulty of their students in using the language in the classroom and related activities. Regarding their perception of English as a medium of instruction focusing on the impact on their students. 5.

. A study comparing the perceptions of teachers from both public and private schools regarding the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction. A study on the same lines but using students as respondents. English as a medium of instruction is not that effective. A study using aspects of the teachers’ profile not covered in the research. Recommendations In the light of the findings and conclusions. Based on the results of the study. Many factors here come into consideration. the researcher recommends further in-depth research investigating the matter. the students do not have the level of BICS and CALP in English to do academic tasks which is why the respondents observed that the students are having a hard time in their classes. particularly with a view to conducting remedial and enrichment activities in order to alleviate the problem. it was concluded that. and for this particular set of respondents. 2. A study using the same concept but with a different set of respondents. 4. because based on the respondents’ responses. The researchers recommend the following in particular: 1. for this study. 3. Further research is needed to substantiate these claims for this set of respondents.