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Subject-Verb Agreement

 Every Sentence must have a subject and predicate. If one is missing the sentence is called a
fragment.

 The Sentence and Verb must agree in number.

 Eliminate the middleman, Skip the warm up.
 Prepositional Phase: Near Galway, the houses on the road are gorgeous.
 Subordinate Clause: Dependent Clause :
 Other Modifiers.

 And Vs Additive Phase.

Joe and his friends are going to beach. Plural because of and.

Joe along with Poly is going to beach. Singular because of the additive phase "Along With".

 Either Or , Neither Nor :
 Choose for the closest subject and select the verb form.

Eg: Either the Coach or the Players are going to the game. Plural because of the closest subject ie:
Players.

Eg: Either the Players or the Coach is going to the game. Singular because of the closest subject ie:
Coach.

 Collective Nouns are always Singular.

 Indefinite Pronouns.
o An indefinite pronoun is not specific about the thing it refers.
o Each, Every, Anyone, Everyone, Nobody, Somebody, Either, Neither, Whatever and Whoever.
o Indefinite Pronouns are always singular Except. SANAM Pronouns.
o SOME-ANY-NONE-ALL-MORE/MOST

 EACH And EVERY.
 Indefinite Pronouns
 But when each or every is preceded by a plural subject then the verb form used is Plural.

 Quantity Words and Phases.
 The Number of (Plural)
 A Number of (Singular).

 Subject Phrase and Clauses.
 Having good friends is ( Singular )
 Whatever they do is fine with me.(Singular)

*Compound Verbs: John drive (Verb) to work and said hello (Verb) to coworkers. before preposition is always the Subject of the subject of the sentence and everything following it.Singular Pronoun Plural Noun . is prepositional phrase Pronouns  The Antecedent Must Exist  The Antecedent & Pronoun Must Make Sense Together  The Antecedent & Pronoun Must Agree in Number Singular Noun .” is used to combine two complete relative ideas Manhattan 6th Edition addition On Gmat only full sentences an well as independent clauses are acceptable Both Sentences missing the helping verb and coordinate clauses are not acceptable Word. John and Josh drive to work. *When the word that appears after the working verb it acts as a reset button. * “. Them. * Compound Sentence: A sentence containing two Independent *Compound Subjects: more than two subjects.Plural Pronoun  The Deadly Five: Singular: It. * A Sentence is a Run On when the coordinating conjunction is missing. . Its Plural: They. Their *Note: Their is always Plural never use their where singual his or her is required to be used.

when you use it. The money spent by her parents is less than THAT spent by her children. The money spent by her parents is less than THAT SPENT bv her children. many consider THESE unique. use it. That. or other personal pronouns. In contrast. many consider THEM unique .  Demonstrative Pronouns: This. Instead. In this example. another pot of money. Note that the two pots of money are NOT the same. Rule 1 : That or those indicating a New Copy or copies must be modified. If you must change the number. Right: Her company is outperforming THE COMPANIES OF her competitors. these. as we have already seen. You may use any of these pronouns as adjectives in front of nouns. Rule 3: Do not use this or these in place of nouns. Her company is outperforming THAT OF her competitor. they. A sentence such as This is great is unacceptably vague to the GMAT. do not use that or those in place of nouns. is the New Copy. Wrong: Her products are unusual. Rule 2: The GMAT insists that any “New Copy” that or those agree in number with the previous version. In other words. and those. One pot of money is spent by the parents. Wrong: Her company is outperforming THOSE OF her competitors. These and Those The Demonstrative Pronouns are this. repeat the noun. that spent by her children means the money spent by her children. you have to add a description to indicate how the new copy is different from the previous version. spent by the children. Right: Her products are unusual. unless you modify that or those to make them New Copies. they. that. You may also use that or those to indicate a “New Copy” or copies of the antecedent. you mean the same actual thing as the antecedent The money spent by her parents is more than it was expected to be. Also. or them.

g. 2) Object pronouns can be the objects of verbs or prepositions. you would need to use a phrase such as those environments or such explosions. and possessive. 3) Possessive pronouns indicate ownership or a similar relation. but by synthesizing heavy chemical elements. you know that they clearly refers to supernovas. THEY provide the universe with the possibility of biochemistry-based life as we know it. by virtue of parallelism and meaning). Every they. as this very sentence demonstrates. you need to know about cases. them.. your/yours. . they. Every it and its must refer to the same singular antecedent. me. These specific rules are respected on Sentence Correction. him. their/theirs. Otherwise. her/hers. it. we. my/mine.To understand one other wrinkle. us. Supernovas is the subject of the first clause. its our/ours. The they is also in subject position in the second clause which is parallel to the first clause. her. then don’t worry if there is an unreasonable antecedent somewhere else in the sentence. them and their must refer to the same plural antecedent. If you wanted to talk about environments or explosions later on. don’t apply pronoun ambiguity unless you are backed into a corner. she. The subject is the most important noun in the sentence. which are grammatical roles or functions for nouns and pronouns. I. he. and if there is no other reasonable antecedent. it. thus. whose Their presence went unnoticed. There are three cases in English: subject. Tip: If the intended antecedent of a single pronoun is clear (e. whom No one saw them or talked to them. his. Even though there are at least two closer possible antecedents (environments and explosions). who They arrived late. it generally makes the best antecedent. Right: Supernovas destroy their immediate environments in vast explosions. The GMAT would consider this sentence acceptable. you. 1) Subject pronouns can be the subjects of sentences. you. object.

Preset perfect. Hypothetical Tenses . was. Verbs Two Main type of Verbs Lexical or primary Verbs & Auxiliary Verbs Participles : Present Participle and Past Participle (Verb Tenses ) ( Modifiers ) Working verb or auxiliary verbs : Verbs which can stand without the help of any other verb like helping verb eg. Hypothetical Subjunctive: If i were a rich boy : If then constructions with uncertainty Command Subjunctive. Past Perfect. has or had Indicative Tenses Prefer Simple tenses in place of complex tenses . were.  If Past then Conditional. Conditional Tenses :  If Present then Future. Subjunctive Tenses : express a wish or a request. Imperative Tenses : for Commands and requests Conditional Tenses .

pronoun. Comparisons :  Like Vs As Like is a preposition and therefore must be followed by noun. noun phrase. or gerunds acting as nouns On the other hand as can be either a preposition or a conjunction joining two clauses. Wrong: LIKE her brother DID. you cannot use like to compare clauses. The words her brother did form a clause {did is a working verb). . RUN ON Sentences : When two independent clauses are connected with a "comma" instead of a semi-colon or a coordinating conjunction. You can correctly use as to compare two clauses. Therefore. Right: AS her brother DID. however. Ava aced the test. you must use as to make the comparison between the two clauses  Keep Comparisons Parallel Omitted Words  When comparing two things use comparative form and when comparing more than two things use superlative form. Ava aced the test. Again.

 Essential and Non Essential Modifiers o Which Commas . Eg: Happy About his raise.The CAT sleeping on the rug belongs to Sue. o Present Participle without commas . o Preposition . use the adverbial form.Essential o That .Essential Modifiers.Non Essential Modifiers o Commas alone .  Possessive Nouns Are Not Nouns!! and if they are being modified doesn't mean that the noun is being modified. ask yourself what the word is modifying.The CAT owned by sue is playful. An Adverb modifies anything but a Noun. use the adjective form. If it's modifying anything other than a noun (or pronoun). Eg: Happy about his raise.Sue placed the CAT on the couch. If it's modifying a noun by itself. If you spot an answer switching back and forth between the adjective and adverb forms of the same word. o Which alone . o Participles : Past Participle . Modifiers An Adjective only modifies a Noun or a Pronoun. Bill celebrated by taking his friends to dinner.Non Essential. Bill's celebration included taking his friends out to dinner.  Noun Modifier Markers: Relative Pronouns Which : Things That : Who : People .  NOUN Modifier : Modifiers which modify a noun are called noun modifiers.

That is why here the rule of which modifying the word just before it is being broken.  Participles o Present Participle. Placement will require essential to be placed closest to the Noun and then Non Essential besides it.Always end in -ing o Past participle . Whose : Both People and Thing Whom : People Where : Place but not metaphorical places like conditions and situations ( Use In Which ) When: A noun even or time  Usuage of Which!! Example 1 The box of nails. belongs to Jean : Here the noun being modified is Box.may take irregular verb forms. Noun Modifier1 Modifier2 Essential Modifier : Of Nails Non Essential : Which is nearly full. is playing = Verb form .  Forms participles can take o She is playing soccer. which is nearly full.

Modifiers for Countable and Non countable Nouns Gmat Club: https://gmatclub. Noun Modifier o She stayed all day..com/forum/sentence-correction-modifiers-difficult- 217385. Playing Soccer = Noun Phrase. ADVERBIAL Modifier : Modifies anything except a Noun Modifies verb. o Playing soccer is fun. prepositional phrase.. Gerund. playing soccer Playing. clauses and anything thatisn't just a noun. Adjectives.. Usage of Which Which always refers to the noun preceding it never to the whole clause.Left = Adverbial Modifier until she was the only one left. o The girl playing soccer is my friend .. Playing= Subject.html?fl=similar this is more a pattern than a logic thing noun participla modifier which clause is better than . Noun. adverb.

.. Almost always. Eg....or .so too. So... Markers of Parallelism: (Open ( Always in Center) and closed) Marker Structure And X and Y or X. Neither... Either.as . _________________ Parallelism Comparable sentence parts must be structurally and logically similar.Y.and Z OR X or Y Rather than X rather than Y Both / And Both X and Y Either / OR Either X or Y Not / But Not X But Y Not Only / But Also Not Only X but Also Y From / To From X To Y *Repeat the signal word when the marker is an open one.. two parallel elements will be joined either by a single coordinating conjunction or a pair of correlative conjunctions..but also .noun which clause participle modifier. Not only .. *Coordinating conjunction : FANBOYS *Correlative Conjunctions : Both.. I want to retire to a place where i can relax and where i pay low taxes. .and .....nor . Just..

Parallel Elements: .” Subordinators: Repeat subordinators to remove ambiguity. like coordinating conjunctions. When a closed marker is used any subordinator used only applies to X element and therefore has to repeated with the Y element . Right: Ralph likes BOTH THOSE WHO are popular AND THOSE WHO are not. and investing in equipment. When a closed marker is used make sure that both the parallel elements contain necessary starting words. Eg: The division was opening offices. When an open marker is used we can divide the more than one word forms with all the contrary actions. Wrong: Ralph likes BOTH THOSE WHO are popular AND WHO are not. hiring staff. Two sets of words that. can by themselves set two elements in parallel are “as well as” and “rather than. Wrong: I want to retire to a place WHERE I can relax AND I pay low taxes. Right: I want to retire to a place WHERE I can relax AND WHERE I pav low taxes.

.... "" Hardy(adjective) and disease..... Gerunds can be parallel to gerund or action nouns.....resistant(adjective) and that yields(verb) ************ Issue #1a: countable nouns.... Adjectives.. *wheat that is hardy.. You can pair present and past participles ... Verbs (Different verb tenses can be compared ). So ( So too ) *Considered to be is unidiomatic...... only use considered .. *When describing the similarities between unlike things the idiom "Compare to " is used and when describing the difference between like things ... “Jobs” are countable. If the sentence doesn't work the answer is incorrect. Participles. Logic and False Parallelism: Parallelism decides the status of lines if you want to make all the lines into main clause make parallel all the lines if you want to make a clause subordinate don't make it parallel with the main clause Study parallelism with modifying phrases and clauses form Bookmarked Page(Pending).. Prepositional Phase.Nouns. so it is correct to say “fewer jobs”. Just as .. prohibiting X from Y..... Points To Remember You can pair working verbs in different tenses ..... disease-resistant and yields more grain per acre.. as long as the meaning of sentence support the different tenses. Subordinate clause... When not sure try completing sentence with each parallel element... the idiom " Compare with " is used . and incorrect to say “less jobs”. Infinitives.... (A) & (D) & (E) make this mistake ..

consider tax breaks vital to xxxx consider tax breaks to be vital tool .

https://www.com/watch?v=HsWkOkr1Qt4&list=PLuRW962mXVQeNxKu_dS9ZtGs_510JiLNx Verbs .youtube.

 If Past then Conditional. Conditional Tenses :  If Present then Future. Past Perfect. has or had Indicative Tenses Prefer Simple tenses in place of complex tenses . were. Preset perfect. Subjunctive Tenses : express a wish or a request. Hypothetical Subjunctive: If i were a rich boy : If then constructions with uncertainty .Two Main type of Verbs Lexical or primary Verbs & Auxiliary Verbs Participles : Present Participle and Past Participle (Verb Tenses ) ( Modifiers ) Working verb or auxiliary verbs : Verbs which can stand without the help of any other verb like helping verb eg. was.

The words her brother did form a clause {did is a working verb). you cannot use like to compare clauses. Again. noun phrase. or gerunds acting as nouns On the other hand as can be either a preposition or a conjunction joining two clauses. Imperative Tenses : for Commands and requests Conditional Tenses . however.Command Subjunctive. pronoun. You can correctly use as to compare two clauses. Ava aced the test. Ava aced the test. you must use as to make the comparison between the two clauses  Keep Comparisons Parallel . Right: AS her brother DID. Hypothetical Tenses Comparisons :  Like Vs As Like is a preposition and therefore must be followed by noun. Wrong: LIKE her brother DID. Therefore.

RUN ON Sentences : When two independent clauses are connected with a "comma" instead of a semi-colon or a coordinating conjunction. .Omitted Words  When comparing two things use comparative form and when comparing more than two things use superlative form.