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IS 4651( Part 2 ) : 1989
( Reaffirmed 1995 )
Indian Standard
PORTSANDHARBOURS-PLANNING AND
DESIGN- CODEOF PRACTICE
APART 2 EARTH PRESSURES

( First Revision)

UDC ~627*2/*3:624-13153

.. \
_. : @BIS 1990

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS
MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI 110002

October 1990 Price Group 4

expressing the result of a test of analysis. For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with. BDC 66 FOREWORD This Indian Standard ( Part 2 ) ( First Revision ) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards on 24 May 1989. observed or calculated. This part ( Part 2 ) deals with earth pressures. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard. A great need has been felt for formulating standard recommendations relating to various aspects of water front structures. This standard is one of a series of Indian Standards formulated on this subject. The clause on earth pressure has been revised. the subject has been covered comprehensively to include all aspects related to earth pressure needed for the design of ports and harbours structures. . the final value. This standard was first published in 1969 mainly to cover provisions of earth pressure for the design of port and harbour structures. after the draft finalized by the Ports and Harbours Sectional Committee had been approved by the Civil Engineering Division Council.Ports and Harbours Sectional Committee. shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : l%O ‘Rules for rounding off numerical values ( revised)‘. In the first revision.

0 For the purpose of this standard. The pressure exerted by the backfill on the wall. it is surcharge q or a load. 3. it is f-I = height. The movements required are 1. the tance (also.coefficient of earth pressure at rest. = the ( total ) earth pressure per unit If the wall moves sufficiently away from the length when arching is present.3. by translatory motion or rotation about the 3 TERMINOLOGY base of their combinati. 3. termed arching active earth pressure. i = slope angle. 2 REFERENCES 3.001 ( see 4.1 ) for sand and pressures on waterfront structures required for 0.1 This standard ( Part 2 ) deals with earth small and about 0. HI = equivalent height of soil for uniform 3. less accurately.1 For movement away the backfill. If there is no wall movement. active pressure. for backfill by translatory motion or rotation about example. ing wall. in braced open cut. K* = coefficient of active earth pressure.on. pressure ).C’1= effective cohesion.1 For the purpose of this standard. 3. PP = the ( total ) passive earth resistance per unit length. passive earth following definitions shall apply.3 Passive Earth Resistance 1893 : 1984 Criteria -for earthquake resistant If the wall moves sufficiently towards the back- design of structures (fourth revision) fill. cl = apparent cohesion.3 Earth Pressure & . to as a tance to be inclined.05 H for clay are sufficient to mobilize the ports and harbours. K. Is 4651(Part 2 ) : 1989 Indian Standard PORTSANDHARBOURS-PLASNINGAND DESIGN.1 Earth Pressure at Resf per unit length. the base of their combination.the ( total ) earth pressure at rest 3. earth pressure exerted by the backfill is known C’. F = factor of safety.2.2 Active Earth Pressure P. lateral pressure P = pressure intensity. the backfill offers resistance which is termed passive earth resis- 3.2 For movement towards the backfill. as arching earth pressure. tion to the normal to the wall is known as the 4 SYMBOLS angle of wall friction. pressure at rest.CODEOFPRACTICE PART 2 EARTH PRESSURES ( First Revision ) 1 SCOPE of the backfill is reduced and-is termed active earth pressure.3. The soil mass is referred. the follo- 3. termed arching passive earth resistance. 4. N& tan” ( 45” + $. the pressure PA = the ( total ) active earth pressure exerted by the backfill is termed the earth per unit length. = the flow value = tans (~45”+ #/2 ) or on it. the c.3.2.4 Retaining Wall The roughness of retaining walls causes the A wall which holds back a soil mass is a retain- active earth pressure and passive earth resis. 1 . backfill. The nature and extent of the wall movement alters the lateral pressure of the backfill exerted N$. The angle of this inclina./2 ) PO . = coefficient of passive earth resistance.1 Angle of Wall Friction 3. 3.2 Arching Earth Pressure wing symbols shall apply: When the top of the wall is restricted and there is freedom of movement towards the base.

PO . PA = intensity of active earth pressure. mally heaves up due ta wall movement. 1 CONVENTIONOF SIGN FOR THEANGLB ing to the yield for active pressure not more OF WALL FRICTION8 than half of the passive resistance may be available.6 Usually the backfill in a gravity wharf wall settles more than the wall and the angle of wall The field values of K0 are given in Table 1. IA ACTIVE PRESSURE 18 ACTtVE PRESSURE WALL MOVING OUT WALL MOVING DOWN 5. deflecting.1 Angle of wall friction for sheet-pile walls 3 = depth from top of retaining wa!l.(l) 5. - 5 WALL MOVEMENTS 5. wharves construc- ted as gravity retaining walls have sufficient outward movement to mobilize active pressure and Coulomb’s pressure distribution obtains. with reference to the backfill.1 For a horizontal backfill.2. 5. 1C PASSlVt 1D PASSIVE 5. f:.2 Wharves constructed as sheet-pile retaining walls. Correspond. Y’l 5. NOTE .1 But when the wall moves up relative to Yd I dry ( bulk ) unit -weight of soil. angle of wall friction is generally positive.4 Gravity wharf walls funded on cohesionless RESISTANCE WITH 46 RESISTANCE WITH -6 subgrade may not yield forward sufficiently as to mobilize full passive resistance. . = submerged unit weight of soil. 2 ..Convention of sign for the angle of wall friction is given in Fig. 1. 56. upward in the embedded portion. The cases of gravity wharf walls on clayey foundations require to be individually examined PP = intensity of passive earth resistance. friction for active earth pressure is positive. Q = normal stress.7 For passive resistance. sufficiently yield to justify the adoption of Coulomb’s active pressure distribution. of the wall and the backfill. moves out and yw = unit weight of water. and effective angle of shearing resistance.IS 46% ( Part 2 ) : 19ss PO = intensity of earth pressure at rest. for settlement and if the wall should settle more Q = point load.5 Gravity wharf walls founded on clayey sub. RJw- $. the Y’. Ko YZ . TWALL e= apparent angle of shearing resistance. a.1 In highly plastic clays. 5. either dredged in the front or backfilled. the top and which. 6 EARTH PRESSURE AT REST 5. being monolithically constructed with the floors may not yield and earth pressure at rest in these cases should be taken. negative angle of 4 = intensity of uniformly distributed load wall friction will result. 6. r = normal effective stress. 6 = angle of wall friction. sbould be judged with reference to the deposi- c( = inclination of the back of retaining tion of the backfill and the relative movements wall with the horizontal. FIG. negative angle of wall friction will result. the backfill as it may happen in a sheet-pile ysst = ( bulk ) unit weight of soil in fully wall which is strongly held back by anchor at saturated condition. Yt = bulk unit weight of soil ( soil particle 5. or surcharge intensity. the intensity of grade may eventually sufficiently yield as to earth pressure at rest at a depth z is given by: fully mobilize the passive resistance. = normal effective stress at depth Z. pressures approa- ching at rest condition may develop unless wall movement can constitute with time.7.1 In water front structures.3 Walls in the locks and in the dry docks. as the earth nor- Y1 + water + air ).

Is 4651 ( Part 2 ) : 1989 Table 1 Field Values of Coefficient of Earth Pressure at Rest.6. shear leg ) the tentative where iG = q + yZ approximate method given in 7.3. and indicated in Fig. Then if W. 3 MAGNITUDB ANDLINB OF ACTION OF PRBSSUREDUE TO LINB LOAD 2c 7. If point d is located below and t l+ d sin ( u . 2 A SURCHARGBDTWO-LAYEREDSOIL 7 ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE WITH WATER TABLE 7.=$. KA wp L-I-X 3 .2 ).P. a two-layered back- fill carrying surcharge and with water table.8 ) sin Q \ the base of the wall. the effect of the line load may be neglected.1 This method may be used for more than two layers also. It is assumed that if the length of the loaded area L and the distance between the Forh<Z <H. the simple 1 approximate method suggested by Terzaghi and Peck. 3 will be found to sin (4 + S) sin 4 ’ . equation (2) should be applied to intensity q and uniform backfill: find pressures for different heights and the total resultant should then be evaluated.6 Tn case of surface of the backfill carrying isolated load ( such as. 3 ). 2 ).1 The line of action of the resultant force should be obtained by a construction similar to that for line load ( see Fig.1 ) Sl No. 7. .(2) cos 6 procedure given in j>Annex A.(3) suffice ( see 7. the 40” line whereG=q+yD+y’(Z-D) 1 being constructed from the centre of the loaded area. With a uniform surcharge retaining wall.1 In waterfront structures. . Negative value of PA should be ignored. be the load on the area. =I 3 4 for other cases of walls.1 is suggested. it is convenient to draw pressure diagram using the following equation ( see Fig.._.6. 1 &+yw (Z-D) 1 back of the wall and the near edge of that area be X. the resul- tant thrust per unit length of the wall will be 7.4 In case of vertical wall with horizontal ground surface. 7. FIG.3 For a horizontal earth surface. 6 = 4 for stepped back walls.2 With rough wall and/or inclinediback usually horizontal. the active earth pressures K4 2cr should be computed in accordance with the 2cH ----I--. where 7. 7. a rail line ) :WL per unit length A sin” a sin ( a---S ) parallel to the crest of the wall. Soil KO Ii (1) (2) (3) I i) Loose sand 0’4 ii) Dense sand 0’5 to 0’6 iii) Sand.2 For broken back wall or irregular cohesion- less backfill surface and loading. K0 7- l- ( CIuuse 6.6. 7.5 If the surface of the backfill carries a line K = +a(a + $)cos8 x load ( such as. the backfill is 7. one of the graphical methods should be applied. well tamped 0’8 iv) Soft clay 0’6 v) Hard clay 0’5 PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION FIG. smooth vertical back retaining wall. the resultant lateral thrust will be distri- where G=q+y D+y’ (h-D) ffl (Z-h) ] buted along a length of wall equal to L + X.3..

0 0 0. therefore. necessary to load the backfill. equation modified by experiment. if the water entering it fills up all the voids and mitting increasingly greater movement with in. resultant earth pressure and also magnitude will tions. K WL RESULTANT FORCE FROM LINE LOAD wL SECTldN XX (APPROXIMATE METHOD FOR LOW PRESSURES FROM POINT LOAD Wp RETAltilNG WALLS) (BOUSS~NESQ EQUATION MODIFIED BY EXPERIMENT) FIG.6. pressure will be one-half of the full static hydro- thus. and this is a more refined alternative to 7. the practice is t to . ing the lateral movement at the top and per. Actual pressure ( 0.5 1. such as.5 VALUE OF 6H@) VAL+ OFU+& FOR ms0.0 l.5 7.1 Effect of Rainfall 7. If it is. the position of the loads are usually carried on separate founda. 0. The permissible movement.6 0. piles transmitting pressures depend upon the actual mode of construction effectively below the base of the wall. place the bracings and insert the struts as the Hydraulic pressure due to rainfall should be excavation proceeds.2 0.6. taken into account.4 0. does not conform to that necessary for static pressure . Coulomb’s pressure distribution.4 * . 4 HORIZONTALPRESSUREON WALL DUE TO SURCHARGE I 4 . the water is being drained out. the hydraulic creasing depth.8. This amounts to restrain. 5 and Table 2 may be method shown in Fig. In a freely draining backfill. Empirical recommenda- however.7 For braced open cuts.6 > 1.4 PRESSURESFROM LINE LOAD WL (BOUSSINESQ EQUATION MODIFIED FOR t-n>0. IS 4651( Part 2 ) :1989 7. the tions given in Fig.6 1* 0 0. 7. 4 based on Boussinesq followed.2 Concentrated point loads or heavy line distribution and.4 BY EXPERIMENT) RESULTANT PH. is recommen- ded.8 Effect of External Causes on Earth Pressure and 7.6 k w 2 0. even for uniform soil.1.2 0.

0’055 No) x HUH 0’5 HUH aH yH. How- 7. In waterfront pressure. 8. on the other hand. 0’055 No) H 0 R 0’46 H 0’46 H 0’38 H 0’33 H If the amount of water entering the backfill is pressure for loose hydraulic fill material range less than sufficient to fill up all the voids but the from about 0.(5) hydraulic fill. 1. KA is the coefficient of active earth pressure including effect of wall friction. IS 4651 ( Part 2 ) : 1989 PROPERTIES 7. of stability number: Area abed is pressure distribution in loose sand. 4 No) C yH A 0’15 H 0’15 H (0’3 . The coefficients of active earth should be adopted 5 . pressure will be less than one-half of the full 7. 0 . 4C YH . FIG. the amount of water exceeds the capacity If the backfill is subject to heavy traffic vibra- of the backfill to drain it out. 7.7 ) 2<No<5 5< No < 10 10 < No < 20 20 < No PA 0’78 HUH 0’78 HUH (2’1 . the hydrostatic fine sands. full static hydro. B and R for Excavation in Clay ( Symbols are as in Fig.8.2 Consolidation Pore Pressures For effects of seismic forces on earth pressures. Wall Area abed is pressure distribution in Area abed is pressure distribution. the front soil will usually be dredged and there may be downward inclination. acting 0’5 H above base of cut. Where impervious clay behind a wall is loaded. OH) -4. structures.8. hydrostatic excess pore pressure may develop in 8 PASSIVE RESISTANCE the clay and exert additional pressure. partial or full passive resistance will wedge behind the wall increases the earth be mobilized in the front soil..0.5(1t. static pressure will build up. .3 Effect of Compaction active thrust of the backfill and the surcharge Compaction of the backfill in the Coulomb’s thereon.6 Effect of Earthquake ~7. And if.35 for clean sands to 0. deflection increases with depth. dense sand.5 EfSect of Trafic static hydrostatic pressure.4 Hydraulic Fills ever. 5 under ‘Excavation in Clay’ ) ( Clause 7. 0’015 No) H 0 B 0’55 H 0’55 H (1’1 . Resultant PA = ( 0’72 ) KAYI? cos 6 acting 0’48 H above base of cut. reduce tan + and tan 6 by 20 percent.50 for silty water is being drained out. Shape of pressure diagram and mag- resulting in trapeToida1 pressure Resultant P-4 = ( 0’64 ) KAy2 cos 6 nitude of pressures depends on value distribution. @ OR CT -dEFLECTED POSITION :OS b Sheet piling or soldier beams driven. IS 1893 : 1975 may be referred to. EXCAVATION IN SAND EXCAVATION IN CLAY As excavation is deepened wales and braces placed in sequence.8. tions. the depth in the fairway channel or berth Account should be taken of the increase in should be taken for calculations. 5 PRESSURE IN BRACXDCUTS Table 2 Values df PA.1 When a retaining wall is pushed out due to 7. (8 .8. and earth pressure when the backfill is placed by i=O . No)C YR.

2.h ) J 8.= . .2.2 Waterfront structures are usually vertical in 8.(6) surface.3 In case of vertical wall with horizontal 8. A-2.3 For sheet pile wharf wall 6 = 0 should be For O<Z<h pp = ~~IV55+2c4~$] taken. Z.1 It is recommended (++S cos 6 sin $ _ 1 a to take generally WATER LEVEL7 I ~<4/3 and.4 ) ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE FOR VERTICAL WALL WITH HORIZONTAL GROUN-D SURFACE A-l COHESIONLESS SOILS A-l.4 There is no likelihood of surcharge for passive resistance. co9 + K. 6 SHEBTPILE WHARF IN A TWO-LAYBRED szb $4 may be taken.5 Front soil of wharves in which passive ground surface. take S = 0.6 For gravity wharf wall. pl\ = KA YZ A-2 COHESIVE ( 4 = 0 ) AND MIXED The values of KA for different values of angle of ( C _ 4 ) SOILS shearing resistance 4 and angle of wall friction 8 are given in Table 3.1 The active earth pressure at any depth. and invariably so at high water. greater outward movement is expected. 6 . therefore. For values of 8 exceeding this value. the question of the front and the passive resistance is given by: layered front soil should not arise. is calculated by the following formula: The error resulting from this is on the safe side. If the wall movement outward should be more than what is essential to mobilize active earth pressure. curvilinear surface of rupture should be taken and the values of K. soil a pressure diagram should be drawn where ( see Fig.2. should be computed in accordance with the merged. active pressure and bearing capacity of foundation by Caquot and Kerisel ). 8. whereas = y’h + yI1 (2 . 1 priate negative 8 should be adopted. For a sheet pile type.2. in which case.2. 8 may exceed $/3. 6 ). sin 8. for sheet pile structures.2 In case of gravity wharf wall 6 = + $/3 may be adopted unless. Forh<Z<H pp = a. smooth vertical front and a two-layered front. ANNEX A ( Clause 7.2. equation (7) is BACK FILL developed with plane surface of rupture and the error for true curvilinear surface of rupture is insignificant up to about 6 = $/3.. is generally sub. it may arise and for horizontal earth .IS 4651( Part 2 ) : 1989 8. 8. procedure given in Annex B.2 The effect of wall friction on the values of Ka is not very large and may be neglected A-l.. may be taken from tables on the subject ( Tables for the calculation of passive resistance.N#‘1+2 c’1 $/N$‘. FRONT SOIL 8. that is. equation (7) shall apply. as in case of clayey foundation. except when it is to be strongly held back by anchor at the top and is likely to move where < = y’ Z _ i (8) upward in the embedded position when appro.. (7) CdI.1 The active earth pressure at any depth. when FIG. the passive earth resistance resistance could be mobilized.

parallel to the crest of the wall. used.present ten.Values of 9 c---------.iQr&besionless Soils .2 The effect of wall friction on the values pA = KA ( q + yz ) for granular soils.Vertical Walls with Horizontal ‘Gmnml Surface ( Clause A-l. earth pressure is given by: A-2. Table 3 V&m al Kv . 0’26 0’21 0’17 0’14 Table 4 Vdues of & and KAc for Cohesive and Mixed Soils ( Clause A-2. and of KA and KAc is smaller ‘for sheet pile structu- res. the lateral active to cohesion are given in Table 4. For a more the wall and the soil Which will produce the full accurate procedure.:g (4 0’78 0’64 0’50 0’40 0‘32 (0 0 .1 ) Values of 6 . for calculation mixed soils. However. of active pressure should be taken as being equal to C up to a maximum of 50 kN/ms. The wall adhesion C. Ka and KAc for diffe- rent values of angle of shearing resistance 4. 3 may be used. that is.---I -----------___~ 0" 5" 10 15” 20” 25” KA (0 All 0’85 0’70 0’59 0’48 0’40 values .K&C SURCHARGE LOADS The values of coefficients. K_QCfor cohesive and safe side. the wedge theory may be hydrostatic pressure over the crack depth. The error is on the =KA(q+yz). A-3. take 8 = 0.3 It is advisable to neglect any negative load ( such as a rail line ) WL per unit length values of earth pressure which re. the simple sion.::kz 1’83 1’68 1’54 1’40 1’29 (0 2’60 2’38 2’16 1’96 1’76 KAC 2’45 2’10 1’82 1’55 1’32 1’15 if 2’83 2’47 2’13 1’85 1’59 1’41 7 . IS 4651( Part 2 ) : 1989 2 is computed by the formula: A-3 LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE DUE TO PA = KA yz .2 If the surface of the backfill carries a line A-Z.1 ) Coefficient Values Values of Values of d of B CWIC c--------LI. allowance should be made for approximate method suggested by Terzaghi and intrusion of water in the tension cracks between indicated in Fig.1 If the backfill carries a uniformly distri- angle of wall friction 6 and the ratio of adhesion buted superimposed load q. A-3. . -__-h--_-__---_----_____~ 25” 30” 3Y 40° 450 O0 0’41 0’33 0’21 0’22 0’17 lo0 0’37 0’31 0’25 0’20 0’16 20° 0’34 0’28 0’23 0’19 0’15 30” .

. 5’8 7’3 11’4 Table 6 Values of K.2 In calculating passive earth resistance in the design of sheet pile walls.1 ) Coefficient Values Values of Values of 4 of 6 CWIC r-------------. for different values different values of angle of shearing resistance of angle of shearing resistance 4 and angle of 95. Table 5 Values of K for Cohesionless Soils .:: 33:. sron to cohesion are given in Table 6. 2.Vertical Walls with Horizontal Ground Surface ( CZause B-l.2C&HESIVE ( 4 =O ) AND MIXED ( C-#.1 ) Values of 6 Values of 4 r--_-__-___-_----~-_. sands where a reduced value of 6 should be taken ( 6 = l/3 to &4 ). . The wall adhesion C.:. andKPC for Cohesive and Mixed Soils ( Clause B-2. C PP . ) should be taken as being equal to c up to a maximum of 50 kN/ms. YZ The values of the coefficient Kp and Kpc for The values of coefficient KI. =K. is computed by the formula : p. yc + K.f The passive resistance at any depth 2. it is usual to take sands where a reduced value of 8 should be S = 2/3 4. h------------___-_~ 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” KP 0 All 1’0 1’2 1’4 1’7 2’2 2’5 4 Values 1’0 1’3 1’6 2’2 2’9 3’9 0 2’2 2’4 2’6 3’1 KPC 8 .. except in the case of certain silty taken ( 6 = l/3 to 2/3 4 ).:“9 1’0 2’6 4’4 . ----------___7 25O 30” w 40” 0” 2’5 3’0 3’7 4’6 10” 3’1 4’0 4’8 6’5 20” 3’7 4’9 6’0 88 30” . K.angle of wall friction 6 and the ratio of adhe- wall friction 6 are given in Table 5.1 The passive resistance at any depth. 2’9 3’2 ::: 3’8 . except in the case of certain silty the design of sheet pile walls. is computed by the formula: B-1. -it is usual to take B-2. t:.2 In calculating passive earth resistance in 6 = 213 4. & 2’4 2’8 5’5 1’0 2’6 2’9 3’4 3’9 4’7 5’7 .IS 4651( Part 2 ) : 1989 ANNEX B ( Clause 8.3 ) PASSIVE EARTH RESISTANCE FOR VERTICAL WALL WITH HORIZONTAL GROUND SURFACE El COHESIONLESS SOILS B-2. B-l.

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