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T H E

ET H C A L PR O BL E M .

DR . P A UL C A R US .

T H R E E L E C T UR E S ,

D e l iv e r e d at M e I n v it a tio n f
o M e B o ar d of T r u s t e es

l f f/z e S oc ie ty f E t/ u ea / C it /f a re ( i f Cl
' '

a ar e or u rag o ,

18
in j u n e,
9 0

1 ET H IC S, A
. SC I E N C E .

2 . T H E DA T A O F ET H IC S .

3 . T H E T H EO R I E S O F ET H IC S .

C H lC A GO

T H E O P E N C O UR T P UB L I S H I N G C O M P A N Y
1890

T H R h ic al p ro bl e m h as c o m e in to g re at p ro m in e n c e in th e s e
et

d av s T h e im p o rtan c e o f e th ic s h as b e e n b ro u g h t h o m e to u s
m o re t h an e e r A n e th ic al m o e m e n t is tak in g p l ac e a ffe ctin g
v . v ,

a l l t h e in te re s ts o f h u m an ity C h airs o f e th i 33 h a e b e e n c re ate d
. v

in o u r u n i e rs itie s an d th e c h u rc h e s are m o re an d m o re u rg e d to
v ,
.

s e t as id e fo r awh il e th e ir u s e l e s s d is p u te s ab o u t d o g m as an d t o

d e o te th e m s e l e s to e th ic al w o rk Ye t it h as b e e n f o u n d th at it
v v .

is im p o s s ibl e fo r th e c h u rc h e s to s e t as id e th e ir d o g m atic c re e d s
fo r th e s ak e o f e th ic s b e c au s e th es e c re e d s fo rm th e v e ry b as is o f
.

t h e ir e th ic s ; t h a t wh ic h re l ig io u s p e o p l e c o n c e i e to b e e th ic a l
'

v

d e p e n d s u p o n t h e ir re l ig io n th e y c an n o t ig n o re th e d ogm as fo r ,

th e d o g m as are th e v e ry in s tru m e n ts o f th e ir m o ral ity th e y are ,

t h e g u id e s th a t te ac h an d ad v is e t h e m as to th e ir c o n d u c t in l if e .

I f t h e d o g m as o f t h e c h u rc h e s h av e fo r s o m e re as o n b e c o m e u h
s u itabl e as a b as is o f e t h ic s a n d I b e l ie v e t h at th e y h av e in d e e d
.

b e c o m e s o th e c h u rc h e s c an n o t s im pl y ig n o re th e m th e y w ill
, ,

h a e to re is e th e m an d th e re is io n w ill h av e to b e m ad e w ith
v v , v

s p e c ia l re f e re n c e t o th e ir e t h ic al im p o rtan ce .

A n im p o rt an t s ig n o f th e tim e s f p ro v in g t h e g re at p ro m in e n c e
o f t h e e th ic al m o e m e n t is t h e f o u n d at io n o f th e S o c ie t ie s fo r E t h
v ,

i c a l C u l t u re T h e s e s o c ie tie s a e d e v o te d to t h e ad an c e m e n t o f
. r v

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v , v

w atc h e d th e ir d e e l o p m e n t w it h t h e k e e ne s t in te re s t Tb e O p n
v . e

( m / b e in g f u n d e d to aff o rd a p ac e fo r th e d is c u s s io n o f p h il os o p h
r
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zr o

ic al a n d e t h ic a l s u bj e c ts w it h t h e p u rp os e in v ie w o f e s tabl is h in g
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i ,
v

s p ac e to th e p u bl ic a t io n an d e x a m in a tio n o f th e ie w s b ro u g h t fo r
v

w ard b y l e ad e rs o f th e S o c ie tie s fo r E th ic al C u l tu re Y e t in s p ite o f .

a l l t h e ag re e m e n t t h at o b tain e d b e tw e e n t h e te n d e n c y o f 7 l z
'

O f wz e

G m 1 an d th e aim s o f th e S oc ie tie s fo r E th ic al C u l t u re th e re w as
;

o n e p o in t in w h ic h a m u tu al u n d e rs tan d in g c o u l d n o t b e arriv e d

at iv z t h a t c o n c e rn in g th e b as is o f e th ic s
.
,
[f l / ur ! R cord n e ,

o f P h i l ad e l p h ia m ain tain e d t h a t th e S o c ie tie s fo r E th ic al C u l t u re
,

ii T 1115

h ad ta k e n s p c ial c are n o t to c o m m it th e m e l
e to a y l g o s s ves n re i i u

o r p h il o s o p h ic al ie w wh il e T / 0p m C
V ! d c l a e d t h at
, om ze ou r e r s e

r e l ig io u s o r p h il o s o p h ic a l ie w w as in d is p e n s ab l E th ic m u s t h a
v e s ve

a b as is to re s t u p o n W ith o u t a p h il o o p h ic al o r re l ig u
. ew s io s Vi

th at g i e s c h arac te r to th e d iffe e n t c o n c e p t io n s o f w h a t
v to b e r is

c o n s id e re d as g o o d o r b ad e th ic s w o l d b e an im p o s ib il ty , u s i

T h e s tan d p o in t t ak e n b y T / O p C t wa e mb d d in a 1e en ou r s o ie

s h o t art ic l e e n t itl e d
r T h e B as is o f E th ic s a d T h E th i al M m n e c e

m ent a re p in t o f w h ic h
, r h e e ap p n d d I n c o q n o f is r z e . n se u e ce

t h is art ic l e T h e B o ard o f T ru s te es o f th e S o c i ty fo E t h ic al C l e
r u

tu re o f C h ic ag o in it d th e E d ito r o f ( h m f t p re s t
-

v e o en

h is ie w o f e t h ic s in a s ie s o f l e c t e s
v s T h s l e c t e w re
er u r e e u r s e

d e l i re d in E m o n H a ll o n t h e fi s t s c an d a d t h i d S d ay
ve e rs r , e , n r u n s

of
J u ne, 1 89 0 , at 1 1 A . M .

h e s e th re e l e c tu re s o n th e E th ic al P ro bl e m a re n o w p u b
T
l is h e d th at th e y m ay al s o re ac h t h o s e w h o c o l d n t a t t n d y e t
, u o e .

w h o are in te re s te d in t h e s u b je c t T h e s u bj e c t w e c o n fi de n t l e , v x

p e e t w ill b e c o n s id e re d o f im po rtan c e al o am o n g th e m an y
, s

c h u rc h e d an d u n c h u rc h e d w h o do n o t b e l o n g t o t h e S oc e t s fo 1 1e r

E th ic al C u l tu re .

96

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o s a s v s te m of e th ic s

wh ic h is b ase d u p on a u n ita ry c o n c e p tio n o f the w or ld It t ak e s

e c e p tio n
'

x to th e v ag u en e s s o f T /z e E f /z z ca / R e c o r d, w hose e t h i c s as

a m at te r p rin c ip l e h as n o fo u n d atio n an d it a tte m p t s to s e t t l e
of

t h e d is p u te b e tw e e n I n t u it io n a l is t s a n d U til it a ia n s O bj c t io n s r . e i

m ad e to I n tu itio n al is ts b e c au s e o f t h e ir s u p e rn a t u ra l is m t o U t l ,
i i

tarian s b e c au s e o f a m is t ak e n in te rp re ta tio n o f t h e f a c t s o f n a t u re .

T h e re p re s e n tati e au th o rs o f I n t u itio n a l is m a re s u c h m e a
v n s

B u tl e r an d P a l e y P e rh ap s th e b e s t d e fe n s e o f I n t u it io n al m
. is IS

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.
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a t tit u d e is n e ith e r a u til itarian n o r a n in tu it io al s t B u t i c he n i s n e

c o n s id e s th e m o ral o u g h t as an u l t im a te a n d u n a n a l ) s abl e f ac t

r

( S e e M in d O c t o b e r 1 8 8 9)
, h e is t o b e c l as s e d a m o g in t u m o n al s ts n t

M r J o h n S t u art M ill d e fi n e s U t il it arian s m a s fo ll o w
. i s

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f d cf m l L
ac c el t s as t e ou n at i o n o o ra s ,
'
tt t x . or th e

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re a e spp i P i ipl h l d th t t
a ness ghtr nc p p e, o s a ac i o n s a re ri in ro o rt i o n a s

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en w
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o e d t p d a h n e ss , ro n as t e en o ro u ce t e re v e rs c

of h pp i a B y h pp i i i t
ness . d d pl a d th b ness s n en e e a s u re , ar e a sence o f p a in

by h pp i
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I WE I LIC E
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T he m os t p ro m in e n t L til itarian s
'

of th e li v in g g e n e ratio n
ag a i n s t w h o se
h ic s h e re d e fe n d e d are s e t fo rth are
d o c t rin e s th e et

M r S p e n c e r o f E n g l an d M ad a m e C l é m e n c e R o y e r o f F ran c e
.
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H offd n g o f C o p e n h ag e ni .

T h e d ata o f M r S p e n c e r s s y s te m o f e th ic s are w e ll k n o w n to
'

.

al l E n g l is h e ad e rs r

M ad am e R o y e r in h e r l ate s t b o o k o n e th ic s ad v an c e s h e e ts , ,

o f w h ic h w e re k in d ly s e n t m e b y th e au th o r p u rs u e s th e s am e ,

d ire c t io n a s M r S p e n ce r I n th e C o n c l u s io n s h e d e fi n e s
. th e .
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g o d as th e s u m o f p l e as u rabl e f e e l in g s (jom ss an e
'

o s n ti ) in al l es e es

c o n s c io u s b e in g s ; th e b ad as t h e s u m o f th e ir s u ffe rin g s T he .

T w ll t G m w k th i
o e xc e w h i h i t h i m th d
en g m
er an or s on e cs c n e r e o s a re e o re

l l y w it h th i w h p t d D F St di g G

D
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c ose e v e s e re re s e n e , a re r . ra n z au n er s , ze c

F r e t / wi t , Un te rs u e lz u Gr zm d l ag e n
' '

s et z e n er ng e n fibe r d ie w z s s e n s e k a /t h c l z en

de f S z tt l ie lz k e it de r E rl e m z t m m u ! de r Ges e l l s e l m/ ts o r d n zm g
' ’

.
'
ss , V ol . 1, D a s
S z t te u g e s e t z D a rm s t a t 1887 ; an d W m W u n dt s E t l u le
'

, d E in e Un t e rs u .
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c ln mg
d e r T /z a t s a c l z e n a n d Ges e t z e des s z t t h c k e n L ebe n s , S tu tt g art 1886
’ ’

.

T o s tu d e n ts o f th e hi t y s or of et hi cs w e re c o m m e n d F rie dih
r c jo d l
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s C c

s e/ u e l z fe r E t l uk l os op/
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i n de r t (S tu ttg art, V o l V ol
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te ( n eu er e n ue . I, 1882 , . I I,
jo d l tre at s h is su bj e c t w it h im p artia l ity a n d c o m p re h e n s w e t h o ro u g h
n e ss .

l h h i t i f E p m l W E H L ky l ad
T h e g re at E n g is s o r an o u ro e an o ra s , . . . ec , e s u s

t o f h l y t m m t b it h i t iti l
in e r t h a t e t ic a s til it
s e i sH u s e e er n u on a or u a r an . e

d t
oe s n o k i t id ta ti th t t h
e n o cons m ig h t a i a th y f th i i
e ra on a e re r se e or o e cs n

O pp it i t th os tw on i l th o i f m
e se l A d y t th o r va i g t e or e s o o ra s .
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n e e re s a re a

E g l i h th i k w h i l i t d a t th m tim ta d

n s t a n i t it i er o s no n in n u on a s an e sa e e s n s

t
s ro n g pp iti t oth f it d
os t i on f o m t p mi e t til if i
av o r e oc r ne s o ou r os ro nen u ar an s .

W K C l iff d
. . y i hi y T h S i t ifi B a i f M l
or sa s n s essa e c en c s s o o ra s

T h d f E t h ic i e en t th g ot t h pp i f th g t
s no t mb e re a e s a nes s o e re a e s nu e r.

Y ou r h pp i i f
a t th
n ess mm itys o x pt i o f
no u se it t d t o e co u n e ce n s ar as en s o
—th t i t y h app i
,

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or s o n sa e u or e sa e o so e n se. n en s o n e

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e en o h ma n c re p eci l w k w ll se e c e nc n e ac n s s

a or , as e as

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on s t i tc b a a re c o on o a . n u s s tr ve o e

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er or an , a e te r s o n , u s n , or a e r.

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e con sc o u sn es s e s n n e re n e o u n .

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e n e ra io n o e su r e ee n s s n o e cs o s

as a m tt f l gi l a er o q th t al t
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s ne er e e re o se n r er n v u

b t f th
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n e re s s a are s u e r- n v u a .

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en as f s or W n d t a e tai ly t
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e so ro u n o a e c n e o s,

I al v g m t w ith th e se th i k
u e an a re e h ig h ly
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an d a p e rf c t ad ap t a t io m ak e c o c io u s n e s e i k a z ain n s ns s s n in to t h e d re am l ik e s t at e o f u n c n io u - o u l l ife H u m a l if o so sc s s - . co c io s re ns u s n es s w o u l d d is app e ar as it h a d i appe ar d i t h o s e mo e m s t of s e n v en s o u r b o d y wh ic h w e e ec t e as p e efl m o t io x uw it h o u t f rt h e u r r ex ns. s es I n h r P re fac e M ad am e R o y e r s a s in a n it al ic i e d p a a g e e y z ss T h at w h ic h in c re as e s in t h e w l d t h e q u a t it o f c c io u s ‘ or n y ons e is te n c e is g o od t h at w h ic h d im in i h e x . d is tu rb an c e — pain . g m k bl f er th i b ty d as s a e s . t T h h pt e c D a mi i m e rs on d I d t mi i m i P e te r f n s G ki an n e er n s n ro e s s o r iz y c s M l o ra pp d a i a E gli h e are l i T h O fw C t n an t n s t ra n s a t i o n n e z ou r . it is b ad I c n id r it s s . u r t h o u g h t b e c au s e th e y are p e rfe c rl . n i m t l F en a d/ m p 2 17 w h e e it is s aid t h at e t h ic i n t an re e s. n e is i t e n s e l y c o n sc io u s b e c au se m an h a c o n t an t l t ad ap t h im e l f s ns y o s t o n e w c o n d iti n I f th e w e e o p og o s f w e l i d i t h at er r n r re s s . d 6 2 O th an p 2 . V l Il l po . . A c c o rd in g l y t h e d e fi n itio n o f g o o d in t h e p re fac e o f M ad am e R o y e r b o o k d oe s n o t ag re e w ith th e d e fi n itio n p o p o d i th e ' s r se n c n c l u s io n o P ro fe s s o r G i y c k i 5 w o rk o n e th ic s h as t h e m e it o f b i g e y z r e n v r p o p u l ar— a irt e wh ic h is rare in th e b o o k s o f Ge rm a p ro f v u rs i n esso H e h as to so m e e te n t ab an d o n e d t h e p rin c ip l e o f x t il t a d u i v n S h dt il il ee t e e “ P l i or a d P i art c eT i C on t e as u re an a n. . 1 . r s s 0 arit h m e t ic al e xa m p l e b w h ic h to c al c u l at h ow w e cav p cha e n u r se . re g h ar a e or e r e au an s t re n t . i ve n s tate o f pe rf e c t ad a p ta t io w h ic h is M S pe c id a l m n l i ' ' n r n er s e . N os 5 . . . ' iv 1: ( 1I . a d a p t e d t o th e ir e d T he e v n s r fo re th e goo d o r th at w h ic h p o d c e s c o n s c io u s n “ " is w an t r u es s . n e rs e on s c io u s . L m o ral g oo d is t h e re m e dy o f t h e b ad it te n ds to d e c re as e the su m o f th e b ad an d to in c re ase th e s u m o f t h e g oo d M adam e R oyer s ' b oo k is l c e ar an d to the p o in t the s tv le is lu c id . a pp d h tly ft h p bl i i f t h b k i T / O p C t d e a re s or a er t e u c at o n o e oo n ze en ou r u n er t it l th d L if d E “ th e D es : (N ea 7 an d N e l Y o h 0) an a t u re an t e rn a ou t (N o . i [1m v s ro r . at t h e l e as t ac rifi c e th e g re at e s t a m o u n t o f h a p p in s . e s ves w o u l d e l ap e in id y ll ic h arm o n y a n d w it h t h e m c h a n i al s th of e c rn a m ac h in e I t w o u d b e t h e ta te o f a h appy d am ' . 9 37 . re ou r 12 0 . an d n o t t h e l e as t in te r t i g pa t o f h e w k is h a t e m p t es n r r or e r t to d e fi n e t h e ab s o l u t e l y g ood o f t h e U i e r e in t e m o f p l e a n v s r s su r a bl e f ee l in g s b y t h e h el p o f a l g e b ra ic f o rm l a s — a m t h d t h at u e o fro m h e r s tan dpo in t m u s t be c n id re d as t h o n l c ec t w a o s e e v o rr v o f m ak in g e t h ic s a s c ie n c e I h a e an tic ipa te d t h i e r . i c au e d b y p a i A u s n s s s n n u sa t is fi e d w an t in te n ifi e ou r d m f l i g an d re d s s th m c i ee n s. o s e as a p o ed fac t r v t h at c o n s c io n es .

e as e s s as s e rti p t h f t th t on u on if t h p ige d th f ac l w f a t yev en e an e oo e re o a c o n rar m i d th i n . B t I f ul bl ig d t p t i w d f th p ig d th f l T h diff ee o e o u n a or or e an e oo . P ro f e s s o r G i y c k i m ain tain s th a t “ zfe e l in g s are th e u l tim ate b as is o f m o ral s H e s ay s t h e m o ral fe e l in g s — re e re n c e an d “ " . . s ru e . s is t in f e e l in g s b u t in th e j u d g m e n t c o n c e rn in g f e e l in g s . n o t ac ti itie s o f re as o n v b u t s im p l y fe e l in g s T h is is an e rro r . P ro fe s s o r H iifi din g d e fi n e s w e l f are (p 9 8 ) as a c o n tin u o u s s tate . f o rm u l ate s th e m a im o f e th ic s in th e s e n te n c e x S tri e fo r p e ac e v o f s o l b y d e o tin g th y s e l f to th e w e l f are o f h u m a n ity u v . c re atu re b e g in s to j u d g e it b e c o m e s e th ic al . 8 0 l o n g as w e p o s s e s s f e e l in g s o n l y w e c an h a e n o n e o f wh a t . . no s a e n s o . . rare e x c e p tio n s a l ac k o f m o ral ity . c a ll e d m o ral f e e l in g s fo r in s tan c e e s te e m o r in d ig n atio n is a “ . is in p o s s e s s io n o f re as o n an d th e re g u l atio n o f h is f e e l in g s b y . o f p l e as u rabl e f e e l in g ’ ’ i ! in a a u na Z s / m m/ d s e er er u es L u rl g c f ls . 1C 15 . I n th e ir s te ad h e p ro p o s e s to p u t th e te rm w e l fare ( I I / l ' u z f / t ) in o rd e r to e m b rac e al s o th e h ig h e r w an ts o f m an s n atu re ’ u zr . . x . s nce e ossess no no ed g f th h g h p i t f i w f m w h i h m a d S e o e i er o n ot id v l if e ro c an n o c ra e s c o n s er e. ad a n c e d o f th e Ut il itarian s v H e g o e s s o far in t h e s tate m e n t o f . an . e i cu l ty i g t th M ill im g i s re a e r M it i t an k w l l th w a t f a nes. p i i w l d h t b j t d i th y p e r o n on ou k wl av e o e re e c e . P l t h th m th. v P ro fe s s o r Giz y c k i c all s m o ral fe e l in g s E v e ry o n e o f th e s o . h is p rin c ip l e o f e th ic al e s tim atio n as to o bj e c t to th e e ry w o rd s v h app in e s s o r u til ity (N u r m/ (M il c/c Ge rm an tran s l atio n p s e) : er . re as o n m ak e s h im e th ic al T h e c o n d u c t o f b ru te s e h ib its w it h . w h m e re a s k w th an d f th p ig d S no s t f th m th f l W e nee s o e an o c ra e s a o s e oo . g ht ) a o as e sa e ou . . ti fi d f a l H b ss a th i s e o c ra e s an a s a s e oo . e m t b u s g l t d by t h j d g m e re u t f th a e th t k w th twe ki d f d u en o ose a no e o n s o nee s i q n i u est on d th t an q t ly abl t a i t it t a tim t i a re c o n s e f th u en e o ns u e n es a on o e l va u e f th o m (M ill e sa e. P ro fe s o r H aral d H ofi din g o f C o p e n h ag e n is p e rh ap s th e m o s t s . j u d g m e n t an d h o w c an w e p as s a j u d g m e n t o f e s te e m o r in d ig n a t io n u n l e s s w e c o m p are an d re as o n c o n c e rn in g c e rtain f e e l in gs I t is t ru e th a t if m an w e re n o t a s e n tie n t c re atu re h e c o u l d h a e v n o e th ic s B u t th e p ro p e rl y e th ic al e l e m e n t in e th ic s d o e s n o t c o n . . B ru te s p o s s e ss f e e l in g s j u s t as m u c h as m an b u t m an al o n e . an d in t h e m e as u re t h at a . . P f ro e s s o r H o fldin g sa ys jo h n S tull h d l d th t it i b tt t b d i t i fi d m a rt M i as e c a re a s e er o e a ssa s e an th an a s at i fi d p ig s d i ti fi d S e t th . v c o n te m p t e s te e m an d in d ig n at io n p e ac e o f s o u l an d re m o rs e —are . . .

. M an c an n o t t ran s o rm f h im l f i se n to a h t ai gt b p ig w it ou ce s n o e a m an . as h is s ol e a n d o n ly do m i n a n t w a n t s . . a w hi h m c u st be j t di re e c e s on ly th e n o t io n o f a p i tt as s v e s a e . if th is k in d o f ac t iv e we l fare is th e g re ate s t g oo d v . A n d th e m e re p u rs u it o f h appin e ss is n o t su ffi c ie n t to m ak e a co m p l e te an d w orth y h u m an l ife O n th e c o n trary th e . th e p ig . c o m es o f th e u til itarian d e fi n itio n o f w e l fare as p l e as u rabl e f e e l in g I t is s u rre n d e re d . R e s t c an o n ly m t m i ti e an a er na on f o r t h e t im e be in g . w e can n o t d e riv e th e m o ral ou g h t f ro m th e pu rs u it o f h appin es s . o oe s n o no u r s an ou g ht s an d m k a g est d ma d no p l if i h t h pp i re a th S e n s u on e. . Tly as P ro fe ss o r H bfldin g says ru . I f. c re ate d o n ce for al l . an d it w o u ld n ot be d iffi l t cu fo r a S oc rat e s to c om p h d th re en ose of th e f loo .v i 7 Y]E E T H IC A L P R O /31 [al l ] . th e p ig c an a tt ain th e c om p l e t e s a tis a c t io n o f a l l f l ' us w an t s . P f ro es s o r H o fldin g a dd s O n t l i t ac c ou n t . . w or k d . . h o w e v e r. on ly fi lly t d l th at d th i na lly p f bl t l if o e c are ea s re a re e ra e o e P f H o fi din g s s o l u tio n ro e s s o r ’ of th e d iffi c u l ty is su m m ed u p in th e f o ll o win g parag rap h ‘ W e l f are is an ill i u s on if we u n d e rs t an d by it a p a s s iv e con d iti on of t hi n g s . an d a S o c ra te s w ill h d ly b bl ar e a e so to id t if y h im en l f w ith a f l se oo a s to l ose co m pl e te ly h i s S o c rat ic w a n t s . T h e dimc u l ty is g re at e n o u g h to n u . de rm in e th e wh o l e b as is u p o n wh ic h w e l fare is d e fi n e d as a “ ” s tate o f c o n tin u o u s p l e as u rabl e fe e l in g I f as P ro fe s s o r H ff . d e e l o p m e n t . s e no a er an o c ra t e s w ho sp d h i w h l l if i t i i g t k w h im l f d t tim l en s s o e e n s r v n o no se an o s u at e ot h e rs . if th e gre ate s t am o u n t of a s tate o f c o n tin u o u s p l e as u rabl e fee l in g is n o t w e l fare in an e th ic al s e n s e wh at be . u on c s oss e o r a n e w c o u rs e o f ev e o en t to ro c e e . n or S t th o c ra e s os e of th e f loo . B u t m an d oes not h th av e e w an t s o f t h e p ig . w e are n o t o bl ig d t t e t fi t d fi o re rac ou r rs e n it io n o f w e lf are as t h t a of a c on t in u ou s sta e o t f pl e a abl f l i g Th tsu r e ee n . a it W e m ay say th at th e p u rs u it o f h appin es s is a n atu ra l rig ht of m an b u t . A nd h y e t t is is t h e v er y e ir cu m s t an c e t h td a e te rm in e s t h e m att e r . eve o l pm en t . n ow . . o d in g d ec l ares w e l fare is to b e in te rp re ted as ac tiv ity wo rk . th e d iffi c u l ty is g re ate r . th an M r M ill im ag in e d . th e a t tain m e n t o f a n e w l l p w h i h it i p ibl f d l pm p d ” eve . is no t h is h pp i a ness g re at e r t h h d i a d w h l gi g an h t at o f man w ose e s re s n os e on n s a re nev er w h lly oti A d thsat l wh d s tfi d ei h m y th ! n e oo . wh ate e r ad m ix tu re o f p ain an d w h ate v e r ab s e n ce o f p l e as u rabl e v fe e l in g it m ay h av e . It m u s t c o n s is t in a c t io n .

. b u s in e s s as w e ll as fo r fam ily l ife an d ab o e al l fo r id e al as p ira . v w ill fi n d m e re ad y to c h an ge m y o p in ion an d to ac c e p t th e tru th wh ate e r it b e v P c . P A E FA C E ’ . v tio n s . W e c a n n o t l iv e w ith o u t e n j o y ment e n j o y m e n t k e e p s o u r m in d s h e al th y an d b u o y an t Ye t e n .Ye t it is w ro n g t o m ak e h ap p in e s s th e s o l e aim o f e x is te n c e . W h at is th e re aso n th at tru s tw o rth y p e rs o n s c o m p e te n t. W e al l k n o w wh at is n e ed e d it is e th ic s T h e n l e t u s h a e e th ic s —n o t . c au s e m o s t p e o p l e are to o e ag e r in th e ir p u rs u it o f h app in e s s . v ii m e re p u rsu it of h app in e s s wh e re e r it p re v ail s u n c h e c k e d in th e v s o u l o f m an is a m o s t d an g e ro u s te n d e n c y wh ic h u n fi ts m an fo r .e R ec re a tio n is th e r e s t w e ta k e af t r o u r w o rk is d o n e e . s in an d re c re a t io n is n 0 t im p ro p e r . jy o m e n t is n o t th e p u r p o s e o f l if. T h e p u rs u it o f h app in e s s is n o t w ro n g E n j o y m e n t is n o t a . 9t C ritic is m s l ic ite d f ro m al l w h o d iss e n t f ro m th e v ie ws are s o s e t f o rth in th e fo ll o w in g l e c tu re s I s h all b e g l ad to l e arn f ro m . I f th e p u rs u it o f h app in e s s is n o t su ffi c ie n t to m a k e m an s l ife' c o m p l e te an d w o rth y wh at th e n is n e e d e d to m ak e it s o . v m e re th e orie s ab o u t p l e as u rabl e s e n s atio n b u t tru e e th ic s—e th ic s . . w o rk e rs d u tif u l m e n an d w o m e n are s o rare ! I t is s im p ly b e . m y c ritic s an d wh ere v e r an y o n e w ill c o n in c e m e o f an e rro r h e . th a t are n o bl e r t h an th e m e re p u rs u it o f ha pp in e ss . W e do n o t w o rk in o rd e r to h av e re c re a tio n b u t w e s e e k re c re atio n in o rd e r to do m o re w o rk .

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m a is fi s t o f all a th in k in g m an n r H e ac ts in a c e rtain w ay b e c au s e . o o e e ry o n e o f e a te t im p o rta n c e it m t b c o m e th e c o rn e r s to n e v g r s u s e - . re g o d o a n d wh . a t b a d ac tio n s P ro f e sso r A d l e r s ay s : . . fi it io n o f g o o d w ill b e d ffe re n t ac c o rdin g to t h e d iffe re nt an ‘ ’ n i g i e n to th e q u e s tio n W h y m u s t I f e e l b o u n d b y an y o u g h t ’ s w e rs v . T h b as is o f e t h ic s is th e re as o n wh y m an m u s t re g u l ate h is ’ e ac tio n s in a c e rta in w ay a n d th u s it is t h e p h il o s o p h ic a l fo u n da .T E E B A SIS or ET H IC S in) T E E E T H IC A L M O VE M E NT! WE are s tro n g ly in s y m p ath y w ith th e S o c ie tie s for E t h ic al C u lt b e c au s e am o n g u re . n . . o r m o a l l aw r I t m ig h t b e m ain tain e d t h at a p h il o s o p h ic al f o u n d a tio n o f e th ic s i o f e c o n d a y im p o rtan c e : t h e fi rs t d e m an d is to o be y t h e m o ral s s r u ght A n d c e rtai l y w e ad m it t h at ac tio n is m o re th an k n o w l e d g e ‘ ’ o . v v th a t wh ic h w e c all g o d d e p e n d u p o n th e b as is o f e th ic s o . B u t l e t u s n o t f o g e t th at e th ic if it m e an s an y th in g is th e re g u l a r s t io o f ac t io n c o n fo rm a bl y to s o m e p rin c ip l e o r m a im n T h e e th ic al x . tio n u p o n w h ic h e th ic s re s ts T h e m o ral o u g h t wh ic h in o l e s ‘ ’ . . O u r des . e n ta l im p o rta c e in w h c h w e h a e n o t as y e t b e e n abl e to as c e rtain n i v w h e th e r w e ag re e o r d is ag ree w ith t h e m I t is th e p ro bl e m as to vt h at is t h e b as is o f e th ic s T h e s o l u t io n f th is p r bl e m is fo r . h c o id rs th is k in d o f ac tio n as g o o d an d an o th e r as b ad e ns e W h at w o l d e th ic a l ac tio n b e w ith o u t th e e th ic al p rin c ip l e b y wh ic h w e u h a e to re g u l ate it v M an d s o m e t h in g as g oo d w e s ay f ou n e rs B u t th e q u e s tion . o f th e e t h ic al m o e m e n t an d it is c o n c e rn in g th is p ro bl e m an d v . C o n c e rn in g th m (t h e fac ts o f m o ral o bl igatio n ) th e re is a g e n e ral ag re e m e n t e R p i t d f m N e r n e 4 f T h Op ro C o. d s ay s : “ \V e t h in k t h e re i so m e l ac k o f ’ T / E tl a l R te zz e e cor s c l e ar e s s as to wh at a b as is o f e th ic s m e an s n . 1 0 o t e en ou r . m o e m e n ts o f e th ic al as al l th e l ib e ral v p i atio th e y s h o w th e g re ate s t s in c e rity an d e arn e s tn e s s w ith re r ns g a d to m o ral id e al s r Y e t t h e re is a p o in t o f f u n d am . . i n t w h a t a m an s o n id as g o o d co T h e q u es tio n is W h at a s e rs . its o l u t o n th at w e are an io u s to c o m e to a m u t al u n d e rs tan d in g s i x u .

T b o l l th i g t e a ll m n i i ds o a d th p i il g f en s. v . A ft ll h w er a . tax e r as k s fo r th e c o n fi s c atio n o f l an d an d fo r j u s tic e an d l o e . e v e n re g d d f m th p ar e t l p i t f i w i j t th g ro e rac i c a o n f o v e . s t ic e an d l o e are ad m irabl e w o rd s b u t th e y are to o g e n e ral t o j u v . c o n c e p tio n s o f j u s t ic e an d l o v e b e T h e v e ry s am e q u es tio n as t o wh at th e b as is o f e th ic s in th e e t h ic al m o e m e n t m ay b e is as k e d b y e e ry o n e w h o ta k e s an in v . t y th i g b t t h e u nsa x ll t l s ac o r n a ou ese e ce en ec tu re s . v te re s t in th e e th ic al s oc ie ie s . th e e th ic al s oc ie tie s do n o t in cre as e as th e y o u g h t to it is it app e ars . . . . d i m ki g a no m l ity it l f on e e n n p a n one s ’ o ra se a su er s tiri on ! A d if t h n l aym f th e E th i al S i t i en o h ld h e t c t oc e es s ou c an c e o no e s h u c a n ou t m w h at co e. an d th at c an sc arc e ly b e h is m e an in g .a m ’ p e v e ry b o d y w h o d i s a g re e s O fro m P ro f A d l e r as b ad . w e t h o u g h t b e l o n g e d to th e d e ad p as t . . S al te r s b o o k E th ic al R e l ig io n h as m ad e f ro m q u ite a d iffe re n t ’ " . ‘ T i l /s l ' z T ll l t JL am o n g goo d m en w o m e n e e ry w h e re an d T h is is an e th ic s o f v . . T h e an s w e r g i e n b y 7 l o d to t h e q u e s t io n ’ E t/ n l R ' v ie co ec r . . g iv e a c l e a r i d e a re g ar d in g wh a t th e y m e an W e al l a g re e t h a t j u s t ic e . T he . e rro r fo r wh il e t h e S p artan th o u g h t s te al in g w ith o u t be in g c au g h t w as a v irtu e th e A th e n ian c o n s id e re d it a s h a m e Y e t P ro f A d l e r . l im its th e ag re e m e n t c o n c e rn in g th e s e fac ts as o b tain in g am o n g ‘ g oo d m e n a n d w o m e n T h is w o u l d s t . . lt l d b m l m t bl re s u c ou e o re a en a e T h ere is n o d ou b t th at th e f u tu re re l ig ion w ill b e an e th ic a l re l ig io n an d th at wh ic h h u m an ity w an ts is a n e w b as is o f e th ic s . If . v c h aritabl e p e o p l e f e e d p a u p e rs H o w w id e l y d iffe re n t m u s t th e ir . re v ie w e r s ay s af te r a d is c u ss io n o f n o t l e s s th an th re e c o l u m n s . an d l o e m u s t b e th e im p u l s e s o f o u r ac tio n s v I n th e n a m e o f j u s tic e an d l o e th e an arc h is ts d e m an d th e abo l itio n o f al l l aw th e v . . an d t h e re are m an y o u ts id e rs b e t s id e s D r A bb o t w h o are d e e p l y in te re s te d in t h e m at te r . p tl b tn ee e r v e e o an a os e u t app o lt ea yth i g d o an ny th i g pl bl x p t th l g y an ever n pp t au s i e e ce eo o as a su or t m o o ral ity—i th i s gh Ifs enou l b hi d w h t t k on e t b e av e s p e n a on e a es o e su er s tit i ons i t d it i n ra m y ton . T h e N a ti n in a l o n g an d m o s t app re c iati e re ie w o f M r o v v . th o ti f e v e r. W h y w e s h o u l d ac t m o ral l y ! is : \V e c o n c e i e th at th e o b v l ig atio n o f j u s tic e an d l o e is s e l f e id e n t to ratio n al b e in g s v - v ” T h is c o n c e p t io n o f e th ic s w o u l d b e in t u itio n a l is m a th e o ry wh ic h . m e re c o n e n tio n al is mv M o re o v e r th at g e n e ral ag re e m e n t is an . s tan d p o in t th e s am e c o m p l ain t th at D r A bb o t p re s e n te d . tio n u p o n wh ic h to s tan d th e y try to b e b ro ad an d b e c o m e v ag u e . n atio n al is ts d e m an d th e re m o a l o f w o l fi s h c o m p e titio n th e s in g l e ‘ ' v . s u s e va u eness o th th m l th y ’ e au o r s o ra e or . to m e b e c au s e t h e y h a e n o d e fi n ite O p in io n th e y l ac k a fo u n da . .

W e are to l d th at Go d h as . s to o d by a g o o d h o u se B e fo re w e c o mm e n c e b u il d in g l e t u s h a e a p l an P h il o s o p h v . fll oro z st . T 11I 5 B A S I S O F E T I I I C S . . ic al v ie w s an d al s o th e o l o g ie s are b y n o m e an s m e re th e o rie s h av in g n o p rac tic al al u e T h e y are o r rat h e r th e y h a e to b e c o m e v . W e m ain tain t ath d og m atic re l ig ion l o n g e r s e r e as a c an n o v bas is fo r e th ic I n th e o l d s . . s e n tim e n tal it y I t is l ik e a w an d e re r in s e arc h o f a g oal w h o h as . re l ig io n th e w hy O f th e m o ral o u g h t is e p l ain e d by th e w ill x of Go d . o p in io n s ab o u t g oo d an d b ad d iffe r I f t h e e th ic al m o e m e n t v w e l co me s p e o p l e O f an y c re e d an d o f n o c re e d th e y c an n o t e x pe c t . th at its m e m b e rs w ill h av e t h e s am e o r e v e n a s im il ar an d h a m o i n io u s e th ic al id e al . w e h av e a c o m m o n aim in t h e e l e v ati o n c f th e m oral l if e if w e . l os t h is w ay an d d oe s n o t c are to be in fo rm e d abou t th e rig h t d ire c tio n . . T O h av e an o p in io n an d to d are to be o f o n e s Op in io n to s tan d ’ u p fo r it b ra e l y a n d in c a s e w e h av e n o t as y e t an o p in io n O f o u r v o w n to s e arc h fo r it an d h a e n o re s t u n til w e h av e f o u n d it . d it io n o f e th ic s T h e m an w h o h as a w ro n g o pin io n an d h o l d s . S c h o pe n h au y s to p e ac h e r sa r m o ra l s is e as y b u t to pl a ce it u po n a p h il o s o p h ic al fo u n d at i n is o d iffi c u l t l o ra l oeg r iim z en ' s clz ru e r ' l p re dzgren l ez c/z t. . xi VIZ th e w hy o f th e m o ral ou g h t . v an d if th e e th ic al m o v e m e n t h as tak e n p artic u l a r p ain s n o t t com o m it its e l f to t h e ir v ie w s th is is e q u iv al e n t to s ay in g th at it h as n o . it in g o od fait h is m o re e th ic al th an h e w h o w aiv e s th e q u e s t io n . th o s e w h o s y m p ath iz e w ith its aim (t h e e l e v a tio n o f t h e m o ra l l ife ) w /z a te e M i t/z / g im l ' tr r e r e o o‘ f m in i ns orH o w c an ( o . . v . . a s tate m e n t o f its ai m (in th e c o n s titu t io n O f th e Un io n a ft r e m atu re c o n s id e ratio n an d e x p re s s ly w e l c o m e s to its f e ll o w s h ip .t h v re g ard to t h e p l a n o f th e h o u s e w ith re g ard t o w h at m u s t b e u n d e r . v . T lz e E t/z z ca / R ’ h ic al m o v e m e n t h as tak e n ecord sa ys “ T he et s p e c ial p ain s n o t to c o m m it its e l f to th e p h il o so p h ic al v ie w s f its o l e c tu re rs T h e e th ical l e c tu re rs re p res e n t th e e th ic al m o e m e n t . t h is is th e v e ry fi rs t s te p in e t h ic s th e m o s t in d is p e n s a bl e c o n . v ite al l o u r n e i h bo rs to as s is t u s g wh a te e r b e t h e ir Op in io n s w i . H o w c an w e wh e n b u il d in g a g o o d h o u s e ad ap te d to o u r n e e d s ih . [F ' . th e m ax im s an d re g u l ativ e p rin c ip l e s o f o u r ac tio n s an d an y e th ic s w ith o u t a p h il oso p h ic al v ie w b ac k o f it is n o e th ic s b u t e t h ic al . v ie w s wh ats o e e r T h e e t h ic a l m o v e m e n t w e are in fo rm e d m ad e " v . are n o t ag re e d u p o n wh at a m o ral l ife is if o u r p h il o s o p h ic al .

ac c o rd in g l y it m u s t l ay a n e w b as is th at w ill s u ffi c e I f th e e th ic al . h e n o l o n g e r b e l ie v e s in th e s u p e rn at u ral God h e m u s t g iv e ac . T h e s u c c e s s o f th e e th ic al m ov e m e n t w ill in th e e n d d e p e n d u p o n h o w th e ir l e ad e rs s o l v e t h is q u e s tio n . If . re l ig io u s as w e ll as p h il o s o p h ic al is j u s t as g o o d as g iv m g u p th e . . . o f th e e th ic al soc ie ty s h o u l d n o t h e s ita te to co m m it th e m s e l e s t o v d e fi n ite O p in io n s T h e y s h o u l d s pe ak o u t b o l d ly an d w ith n o u n . ' o u g h t e v e ry b o d y in h is au d ie n c e h as th e rig h t to as k th e q u e s . atte m p t al to g e th e r I fi n d th at m an y c l e rg y m e n an d m an y R abb is are v e ry c l e ar s ig h te d o n t h is m atte r th e y se e m to k n o w th e n e e d s o f th e t im e t h e y e arn e s tly an d j u d ic io u s l y w o rk fo r a p u rifi c atio n O f re l ig io n A n d . T he . T h e l e ad e rs . T h e e th ic al m o v e m e n t as I u n d e rs tan d it is s tarte d b e c au s e . - . re m a in b e h in d . . m o e m e n t re f u s e s to do th is it h as n o m e an in g v . d og m atic re l ig io n n o l o n g e r s u ffi c e s as a b as is O f e th ic s . an d ab o e al l to th e m e m b e rs O f th e s o c ie ties fo r e th ic a l c u l t u re v . s h o u l d s e arc h fo r th e g ro u n d u p o n wh ic h w e are to s tan d .x ii T H E E T f/ [ C A L s p ok e n th ro u g h th e m ou th s o f h is p ro p h e ts h e h as re v e al e d h im se l f W e n o l o n ge r b e l iev e in th e p o s s ibil ity O f a s u pe rn atu ral . c e rtain o ic e v A n o n c o m m ittal p o l ic y in th e fac e o f o th e r v ie w s . tio n B y wh at au th o rity d o s t th o u s u s tain th is c o m m an d If th e m o ral o u g h t O f t h e e th ic al t eac h e r is m e re l y an e x p re s s io n o f h is in d i id u al O p in io n h e h as n o rig h t to p re ac h it to O th e rs v . . re e l at io n an d s e arc h fo r an o t h e r an d a n atu ral re ason wh y w e v s h o u l d l i e m o rally v I f th e e t h ic a l te ac h e r p re ac h e s th e m o ral . . c o u n t O f t h at Go d w h o g av e h im t h e au th o rity to p re ac h . . th e y s h ou l d k n o w a n d if t h e y do n o t k n o w t h e y . tan c e to al l o f u s to th e re l ig io u s d o g m atis t to th e f re e th in k e r . q u e s tio n W h at is th e bas is o f e th ic s ! is o f p aram o u n t im p o r . w e w is h th at th o s e w h o p ro f e ss t o c arry o u t th e id e a l o f t h e p re s e n t ag e n am e ly th e fo u n d at io n o f a p u re l y e th ic a l re l ig ion s h o u l d n o t .

an d S o c ie ty 7 R e l ig io n d e fi n e d 7 . T A B L E O F C O NT E NT S . 1. . fi n al ic t ry o f th e E th ic al M o e m e n t 16 v o v . .re l ig io n 9 —1 0 T h e E t h ic a l P r o b . S u per . . l e d g e. f ro m fac ts 19 T h e o rig in o f th e e th ic al id e al 2 0 . p ag an is m 2 2 F ac ts an d m o d e rn s c ie n c e 2 2 . lig io n 7 — 8 . S E C O N D LE C T U R E I T H E DA T A O F E T H IC S . S c h ill e r o n P h il o s o p h y 1 7 F ac ts t h e b as is o f n e w e th ic s . . R e v e l at io n th e g ro w th o f id e as an d t h e be l ie f . . A s c ie n t ifi c b as is of et h ic s . —2 6 5 . O rt h od o x y an d in to l e ran c e o f th e R e l ig io n o f . . III P h il o s o p h ic al s ) s te m s an d t h e b as is o f e th ic s 10 — 17 . . 1 1. . th ic al ‘ M o v e m e n t an d th e S c c ie t ie s fo r E th ic al C u l tu re 14 T he . data of et h ics are m o t iv e s fo r ac t io n .S c ie n tifi c . m e n ts o f h u m an it 5 E t h ic s a n d K n y o w . S c ie n c e . iv e s o f du t y . n a t u ral e th ic s an d th e s u p e rn a tu ral G o d id e a 2 0 T he . T h e Go d i - d e a. 10 - 11 . . . in m ag ic 8 — 9 . a fi e l d fo r re al iz in g id e a l s . . 12 - 13 T he E th ic al m ov e ment h u rc h e s 13 an d th e 16 C T he E . A SC I ENC E . . . G o d id e a o f th e re l ig io n O f s c ie n c e 2 1 - C h ris t an d m o d e rn . is o f s c ie n c e an d th e m /i t o f e t h ic s T h i i f id l g 1 9 e or gf n o e a s . M o . 18 O bj e c tio n to f ac ts a s th e b a is o f e th ic s 18 — 20 T he s . E th ic s an d E o l u t io n 5 vN a tu ral s e l e c tio n o f th e e th ic al e l e . an d 1 5 - . . . lem i o . . . . . T h is w o rl d . 25 . h E t ic s s e rv es p rac t ic al p u rpo s e pag e 3 a y e t is a th e o re tic al . . 6 E t h ic s . P h il oso p h y an d R e . FI R S T LE C T U R E Z ET H IC S. . II \V e w an t new eth ic s bu t no new m oral ity . b as is in d is pe n s abl e 4 .

A B rib e ry c as e in N e w Y o rk 5 8 — 5 9 — T h e l im ta t io n o f t h e . 4 1 . . . s l ife 4 2 — S o l id arity o f th e in d i id u al w ith th e rac e 4 2 .x v i T 1115 I . ac tio n an d w i ll . . E t h ics a n d D e t er m i in s m 4 8 — 49 . . 52 . 53 . M y th o l o g ic al p e rn a tu ral s m 5 3 et h ic s b as e d In u po n su i . . . . i te rm u s e f u l C o . - d iv id u al m o ti e s an d th e o u g h t o r d u ty 39 v C o n s c ie n c e 39 . - . 55 — . III . T H IR D LE C T U R E I T H E T H EO R IE S O F ET H IC S . . t in u ity o f s o u l l if e 4 o T h e u n ity o f s u bj e c t an d O b je c t - . I . . B e n th am s f ail u re — 55 5 6 — T h e w e a k’ n e s s o f I n t u i . Ut il itaria n is m v . F ee . 5 1 . . G o o d is wh a t p re s e r e s b ad wh a t d w a r f s h u m a n o uvl . . O rig in o f . P re s e r at io n o f f o rm in s o u l l if e v 4 2 — 4 3 — S i n g l e m o t i es - . — K n o w l edg o - r o ri . . II F o rm al is m o f K an t s e th ic s 32 33 — I n s u ftic ie n c y o f m e re ’ - . p u p s o f re o n n o h pp e s s 3 3 r o e a s t a in 0 — 1 — I( e as o n te ac h e s . M yt h o l o g ic al et h ic s . x . . . u . 5 1 —5 2 . M an h ic al be in g 2 6 an et e p i 2 . 35 3 — 6 v— . T h e p rin c ip l e o f e s tim at ion an d s o u l l if e 4 0 —4 2 C on - . . . v fo r ac tio n c o m p are d to t h r ad s 34 —35 S u p e rin d i id u a l e . . K an t 32 K an t s m o ral m a im 3 ’ . . th e be g in n in g of s c ie n c e . . 6 — 28 . co f r n o m i ty to c o m ic o rd e r 3 3 1 — 2 Ts h e G o o d “ f ill o f . - r th in k e rs o n f re e w ill 4 7 F re e d o m ab s e n c e o f c o m p u l s io n . . 4 8 . F re e d o m O f w ill 45 — F r e e w i ll d e t e r m. . . . . . tu it io n a l is m 5 4 — T h e I n fide l s e t h ic s b as e d u p o n n at u ra l ’ . in e d 4 6. IV . o rg an is m s an d o f s o u l l if e 6 3 37 — — E th ic s a n e s t i - m a t e . v c a n n o t b e c o n s id e re d fo r th e m s e l e s 4 3— 44 v . fo m al is m 33—34 T h e re l a t io n s O f m an th at p ro d u c e m o t i e s . F o rm al l aw s 2 8 E th ic s an d R e as o n 2 8 —2 9 — R e as o n n o t . . E th ic a l p i r nci ples o f th e b e l ie v e r an d u n b e l ie v e r. E g o tis tic m o ti e s an d e th ic s 5 5 . So m e e rro rs are n e c e s s ar y . . v . v s o u l l if e 34 — M o t i e - .of m o t i e s 37 v T h e s u p e rin d i id u al s o u l l if . . D ou bt . tio n al is ts an d o f L ti l itarian s 5 6 — Go o d an d u s e f l 5 7 5 9 ' . is m 5 4 . s u p e rn atu ral K an t s m e tap h y s ic s o f e th ic s 3o T he ' 29 . . - 3S S u p e ri n v - e.

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we de m and an answer to the question H ow can we . . de m and obedience to certain ethical rules o f conduct . T H Eethical proble m is the burning qu estion o f t o day I t i s a f act that the m aj ority o f civ ilized p eo p le . in every citizen and i f we s p eak o f th e ethical p roble m . an d the laws o f a country can onl y prescribe in rou ghest out line s the m ost gen eral de m ands o f the co m m unity . generally agreed upon t h at the statut e s would not be su ffi cien t to en sure the observance o f th ose rules u h less the m e m bers O f society p ossessed the spirit of which t h ose laws are m erely an ex p ression . plant that m otive in the so uls o f m e n ! The ethical p roble m accordingly i s a practical p roble m I t is no m ere speculation fo r theorizers I t . is the living question of to day which is at the botto m - of all questions and we m ay j ustly say th at it has been . T h e laws rest upon the ethical spirit t h at an i m ates a nation T h e m otive to do right m ust be a living power . E T H IC S A SC IE NC E . m ai n the chie f interest O f h u m an life in all the cen t u t ies to co m e . To so m e exten t they enforce the m by law yet it is . the burning question o f all th e ages p ast and will t e . .

m akes a m an m ore e ffi cien t in his work and in d e e d right theories are the indispensable con d itions of al l progress in practical life . H ow can we do that without enquirin g into th e principles of e th ics . th e f actors of m ora l li f e . Yet because the ethic al proble m is p rac tic al w e . T [I E 15 T II I C A L P R O B L E JI . riz in g wit h ou t practical u se is a V anity F air of m e n t a l e x ertion s Theories if they are correct theori e s if . and useless theorizin g f or the arch itect who b uil d s a do m e or who bridges an arm O f the sea A correct th eo ry . ‘ sou l. and their p ractical ap p lications are inse p arable T h e o . h im a reason why I f right do in g were always ad . . i f it so m eti m es conflicts with hi s p ersonal interest w e . out layin g do w n a p rinci p le or standard by which a m an m ay decide f or hi m sel f what is r ight and wha t i s wron g I f we de m and tha t he re f rain f ro m doing wro n g . facts are the m ost practical inven tion s m ade T h e . . . sava g e m ay b uild his b u t without a knowled g e o f m athe m atics bu t th e study o f m athe m atics i s no m e re . w i tho u t . - v an t ag e o u s to h im he m ight as a m atter o f cou rse ob ey . they are properly derived f ro m and if they a g ree w i t h . . m u st give h im a reason that will be stron ger than h i s egotis m we m ust i m plant th e ethical m otive i n h i s . . c annot dispen se with theoretical enquirie s Th e o ri e s . the m oral behest and we should need no ethics But . and be guided by what is right we are bou n d to g i v e . I t will be i m p ossible to i m p l an t in the souls o f m e n the m otive of doin g right without telling the m w h a t “ ” is m eant by right We cannot inculcate eth ics wi t h . .

knowledge is i ts a pp lication to action K nowledge . and ethics are correlatives . a pp lication of their conce p tion o f the world T here . p rocess o f nat ural s election the g ro w ing nations of “ the world were sifted w ith ruthless cruelty like as corn is si f ted in a sieve T h u s h u m anity was ed u . . that those tribes prospered best in who m the ethic al spirit was co m paratively well develo p ed and in the . basic p rinci p les f ro m which to derive the rules o f co n d uct . understanding the origin and evolution o f e thics wi t h . T he ethics o f a p eople at a g iven ti m e bein g the . have had a very slow g rowth at fi rst they developed u n c o n s c io u s l i the era when m a was still an an i m al y n n living i n her d s . . tion de p ends upon knowledge and the sole purpose of . [5 r111C S A SC IE N C E . C ivilized s ociety evolved f ro m sav age li f e in the d e g re e th at certain rule s o f cond uct were m ore an d m ore clearly recogn ized I t is nat ural. . . is no action i e p urposive m otion without knowl . . result of their ex p erience is naturally the practical . c a te d in the hard school o f ex p erience to fi n d o ut the . they are brothers yet . H u m anity has al w ays bee n in search o f certain r ules to regulate the conduct of society T hese rules m ust . edge K nowledge tran s f or m s m otion into ac tion A o . . out digging down to th e roots f ro m which the e thical s p i rit grows ! T he ethical proble m i s as old as the h u m an r ace .

Th e r e is . ethical inj unction F o r inst ance in order to b u il d a . . way consider all practical in struction and the ap p l i . All science has its ethical a p p lication — et h ical in the widest sense o f the ter m And we m ay in t h i s . abled to attend to it . . very crude knowledge su f fices to p e r f or m a c e r t a i n work so m eti m es m an unconsciousl y withou t a c l e a r . . Ethics in the widest sense of the ter m m e a n s . . k no w ledge is the elder h e i s al w ays a litt l e in . fi n d s i ts p ractical a pp lication i n the e thical r ul e : In case you want fi re p roduce it b y f riction . kno w ledge o f what he is doin g succeeds in d o i n g . advance o f h is youn g e r b rother ethics T h e e v o l u . age knows that f riction prod uc e s fi re this kno w le d g e . so m ething that is rig h t but it cann o t be doubted th a t . great that cannot b e f or m ulated in the sha p e o f a n . cation o f all h u m an activity as eth ical at ther e is . a s p eci al work and the m ore p r o p e rly will he b e e u . . the m ore knowled g e h e h a s and th e cl e are r b e u n d e r . s ta nd s th e s cience o f a thin g t h e b e tter w il l he p e r f o r m . . edge m u st have its ethical a p p lication I f th e s a v . . tion of knowledge will necessarily p ro m ote the o v c l u tion o f ethics . no scienti fi c discovery be i t ever so s m all or e v e r s o . . regulation o f action A n d in t h is sense eve ry k n o w l . house observe the laws o f gravitation S o m eti m e s a .6 T 1115 15 T 1]!C I 1 . a special usage o f the ter m ethic s the science o f . . which i s m ore di fficult to under s tand and this specia l . ethics is m eant i f we s p eak o f ethics in general .

E T H IC S A SC IE N C E . th e f actors that m ake the co m m unity grow The . f or extre m ities only t h ey are m ere safety valves for - p rotecting socie ty in desperate cases They are not . an eth ical m ove m en t the decalogue of Moun t S inai is . ’ is intended to replace a slavish obedience to the letter o f the law by the ethical spirit of reli g i o us aspiration . d u tie s which m ust be per f or m e d in the interest of so c ie t y . s ide re d ethical m ove m ents C onfucius inau g urate d . an ethical m ove m ent B uddha i s the found er of an . m ore de fi n ite sense re p resen ts those . e m ployed as a regulative principle for action . universe in its eth ical i m portance I t is a philosophy . o f no avail . I f there is a d i fference between philosophy and re l ig io n it is this The word philosophy i s m ostly e m p loyed when we speak of the world conception o f sin g l e - . wi l l f ro m the m otive o f love P enal laws can serve . V ery o f ten th ese can be perfor m e d only by a certain self s ac rifi c e- and yet they m u st be done . T h e e thical sti m ulus has been i m planted in to m an by religion All the religion s o f the world are j ustly con . ethi c al m ove m ent and C hrist s S er m on on the M ount . m e mbers of a society m ust be willin g to sacri fi ce so m e o f their individu al interests and i f they are not an i . T hey have to be perfor m ed not only under the c o m pulsion o f law f ro m the m otive of fear but of free . What i s religion ! R eligion is a conception o f the world ap p lied to practical life I t i s a theory of the . m ated with this spiri t our legislative apparatus can b e . 7 E thics in the .

h im as the flowers grow in s p ring T hey ca m e to h im . think e rs . . A l l gro w th co m es to u s like a gi f t fro m on high It . only by the aid of su p ern atural f orces And the m a n . for evo l ving that higher l i f e M an is a conscious bei n g . been i n vain did nature not contain th e conditio n s . part . . and he can learn to understand his wants he can rep . is true that we have created by our own e fforts th e higher li f e o f a civilize d hu m anity yet on the oth e r hand it is true also that all o ur e ff orts would ha ve . philosophy m ay i m ply bu t need not necessarily c o n t a i n .8 T 1115 15 7 7116 111 . e v e ry . its ethical corollari e s I n a philosophy the the o r e t ic a l . philoso p hy is a religion and every religion a philos o p h y . a religion the practical a pp lication is p r e d o m in . T he history O f all the sciences beg ins with th e b e lie f in m agic T h e i nven to r who has m ade h i m s e l f . who m ade the inven tion i s under the sa m e i m pressi o n . u se f ul in this or t h at way has acco m p lished so m e th i n g extraordinary so m ething wonder f ul so m ethin g im . And there is a great truth in thi s conce p tion of in s p iration — a truth which i s at present little heed e d . . tinction we notice that reli g io n al w ays inclu d e s t h e e thical application o f a conception o f the world w h i l e a . possible it a p pears i m p ossible to the nat ural ab il i ti e s o f m an Accord ingly it is argued he can have do n e it . in an t yet there is no di fference in p rinciple . . ligion sign i fi es a p hiloso p h y e n th e w ord R e do rs e d by a whole society I n addition to t h i s d is . . H e did not m ake his o w n ideas b u t the ideas gre w in . like a revelation fro m above H e f elt hi m self inspi r e d .

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wh ich d e p e n ds upon on their ca p ability of p ro o f . . will destroy all the v iews that are inco m p atible with it . scie n ce wi l l also be the m ost i n tolerant religion for it . th a t serves as a r e gulative principle for action Yet . ethics R eligion will re m ain a conception of the w o rl d . . will be the m ost exclusive and orthodo x religi o n th at e v er ex isted — orthodox i n the p ro p er sense o f the word havin g th e righ t conviction or bei n g in . p e rn a t u ral. . truth o f which i s asserted on ground s of ass u m e d authority yet i t will have truths the authori ty o f . this co n ception will cease to be the product of an in s tin c t iv e i m aginatio n i t will beco m e a scien ti fi c s y s . 7 7 11: 1: 7 11/ C ll ' to . ev e r m ust b e m ad e and the signs of th e t i m e i n d ic a te . I ndeed the ethical proble m at pr e se n t is o th in g b u t o u r desire to m ake thi s ste p . The vanguard of those thin kers who are the lea d e rs o f hu m an p rogress feel the necessity to p lace r eli g i o n u p on a scienti fi c basis T h e religion of m a g ic o f s u . te m o f certain truths th at have to be exa m i ne d a n d proved by the usual m ethods o f scienti fi c enqui ry . is m o f superstition m u s t develop . T h e religion o f science accord i n gly is not a reli g i o n of senti m ental toleration which endure s any and ev e ry opinion wi th equal indi ffer e nce T h e religion o f sc i en c e . in t o a te l ig io n o f science it m ust beco m e the scien ti fi c b asi s o f . m isunderstood we m ay add that the religio n o f . T h e religion of science will have no dog m as t h e . possession o f provable truth And i f the ter m i s n o t . that i t will be m ade in the n e ar f uture of h u m an ity .

. j u nction s u p on the whole are ri g ht T h e co m m and . E 7 7 11C S 1 SC IE A C E ' . their errors . in g f or the con sc iences are m ore sensitive to resen t . o f the old religio n s we obj ect to bu t it is the ar g u . . - th e y ev e r were T hey have rather gained in m ean . any inj u ry done to a neighbor sinc e C h rist tau g h t u s to con sider even sin f ul d esire to be culpable as thou g h the sin itsel f were co m m itted I t is not the m orality . ” b asis ! T his question is substan tially the s am e as the e ffort to conciliate R eligion with S cience or to . evolve R eligion fro m its state o f in f ancy into its state o f m anhood . b e li e f a n d credulity in to that o f knowledge . 1 I t will no longer su ffer the m to exi s t H owever i t will . thou shalt not kill tho u . notde s troy ant agon istic views by put tin g o pp onen ts to death or p er s ecuting the m bu t by con v incing the m o f . We wan t new ethics bu t no new m orali ty T h e . f ro m d ualis m into m onis m f ro m the. m ora l ity o f the old reli gions i s not wro n g T heir in . ” sh alt not bear f alse witness are to day as valid as . T he eth ical p roble m o f to day can be f or m ulated- in the question I s eth ics a sc ience or i f it is not at p resent can ethic s be f ounded upon a scienti fi c . m ent u p on which the O l d reli g ious m or ality is base d . m e nts H o n o r thy father and m other “ thou “ s h al t not st e al . m ysti c i s m o f vague su p e rnatura l i stic speculations to th e cl e arness O f p ositive certainty f ro m authoritative .

wan ts m otive s for hi s ac tio n s and above all he wants . . the e thical proble m has beco m e a burnin g question . H owever it is by n o m ean s indi ff erent i f we consider the nec e ssity o f ed ucating the growin g generation who s e characters are plastic like clay i n a potter s hand M an ’ . is thi s need to su p p ly a n e w and tenable basis f o r eth ics which lies back of all ethical as p irations to d ay - . would h ave no ethical proble m T here would be no .12 T 1115 You m ay say it m atte rs no t why a m an lea d s a m oral li f e so th at hi s li f e be m oral . . T here is no ethical proble m to th e d og m atic b e liever f or he i m agine s that God in p erso n h as spoke n . were as fi rm and un d is p uted as i t was for m erly w e . . was centuries ago i f t h e authority of church doctrines . e g otis m had the sole decision And m an has a right . . tau g ht by t h e ch urch es were as strong t o day as it . so f ar as m orality h as beco m e a habit o f his charac ter which he could n o t ch an ge even though the m otive that i m pell ed h im to d o ri g h t should d isap p ear . to de m and m otives for he is a th inkin g being an d i t is his p rero g ative to be gui d ed by reason . m o tives for those actio n s that appear to run counter to his personal interests . Th e O l d reasons of religiou s ethics have beco m e untenable and i t i s there f ore solely t h erefore that . “ ” m ean in g in the very phrase the ethical p roble m I t . M an wants strong m otives for those actio n s which h e would no t p erfor m if his . I f the belief in a su pernatural and p erson al God as . And to so m e . exte n t i t is of l ittle consequence indeed na m ely in .

He . c o m m an d s will .H e hi m sel f will be oblige d to appeal m ore to n atu ral an d d e m onstrable argu m ents than to his creed . An d yet such is the i m per ative d e m and o f pro g ress t h at even to the thoughtful dog m atist the e thical proble m i s brou g ht ho m e H e m ay conceive the increase of . interest in the wel f are of socie ty he m ust see the need . T here is one p oint yo u ought to understand well . a fter d eath receive . and thus i t w ill ha p pen that the churches the m selves . . . will under the pressure o f f acts by the gentle in . an appeal to the accounts of revelation woul d be use less wit h re g ard to those who have ceased to believe th e m . an ethical te acher an ethical m issionary also . 13 thro u g h the m ouths of h is prophets and his only b e ’ love d son an d whosoever believes and obeys God s . E very m issio n ary m ust speak in the lan g uage of those w h o m he wi sh es to convert Thus even a . - . u n belief a m ong the thinkers of m ank in d as a si g n of d e p ravity in the h u m an race nevertheless th is state of th ings de m and s h is atte n tion likewise I f he has an . o f teachin g ethics to u nbelievers The d og m ati s t is. th e crown of l i f e . E T H IC S A SC IE N C E . even t h ou gh they retain their deno m inational n a m es . knows that a teacher m ust g o down to the level of his d isciples an d fro m their stan d p oin t raise the m to his . fl u e n ce of the ti m es chan g e in to societies f or ethical . - ow n . do g m atist f ro m his stan d point can appreciate that . cul tu re . The et h ical m ove m ent will work f or the p rogress of m ankin d wh at e ver y o u do for it will un d er all cir . .

negations you m ust do the positive work o f a ffi r m at ion . T h e m ere for m ulation o f a proble m said D avid H u m e . in tend to give p er m anence to your work in the ethical m ove m ent i f you wish that the S ocieties f or E th ical . the m otive s for m oral action yo u m ust re p lace th e m . the m ere selection o f the na m e i s m ost appro p riate . to it all the atten tion that i t deserves you m u st also solve i t .I 4 . C ulture shall contin ue you m ust not rest satis fi ed wi th . is not su ffi cient to p ropou nd the ethical p roble m an d to p ush it to the f ront o f h u m an interests so as to ca l l . It is . . D oes n o r C hrist s word ap p ly to you as well as it di d ’ o f yore to the m ultitude that listened to h is words in Gali l ee Ye are the salt o f the earth but i f the salt . p at h ie s all over the world a m on g the learned p ro fe s sors o f ethics as m uch as a m o n g the liberal clergy who are willing to f ollow the s p irit o f scienti fi c p rog ress Will you n o w leave the task u ndone P Will . . you shrink f ro m co m p leting the work le s t y o u co m m i t y ourselves to a real solution o f the e thical p robl e m I hope and indeed I believe that yo u will not . . . . by new m otive s that can stand scienti fi c criticis m It . is al m o st hal f o f its solution You have elicited s y m . cu hel p to e th ic al iz e our chu rches B u t i f yo u m s tan c e s . T h e work done by the leaders o f the ethical m ove m ent i s undoubtedly a g reat achieve m ent an d . T H E E T IJ I C / I l . I t is not su ffi cient to drop the antiquated creeds o f super n aturalis m which f u rnished in f or m er centuri es . . have lost its savor wherewith shall it be sa l te d . P R O B L E M .

. of you T hey will take root in th e hearts o f others . probable that in the last m o m ent o f necessity the clergy will un d erstand th e dile m m a : E ither the churches have to ada p t the m selves to the need s of the ti m e or . undone if you positively refu se to d o it it is certain that . m ay be roused f or there is still m u c h power f or good . in the m T h e ch urches have no t lost the capability . . w h o p ossess the strength a n d the courage to realize the m . E T H IC S A SC IE N C E . your societies will pass away f or in that case they . . . . i nfluence decrease B ut in that case is it not m o st . . . cal m ove m ent would re m ain T hou g h you m is u n de r . they will cease to exist ! I f they understand this . in g l e s s like the salt that has lost it s savor . stoo d your own ideals your ideals wou ld live i n s p it e . in the old ru t the ir n u m bers will di m inish an d their . Your f ailure to solve th e ethical proble m would be a seriou s loss to th e cause o f progress yet i f the ethical soc ieties would p ass out o f existence the ethi . seize the m as ha pp ened in the era o f L uther T h e lead ers o f the ch urche s will beco m e aware of the fact th at they are losin g contact with their ti m es If they contin ue . wo uld have n o reason to exist they would be m ean . be trodden under foot of m e n I f you leave the work . o f regeneration the d e m and s o f the ti m e p ress the m very hard they feel no less than you the urgency of the ' e t h ic al p ro b l e m and why shou l d not a s p iri t of re f or m . 15 th enceforthgood for nothin g but to be c ast out an d to. After all i t is n o t i m p ossible th at the churches .

16 T [I E E T I 11C A L P R O B L E JI . I t m ust . have its way We can hinder its g ro w t h w e c an t e . The q uestion now arises : H ow can we h av e a scienti fi c basis o f eth ics H ow is the transition f ro m the old state to the n e w to be e ffected An d which philosophy shall give u s the theoretic al assista n c e of m ethod for our operation Which ph ilosophy ! T h ere are so m any ! And one p hilosopher con tradic ts the other T h ere is . v ict o rious in the e n d I ts ene m ies cann o t s u ppre ss . we c an enhance its growth we can m ature its h ar v es t . not undo it Ye t we c an also pro m ote its pro g re s s . it n eithe r can its f riends nor its fo under s . . m onis m an d a g nosticis m . th ei r h i s t oric al inheri tance an d t radit i o n s t h e y w il l . . Which shall we sel e c t . e v olve in t o t hat h i g her pha s e o f reli g ion w hic h is free fro m t h e s upe rstition o f m a g ic T hey w i l l p u rify th eir . m aterialis m and spiritualis m realis m and ideali s m . an e thical re v i v al will un d oubtedly an i m ate c h u rc h li fe an d w i t h al l the advantages o f t h e ir o r g aniza t i o n w i th . fait h so as to shake o ff th e illusi o n s o f su pe rn atu r al i s m . . T here can be no doubt i f t h ere is any t ru th in th e . and u n e quiv oc al ly take their stand on the so l id g ro u n d o f scienti fi c t ru t h . ta r d its p ro g ress by m isco m prehendin g it b ut w e c an . l a w of evolu t ion that the ethical m ove m en t w ill be . an d in d oin g so w e shall work for the cause o f h u m anity .

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reality and yo u will not fi n d ethics E thics is not . and o f our individ u al experience the natural p rocesses .18 T H E E T II I C A L P R O B L E JI . Ethics therefore w ant s so m ethi n g greater and g rander th an fac ts S cience m ay explain the thin g s that are . T here are perha p s m any a m ong you who woul d say F acts are a poor capital to start with What are facts ! . ready m ade . i ten t an d si m ple ex p lanation o f facts S o it will b e s s . revelation upon absolute ideas u pon anythi n g but . that take place around us C ertainly all these th ing s are fac ts and f acts are the realities o f life . w ith all th e philosophies A ll th e thou g ht c o n s tr u e . it is not the one or the other fact a m on g all the r e alities of the universe E thics is our at titude . T h e obj ection that can be m ade to the pro p osition of basi n g eth ics u pon f act s can be stated as f ollow s : “T herealities o f life are o f ten very sad . H ere i s the li n e of de m arcation be t w een the n e w e t h ic s an d the old T h e ol d eth ics i s based u pon . L aplace searched the skies and he coul d n ot fi n d God . . . n o t upon facts T h e n e w ethics is based upon f acts . to be c o m e a science m u st be establishe d on f ac t s . . sion s we have the ha pp enin gs and events of h istory . Are they not the realities o f li f e the sensory i m p res . phy o f fac t s will re m ain An d the n e w ethics in o rder . and they are especi ally in su ffi cient i n the p ro p erly m oral ele m ent . I n the sa m e way you m ay search the fac ts of . . an d i s applied to facts . toward the facts of reality . - tio n s o f ab so lute being m u st go a n d only th e p h il o s o .

. Ideals d o not co m e d own to us f ro m the skies nor . . . tion and to cri ticize hi s d rea m s he will study f acts . I t is true that ethics is n o t satis fi ed with t h e present state of things . prophets N o t at all ! M an wan ts so m ethin g so h e . th ese ideals whenc e do they co m e ! Are they really d erive d fro m the absol ute ! D o ideals co m e to us fro m fairy land Are t h ey really of a m yst e rious an d a s u p e rte rre s trial o ri g in ! I f so supernaturalis . t h ey are not of celestial or transcenden tal p aren ta g e Ideals are the children of our n ee d s . . with things that ou g ht to be . E THI CS A SCI EN CE . 19 sci e nc e m ay b e satisfi ed w ith f a cts bu t ethics de al s . conceives th e idea how good it would be if he had it . ethics atte m pts to i m prove the sta te o f facts as they are E thics d eals with ideals Yet . . . are they m ere d r e a m s m ere poetic al vi sions of our . If . m woul d be right aft e r all What are i d eals I deals have a very hu m ble ori g in . . who in addition to his i m a g inative fac ulty possess e s . . . i m a g in ation and co m plains abo ut the hard facts of . . I f a m an i s a m e re d rea m er he is pleased with h is . an inventor is engage d i n inven tin g a m ach ine f or fi l l in g so m e need i n hu m an li f e he h as an ideal f or . reality H owever i f he is a thinker that is a drea m e r . an d of eth ical ideals m ust be sou g ht i n so m eth ing s u ” perior to fact s in so m ethi n g absolute . . an i d eal is an idea to be realize d . self disci p line will and the ability to prune h is i m agin a - . ethics is not satis fi ed wit h f acts bu t it brin g s us ide als The basis of ethics . .

I f et h ic al id e al s do n o t ag ree w ith th e l aw s tha t sc ience af ter a carefu l e xam i n atio n h as d e riv e d . . T h e reli g io n s o f sup e rn aturalis m tea c h th a t th e s o urc e of all go o d n ess and m orality is a g re at p e rs o nal being residing beyon d th e skies an d he by m e an s o f ’ . ti o n s o f a h ig her co n d uc t th a n hu m an i ty at p r e s e n t p o s se s ses . f a i u u s i n a m a r s hy region . o f thi n g s .20 T H E E T H IC A L P R O B L E III . The eth ic al ide al ri s e s as al l o the r i d e al s fr o m th e . w a n ts o f m an H u m ani ty is in n ee d o f a b e tte r stat e . . s ias m fo r th e c o m m o n g o o d T h i s p ro d u c e s c o n c e p . . - . . reco g n i z es that there is a power an all p e rva d i n g . . worthless perh ap s al so j us t as m i sleadin g as is th e .o f m o re b e n evolence in o u r m utu al in ter c o u rse o f m o re j u s t ic e in o u r d e al i n g s m o re e n th u . . so m e rea so n are n o t ad ap table to fac ts are n o i d e als . Yet there is a g reat truth i n the idea of God The reli g ion of scie n c e . m agic i m plants into m an s b o s o m t h e e thica l i d e al ’ . even thou gh he w e re o m n ip o te n t enough to let th e ' stars spin aroun d his fi n g ers . bu t dre am s . . A nd l y by s t u dyi n g facts will h e be e n ab le d to on re ali z e h is ide al T h o s e apparen t id e al s wh ic h for . .of bette r l a w s an d instituti o n s a n d w e a re . N o wonder that L aplace could not fi n d Go d A m ed i cine m an who works m iracles has no roo m in n a ture - . m irage o f a f a te m org a n a in th e de s e rt o r an !gm! . fro m facts they are m er e d re am s an d are j us t as . c o n s ta n t l y i n v e s tiga ti n g th e d iffe rent pla n s to d e c i d e w h et h er o r n o t they wo u l d be an i m pro v e m e n t if re al iz e d .

H ence the institutions of prayer and adoration in spite of C hrist s co m m and th at God is spirit and ’ . wrecks those w h o do n o t confor m to i ts inj unc tion s . science who is a reality of life no less than the l a w . It . b super . We need not search the skies in order to fi n d this God We nee d but look i nto our own hearts . u t person al An d th is superperson al power n ot only . If L aplace h ad sought for t h is Go d f or the Go d o f . die n c e to the ethical laws as C hrist says N o t every . E T H IC S A SC IE N C E . have failed to d iscover h im . those w h o worship h im m ust worsh ip h im in spirit and in truth The new wors h ip is no adoration but obe . d e m an d s no creed but dee d What is creed but the . . . of g ravitation h e would not . H e is n o t far fro m every one o f u s for in h im we l ive . T h e ol d reli g ion of m agic teache s that God work s by m a g ic an d can in turn be worked upon by m a g ic . 21 l aw in the un iv e rse which is not personal . . one that saith unto m e L ord L ord shall enter i n to . . obtains in th e m otions of the stars and in the laws of cos m ic life but als o in the d est in ies of nations in the . and m ove and have our bein g . . the kin g do m o f heave n bu t he that doeth the will o f . ” m y F ather wh ich is in heaven T h e God o f science . . . for there h e l ives in our ethical as p irations an d ideals . belief in the letter o f parables And is it not ex ” p re ssly an d repeate d ly stated that C hrist s words are ’ tru ths sy m bo l ical l y expressed ! All these th ing s s pake J esus unto the m ultitude in parables and with . g ro w th of society and in the fate s of ind ividuals . . .

. out a parable spake he no t unto the m . . Modern M athe m atics has not superse d e d Euclid an d . logic were for m erly suppose d to han g in m id air - . We are so m uch accu sto m e d to respect th o se things only the ori g in o f which we d o not co m pr e . the article alters the entire sense of th e passa g e It .22 T H E E T il / C A L P R O B L E AI . m odern conception of these scie n ces has m a d e an a m en d m en t w h ich will g uar d a g ainst the e rror th a t ‘ ' the fo rrrial sciences are anythin g like an u nexplain able m iraculous rev e lation . What would C hrist say i f he s aw th e m o de r n . T h ere is a tendenc y n o w alon g the whole line of scien ti fi c en q uiry to prove that every one of o ur scien ces ulti m ately stands on facts M at h e m at ics an d . paganis m of Ch ristiani ty which has retained a m odi fi e d ido l atry i nstea d o f realizin g th e purely ethic al . and g ives n e w occasion f or the con tin uat ion o f p a g a n rites and custo m s . (M A TT x m. their fun d a m ental truths were sai d to be axio m s th a t ne e d no proof bec ause they are self evi d e n t Mo d er n - . m odern lo g ic h as not superse d ed Aristo t le Yet th e . chan g es Go d into a Ghost into a bo d iless p erso n . m athe m atics has succeeded in provin g that m ath e m a tic s is ulti m ately based o n f acts no less than any oth e r science an d t h e sa m e h as been proved o f lo g ic . . religion of a worsh i p in s p iri t and in truth ! H i s wor d that “ Go d is s p iri t ” i s wron g ly translat e d ” by the phrase God is a S pirit This in sert io n o f .

23 that i t see m s to us like a d isappoint m ent if w e h e a d. a lowly origin Thi s d etracts not in t h e l east fro m . are told we shou l d be able to u n de rstand th e fo u n da tion of ethics an d to search for i ts basis a m on g facts . . who have no t as yet s ucc e eded in co m in g down to facts still stand beyond the line o f d e m arcatio n that . on m y stic e m otion s on vague . . . separates the old view fr o m the m odern or scienti fi c v iew . E THI CS A SCI EN CE . or on inco m prehensible ideals i s in pri n c ipl e . H ere is an ideal worthy of th e nobl es t e fforts of o u r enth usias m I deals m ay h ave as I sai d before . h ave no t as yet felt the nee d of basin g ethics upo n facts cannot be sai d to be i m bue d with th e s piri t of m odern ethics . sharper than an y color line can be an d those w h o . an g uish an d anxiety Yet all the a ffliction m an h as . I d e als are born o f want and the birth of ideals is . of te n acco m pan ied by painful throes . T h e idea to base ethics on absolu te c o n c e p tions . I ndeed those who ye t believe in absol u te i d eas those . . m ethod s of in tu ition . not very d i ff eren t fro m th e ol d metho d of a superna tural revelation of eth i cs The lin e of distinction is . to un d ergo is fully co m pen sated in the noble sati s factio n h e e n j o y s in the work o f realizin g h is i d e als . their g reatness Th is world of ours is not a worl d . . by su ff erin g . an a m ple fi el d to the m an who fi n d s his satisfactio n in realizi n g i d eals . s uited to the taste of the pleasure seeker yet it affords - . t h eir d ivine g randeur O n the contrary th is ad d s to .

as a mai d Is w e dd d t he wh o a e ro . 5 T 111 15 7 I I I C l I ' - . Sh i gl w i g p e s a t o d l n re s e n c e . u a n rac e . . B f d l t i th i w l d th I d l e n o t a ra i es n s or e ea Sh l d d i pp ou l ik fl w f d sa e a r. W d on ly f m th i b id l i p i g ro u s ro s r a u n on s r n s T h l if w h i h b e e th i g t h g h th h m c . I d t y t h h i f th f m n ar e n ou yf s n es or ro ever ac e It l d t th i en s t o fa y w i g e nv e n o r nc ' s n s. th f ithf lly h u s a u e s h i l d th e s e I d l ea . S ti ll fi m ly r an a ll i an c e h ym e ne a l jo in s h e r to H u m an P ro g re s s . re a n ro u e. o r e a o er a e F h ior s t m f y fi kl h d e s no e re an c ' s c e s a e . A d ti n th s p t h t w h g ily i g rs e oe ’ s e ar . om h is bl d a e P ro te c s t . ru e a n re a . . o a s n s T h Id l b ty d t h I d l g’ ’ e ea s e au an e ea s rac e .

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2d E d itio n . . The a p rz orz i s the f oun d ation o f all our ethica l ’ ’ action in the widest sense o f the ter m ethics i t i s the l‘ C rit iq u e o f P u re R e as o n . p re fe rence to all e gotistic desires ! M an is the only creature on earth that is an ethic al bein g because he alone is able to think The begin . hests o f his conscience the m otives of d uty in . I n tro d u c t io n . n ing o f all ethics i s thought Befor e I act I think . S ays K ant * “ We say o f a m an w h o u n d e r m ine d his house he m ight have k nown a prio ri that i t woul d . . again S o the a p riori has been declared to b e an im . . even m ore than the probable result I f I know all the . T his is the old proble m o f K ant s a p riori which has ’ . S tuart M ill has tried to do away with i t he pu t i t . .26 T H E E T II I C JL P R O B L E I II .that queer woo d en toy m an standin g upon a - ro unded leaden base You m ay knock do w n the stan d . I can f orecast the probable result o f m y action ye a . . caused m uch dis p u t e a m ong philosophers Mr J oh n . . fact and i f it were no f act h o w co uld we ha v e ethics ! . conditions and control the m I can with certainty f ore . that it di d actually f all . p ossibility b u t h e re i t is again . f all that is he need n ot have waited for the e x perien ce . . can know so m ething be f ore i t hap p ens and yet it is a . tell the consequence I t a p pears wonder f ul tha t m an . u p as o f ten as you p lease i t will s p rin g to its f eet . down and deno unced i t but th e a p rz orz is l ike a sta n d ' ' ' u p . .

We do kno w beforehan d the la w s of f or m and e v ery . althou g h they m ay at fi rst s ight appear di fferen t . 27 basis of all practic al application o f knowledge I f we . e nga g e d in showin g how the cond itio n s are the s a m e . is easily e x pl aine d as soo n as we understan d the na ture of for m al law s . were not able to f orecast the result o f o ur actio n s . thin g that e x ists everythin g that can beco m e an o b . be a ffecte d by this or that treat m ent but we do kno w beforehand the laws that underlie on e q uality in all the thin g s which in our e xp erience we can possibly m eet . an d . TI I E DA T A 0 1» E THI CS . I t is true that we canno t deter m ine be f orehand ho w so m e substance which we have never seen be f ore will . o f f or m . . . I f I p ut twice two ap p les i n to a baske t I have p ut f o ur a p ples into it “ T w ice two are four . bu t it i s not m iraculous I t is a necessary . If I con struct a n u m ber of trian gles all d i fferen t in shape rectan g ular obtuse and equilateral I s hall fi n d . . there would be no etholo g y . that the s u m of the an g les of every one o f the m will m easure e x actly ninety d egrees This i s wonder f ul . conse q uence in all these cases like co n di tio n s pro d uce like results And m athe m atics as a scie n ce is . is perhaps the si m ple st state m ent of a for m al l aw . I s it n o t m arvelous that m an can kno w so m ethin g befor e g ainin g the actual e x perience of i t ! I s this not an in e x plain able m ystery th e i n fluence of so m e . j c e t o f o u re x perience is e q u ally subj ect to the l aws . s uperna t ural power —N o T h e m ystery o f the a p riori . indeed .

vails in nature . u re or n at l i u ra i th t f t h sc enc e . subj ectively considered bein g conceive d . ‘ T he d m t p h y i h ft b d fi d t h i w or e a s cs as of th my ti al en een e ne as e s c en c e o e s c e ss e n ce w hi h d l i th x t c u n erf l ty M tap h y i l w a (a d es e e is e n ce o re a i . . e . . enables us to suit o ur actions to special purposes an d . . “ sciences are so m eti m es calle d m etaphysics ” . be the sa m e we call it nec essa ry .28 T H E ET II I C A L II P R O B L E Z . those of s p acial re lations m athe m atics those . e s ca s cc o r i g t n o aw g ty m l g y f t h w ro n e d ) pp d t b th t w h i h l i b h i d o o o e or su ose o e a c es e n th p h y i e l Thi ki d f m t p hy i h l g i b s ca . T h e for m al laws bein g universal are obj ectively . we c al l f our When we k n ow that a result will al w ay s . we kno w beforehand that wherever the sa m e action o f tw o being d oubled takes p lace the res u lt w ill al w ays . T h us we can for m ulate all the for m al la w s and we can know b e forehand t hat no ex p erience ever will re fu te the m T h e for m al laws of nu m ber s we c all arith . . s ti f m tt a o d gy e c o n s e rv a on o a e r an e ne r . sa m e universa l order of thin g s that m akes m athe m ati e s ari th m etic lo g ic and hu m an reason possible . nothing b ut the reco g nition of the reg ularity that pre vails in the f acts o f e x perience and co m prehen sion . . R eason i s that q ua l i ty of m an that m akes h im an ethical bein g . as necessary they a fford us the m ean s o f co m prehen d .. Eth ics accordin g ly is ulti m ately bas e d upon th e . . m t im p tet l w f tos m t p h y i i p ly f m al o r an a o r u e e a s cs . . s n o p d d by e a s cs as on s nce een su e rs e e p i os t i i m v s T h. considere d the conditio n s of the re g ularity that p re . in g the pheno m ena o f n ature C o m p rehension i s . be th e s am e it will be the p ro d uc t o f t w ice t w o which . “ ” m et ic . “ ” of thinkin g logic an d the f or m al laws o f n atural . thus to deter m ine the course o f even ts .

an t ose ou s c e tro y d al l m y t ici m b e am e a w b si s f it s . a e a cs. th e re c o g ni tion of t h e u n ive rsal or d e r of t h in g s Kn o w l . . a E y th i g c ran s c e n s a co re en on . ” . t d t i ran s cen ” th t w h i h t en . is reaso n for al l the co m plicate d a c tivities of our m i n d . e d g e b e i n g the represe n t ation o f f ac ts t h i s rev e latio n . 29 R eason has been supposed to be of super n at u ral o ri g in yet r e ason is no m o re s uper n at u r al tha n is th e abili ty to understand that twice tw o w i ll al w ays b e th e prod uct of twice tw o tha t is fou r This v e ry ability . b t th u r s t t h wh i h K ran s c e n t ll t “ en u ose ru s c an ca s ra n s c e n d t l a by en a " m “ re t d t . it is a natural reve l ation the ori g i n of w h ich w e c an . e . d l l m p h si . or a . e a s o I f th o i . v er n su p at al i t e rn d t . is n o t the ine x plicable act o f an e x tra m u n d a n e d ei ty . is not h i n g b ut the reco g ni tio n of t h e re g ularity tha t prevails am on g these facts an d t h is re c o g nitio n pou r s . revelation i s n o revelation in th e ol d th e o l o g ic al s e n s e .. * though t The la w s of for m bein g th e k e y to our u n d e rs t an d in g the regularity of the course of nat u r e re a s o n as . u s e ra ca an eca e. . THE DA T A O F E THICS . - it is no m ysticis m n o s u pernatur alis m I t is s i m pl y . Ka t d i ti g is h b tw n “ t a s n d t l u i es f m l an de een r n sc e n en a . K t d i ipl " or f d d b th w d an ’ s d sc id dt es con ou n e o or s an c on s e re ran s cen d t l t en a th a t a d t Th th ru s di l K s t b m r n sc e n i th i en . trace in t h e for m al la w s of e x istence This re velatio n . . th y no th l e an s t th g ht ran s c e n en " e are e c e are s ou s p ibl th l w f l g ic ith m ti m th m ti oss e. n e r mi d n pp t f p s. it were rev e als to u s the unity of Al l e x ist e n c e Th i s . K tm d a g an mi t k w h a e h ll d f m l th g h t t rav e “ s a e en e ca e or a ou ran s c e n d t l en a F. o f in d uctio n an d d e d uction are th e sa m e thin g ov e r ag ain they are fo rm al thou g ht o r ap p li catio n s of for m al . e re s an n t d t ran s c e n k w l d g f it i en . y th i g ar e c. ou r ily m y ti i m no e e o s n e c e s s ar s c s . a su t l i m d h t h g h ts o f h i w h i h d s o r er o su e rn a u ra s . . - . e . ec ne a s o .. in lo g ical ar g u m entation and ratioci n ation a l l m e tho d s .

no ! He ar g u es : I n th e p h y s ic al co ns titu tio n o f an o rgan iz ed b e in g w e tak e it fo r g rante d th at n o o rg an w ill b e fo u n d in it fo r an y p u rp o s e b u t s u c h as is a l s o th e fi tte s t an d b es t ad a te d fo r th a t p u rp os e I f i p n. I s happiness the end o f reason ! K an t says . . a b e in g p o s s e ss in g re as o n a n d w ill th e p re s e rv atio n th e p ro s pe rit y . A s a fac t w e fi n d th at th e m o re a cu l tiv ated reas o n m atte r o f .30 T H E E T HI CA L P R O B L E /l l . Fo r al l ac tio ns th at it h ad to p e rfo rm w ith th is e n d in v ie w an d th e wh o l e ru l e o f its . . re e m ine n tly in th e c ase o f th o se m os t ex e rie nce d in th e e x erc ise p p - . we now learn to co n si d er i t as a cos m os in whic h th e ' m inutest detail is or d aine d by an i m m ane n t an d in trin s ic l aw . an d th is e n d w o u l d h av e be e n far m o re s af e ly attain e d by th is m e an s th a n c an e v e r tak e p l ac e th ro u g h th e in s tru m e n tal ity o f 7 8 0 5 072. c o n d u c t w ou l d h av e b e e n far m o re e x ac tly p re s c rib e d by ins tin ct . . o c c u p ie s its e l f w ith th e p u rp o s e o f e n j o y in g l ife an d h app in e s s . K ant has w ritten an e x cellent little book in wh ich he lays the f oun d ation f or a m etaphysics o f e th ic s . e x p e d ie n t to th is e n d h ad it m ade th e re as o n o f th at be in g th e . m any various f acts o f e x pe rience a t fi rst appeare d to u s as a bewil d eri n g chaos without rhy m e o r reason . th e f arth e r d o e s th e p e rs o n p o s s e s s in g it re c e d e f ro m th e s tate o f tru e c o n te n tm e n t an d h e n c e th e re aris e s in th e c as e o f m an y an d . p o s e o f n atu re n atu re h ad c ertain ly ad o p te d an e x tre m e ly u n w ise . I n this book he enqu ires into the purpose o f re ason . in a w ord th e h app in e s s o f th at b e in g c o n s titu te d th e ac tu al p u r . . e x e c u tiv e ag e n t o f its p u rp o s e s in th is m atte r . a flood of light over this worl d of ours for wh ile the . I t is entitled Gr u n d/eg u ng z u r M etap /zy s z k o er S z tl m ' ’ ' .

i n co n f or m ity with the orde r o f natural la w s they will . . an d th u s in th e e n d th e y are m o re ap t to e n v y th an c o n te m n th e . bi nation of thin g s ceases to confor m to t h e laws of cos m ic existence i t will ulti m ately m eet with de s tru c . n o t a g ree wit h the cos m ical con d ition s of e x istence . d e g ree o f m iso l o g y or h ate o f re as o n fo r a fte r w e ig h in g e e ry v ad v an tag e th at th e y de riv e I w ill n o t s ay f ro m th e in v e n tio n o f al l . existence . (w h ic h a f te r a l l ar e in t h e ir e y es a l u x u r y o f t h e in t e ll ec t ) . te aches us how to re g ulate o ur act ions i n confor m ity with the or d er of natural laws I f we d o re g ulate the m . n d w h o d o n o t s u f f e r th e ir re as o n to in flu e n c e in an y g re at d e g re e t h e ir ac ts a n d o m is s ion s. . thin g that e x ists confor m s to it An d if so m e c o m . We have learned in ou r previou s lectu re that all knowled g e can be for m ulated as an ethical prescri p t . . b u t e v e n fro m th e sc ie n c es . Th u s we e x press the sa m e truth etholo g ical ly as f ol lows : I f yo u wish to e x i st obey reason R easo n . in the latter case they are bad they will . t h e y s til l d is c o v e r th at v irtu ally th e y h av e b u rd e n ed th e m s e l v e s mo re w ith to il an d tro u bl e th an th e y h a e g ain e d in po in t of h app in es s v . tion . good they will a g ree with the cos m ical con d itions of . TII E DA T A O F E THI CS . c o m m o n e r ty p e o f m e n w h o are m o re im m e d iate ly s u bj e c t to th e g u i d a n ce o f n a tu r al in s tin c t a l o ne a . not b e foun d in produc i n g h appiness ! R eason e u able s u s to co m prehend the re g ularity of the order o f n ature an d the unity o f cos m ic e x i stence Every . What then is the use o f reason if its purpose can . arts fac il itatin g o rd in ary l u u ry x . if th e y are o n ly fran k e n o u g h to c on fess it a c e rtain . 31 o f re as o n . stand otherwise not I n th e for m er case they will be .

T h i s attitu d e of . re q u ire s on m y p art n o far re ac h in g S ag ac ity - Un e x pe rie n ced in . K ant calls this attitu d e of m an pro d uc e d un d er .n o t by re as o n o f . . . C an s t th o u so w ill th at th e m ax im o f th y co n d u c t m ay b e co me a u n iv e rs al . .32 T H E E T II I C A L P R O B L E JI . The conclu sion derived fro m t h e s e pre m ise s K ant for m ulates in the followin g state m e n t T o know wh at I h av e to do in ord e r th at m y v o l itio n be go od . becau s e it is n o t fi t to en te r as a p rin c ip l e into a p ossibl e e nact men t o f u n iv e rsal l aws " . but it m ust still be co n si d ered as the hi gh est g oo d an d the con d ition n e cessary to everythin g e lse e v e n to all . We canno t treat of g ra m m ar wi th o ut un d erstan d in g l o g ic ! O r if we d o our d isc u s s i on s . . l aw ! W h e re it c an n o t b e co m e a u n iv e rs al l aw th e re th e m ax im . the influenc e of reaso n an d p ro m pt in g h im to confor m “ ” to u n iversal la w s the g ood will . o f th y con d u c t is re p re h e ns ibl e an d th at to o . res p e c t to th e cou rs e o f n atu re u n abl e to b e p re p are d fo r al l th e . an y d is ad v an tag e co n seq u e n t th e re u p o n to th e e o r e v e n o th e rs b u t . there f ore th e y will n ece s s arily pro d uce d i s or d e r an d evil . K an t s et h ics has be en cri tici z e d of late as m e re ’ f or m alis m ye t could we no t on the sa m e g ro u n d rej ect all the sciences because they are based upon the la w s of for m al thou g ht I t proves the superiority of K an t s reasoni n g that he so clearly s ho w s the fo rm a l ’ si d e of ethics . ” d esir e o f h ap p in e ss . th e will Kant says “ is no t t h e sole an d whol e g oo d . oc c u rren c es trans p irin g th e re in I s im p ly as k m y s e l f .

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n u m erable plugs or hooks to wh ich they are f aste ned . ener g y with w hich th e structur e s o f h is or g an is m are . Thi s co m m otion is the p ulsation o f m an s p hysical ’ and m en tal activity The contact o f his br e athin g . t w een m an and m an constitutes th at super ind ividual - soul life which w e call society - . applie d to actual facts they would be as sound in g . organs wit h the oxygen o f the air kee p s the fla m e o f h is li f e aglow and the con stant consu m p tion o f the . R elations are not m aterial th ing s and it is di ffi cult . The fa c ts to b e consi d ere d in ethics are t h e m any an d various relations in which m an stands to h is sur ro undi n g s These relations pro d uce the m any di fferen t . there fore to understand that they are actual and m ost i m portan t realities R elation s are f acts o f ex p erience . brass or a tinklin g cy m bal .34 T H E E T II I C A L purposes if they were not applied and never to be . all th e relation s o f a m an to his surro undings are so m any invisible silken threads f astened to those spots . . m otives that p ro m pt m an s act ions T h e m o st im ’ . portant relation s o f all for ethical consi d eration are those which connect the life of a sin gle indivi d ual to th e fates of all his fellow bein g s The relation b e . also L et us f or the sake of illustration i m agin e that . tact with the ou ter worl d sets so m e o f thes e threads in vibration thus causing a co m m otion a m on g th e ih . o f his body w here the obj ects a ff ect h im E very con .

his state of consciousness acts as an irritation upon m an I t pro m pt s h im to action and in so f ar . A m on g all t h e threa d s t h at connect m an s bo d y wi th ’ th e ou ter worl d and the d i fferent parts of t h e body a m on g the m selves there are so m e th at pass t h rou g h . T H E D A T A O F E THI CS . contin uation of the proc e ss o f life . m ake between cause and m otive is that a m otive i s a . “ ” as it is the c ause o f so m e m otion we call i t m otive . or . th e en d stati o n s to w h ic h they are hooke d are the d i fferen t places wher e . . there will result a st ro n g pu ll of c ert ain t h rea d s to th e brain an d a state of consciou snes s will be pro d uce d w hic h we call h un g er and thirst . 35 frei g hted cau ses th e need o f renewin g t h e m for a . Th e hooks in m an s brain are not on ly conn ected with ’ th rea d s that pass throug h the sensory organs in to th e brai n b ut also with others that connect the hooks . . “ ” co mpan ie d wit h consciousn e ss i s called action . Motive is th at wh ich m oves an d the distinction we . t h e sensory or g an s to his bra in . a m o n g th e cerebral hooks w ill set th e m uscle s in m otion . a m ong the m selves an d connect so m e hooks with the m u scles of th e bo d y Thu s a co m m otion cau sed . cause which in its action is acco m panied with con s c io u s n e s s T h e m otion o f an organis m t h at is ac . N o w suppos e t h at a consu m ption o f e n e r g y h as taken place t h rough th e contact with t h e outer world . a co m m otion pro d uces a state o f con sciou sness rep t e se nti n g that obj ec t wi th which it stan d s in relation .

. preservation o f these for m s is calle d the m e m ory of ” living substance an d m o d ern investigations o f physi . duce di ff erent f or m s of structure in t h e or g anis m an d . f or m s the ger m s of life so t h at in spec ial co m bin a . ’ . . I n co n sideration of the fact that t h e w h ol e worl d in all i ts di m ensions is a m ost co m plicate d network of cau ses and e ffects it will b e natural that an an i m al. ” called w ill . 1 10.133. a ffected by in n u m erable i m p ressions that show an n u f ailin g regularity The d i fferent i m pressions w ill pro . it I - m ust con tain in its si m plest an d m ost ele m e n tary . an act “ an d the attitu d e of passin g i nto action is . T he h ook s on w h ich the inn u m erable th rea d s are fastene d rep resent m a n s soul W h at are t h e s e h o ok s . C om p are th e articl e “ Is N atu re A li ve ! in F u n da m en ta l P robl em s . . pp . ology teach u s that all the various f unc tions of th e di fferent or g ans and nerve cells are d ue to t h e u n - consciou s m e m ory o f th e livin g sub stance in h erit e d fro m countless ancestors Accordin g ly these h ooks . * the m otion o f ato m s is acco m panied with feeli n g .36 T H E E THI CA L P R O B L E III . . . organis m which has been f or m ed so m ewher e will b e . the m otio n s vibratin g throu g h the d ifferen t st ructure s will be acco m p anied with d i fferen t feelin g s T h e . o f our soul of which we spoke are noth ing but the . tions as we fi n d the m in organi z ed ani m al substance . and h ow d i d t h ey ori g in a te “ he worl d substanc e c annot be d ea d m att e r .

with o ut a principle or m a x i m witho ut a stan dar d for . . in cas e w e have to choose a m ong several m otives o f whic h one only can be selecte d ethics has to instruct. us as to which m otive is to be pre f erred B ut e thics . TI I E DA T A O F E T II I C S . nature of ethics Take away that conviction de p rive . can be of service only if i t gives u s a p rinci p le ac cor d in g to which we can for m o ur j ud g m en t Ethics . . m an is h e w hos e aspiration it is to liv e in per f ect har m o n y wit h t h e m oral law T o h im it will be im p o s s i . 37 effect s which the t h reads o f causal relations have pro du c e d by constant con tact . d iscri m ination i s no ethics . . wron g accordin g to a de fi nite conviction is the very . ce as e to be ethics . but it is not ethics f or j udg m ent a s to right an d . . I n n u m erable sensory i m pressions have pro d uced in th e f e elin g substance represen t ation s o f their causes in the surroun d ing world an d m any o f these repr e sentations act as sti m uli they are . m otives for action . . Ethic s is an esti m ation o f the m otives f or action . it m ay be sen ti m en tality it m ay be zeal fo r so m e n u . it m ay be m ysticis m or ro m an ticis m . Ethics by passin g j u dg m en t u p on m an s m otives ’ will under ord inary circu m stances always streng then so m e of t h e m an d weaken othe rs Yet an e th ical . known good . whether we shall yield to the m or sup p re ss the m and . I t m ay be enth u sias m . eth ic s of the principle o f esti m ation an d ethic s will .

They for m th e soul li f e o f a su p er in d ividual o rg an . . e g otistic m otives are no m ore an d no less n atura l th a n altruistic and social m otives Both have develope d . fl u e n c e upon the e m otion s o f every in d ivid ual c an n o t be o verrated . T h e m ost i m portan t relations of a m an are the re l atio n s that obtain bet w een h im and h is f ello w bei n g s - . o f threads that connect h im with wi f e and chil d re n . The differentiation o f both a p pears si m u l tan e o u s l y at a later period I t is re m arkable tha t . . look upon purely altruistic m otives as so m e thi n g e x trao rdin ary an d ine x plainable T hey are wron g . ally indi fferen t and si m ple reflex action s Morally in . si d er th e i m m ense power of the inherited m e m ory of sociolog ical functions in p ast generations an d we s h all . d ifferen t are those action s concerning t h e m otives o f which no ethica l esti m ation is required The lowest . at the sa m e ti m e both have d i ff erentiated fro m m o r . Every individ ual is by the thousa n d s . easily co m prehend the strength of social m otive s . stages of ani m al d evelop m ent know nei ther egotis m nor altruis m . S o m e philosophers are p ro n e to con si d er e g otistic m otives as the n atural sprin g s of action while they . ble to let any m otiv e pass into act upon w h ich th e “ ” verdict of wrong h as been pronounce d by th e j u ry of h is ethical con si d eration . connections i s enor m ous and their overwhel m in g in .38 T H E E T II I C A L P R O B L E ZII . - is m which i s called society The i m portance o f th e se . wi th f rien d s and fellow citizens tied to society C o n - .

in g situations often the safest an d best g ui d e N ev e r . When so m e egotistic m otive i m pels m an to d o an act that i s inj ur ious to one or several of h is fello w beings he experiences a p ull of the soci al . . 39 in the m ental d evelop m ent of a child the ability of . speak ing in the fi rst person with the pronoun I “ ” sign i fi es a co m paratively m ature state of m in d . ural growth Man bein g a social ani m al it is all but . t is tic desires possess greater strength t h an m oral im p ulses bu t it is all but i m possibl e th at a m an sh oul d . b ut it is t h e prero g ativ e of m an to regulate h is action s by reason C onscience as a m ere m oral instin c t is . certain ly as e x perience teac h es in m any m ost perple x . authorit y wh ich conscience represents Th e behests . beh ests of conscience overruling wi th i m perative c o m m an d m an s individ ual interests appear to h im an d ’ . C onscience is nothin g supern atural i t is of a n at . “ ” of con science con f ront us as an ought an d w e call the m our duty obe d ience to wh ich is as a rul e tac itly . threads which i s so m eti m es very stron g even in th e thoughtless I t o ften acts like a th understor m wit h . T H E DA T A O F E THI CS . be voi d of all conscience . ad m itted . the irresistible f orce of ele m entary po w ers An d th e . T he an i m al allo w s itself to be g ui d e d by i n st in c t . i m possi ble that the social in stinct an d th e m otives for action s in behalf of society sh ould no t h ave been stron gly d eveloped T here are people in w h o m e g o . . . in dee d they are investe d with that superindivi d ual .

scientists have brou g h t to li g ht in studyin g the p hases of evolution require us to regard hu m an ity as o ne g reat and i m m ortal organis m T h e so u l life of o ur . of livin g substance H u m an soul life w o uld be an . is the princi p le that should g u ide us in o ur esti m atio n concerning the worth o f m oti v es .40 T H E E T C lI . nor m u st w e lo s e sig h t of the fact that the di ff erent behests of conscie nce very o f ten co m e in conflic t a m ong the m selves B u t . - . T he purpose o f e thics is to deter m ine the m o ral i m port o f the d i ffe rent m o t ives and we ask n o w w h a t . o f cos m ic existence . . - inex p lainable m ystery if w e did not consider the co n tin u ity of soul li f e through all the generations of m an s ’ - ancestors f ro m the very beginnin g T h e f acts th a t . When we try to explain the grow th and ori g in o f m an s soul we m ust go back to t h e fi rst a pp earan ce ’ . - ancestors con tin ues in u s and at the sa m e ti m e m u s t we know the m ost i m portan t fi bres o f o ur e m otion al and in tellectual soul li f e ori g inate in the relations th at - bin d us to our fello w beings T hese considerat io n s - . being de m ands that he sho u ld exa m ine all h is m o tiv e s an d also t h e behests o f conscience . th e l e s s conscience as a m ere inst inct can by no m eans h e considered as in f allible . re m ove the barriers that see m to obtain bet w een th e in d ivid ual and h u m anity— aye and t h e whole creatio n. even i f i t were not so the digni ty o f m an as a rational .

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T h etasko f ethics is to expand the in terests o f each individ ual so that they e m brace the weal an d woe o f the whole hu m an race in all its f utu re generation s I t . . . . . . shall continue to live our work done in the interes t o f hu m anity our soul life will continue beyon d th e . m ankind I t be g an with the beginnin g of all l ife upo n . P RO B L EM . earth i t lives now in us it g lo w s in o u r tho u ghts an d . ho p es and it will continue to live in f u ture hu m anity . t h at tend to d w ar f it are bad . . . . . act as the i m m ortal hu m an soul which is the s o ul o f . think and f eel and act as individuals who care nothin g f or f uture generation s we m ust t h ink and feel and . W e can thus p ro m ote or re tar d the d evelop m ent of hu m an so ul li f e : al l the e ff orts that ten d to preserve - and to p ro m ote i t are good “ ” w h ile all the effor t s . by negligence A n d h is m ental d evelo p m ent depend s . m u st regulate o ur m oti ve s accordin g to an ethics o f eternity We m ust no t . details o f his physical g ro w th y e t he c an easily mar i t .42 T H E E T H IC A I . - g rave . e fforts we have m a d e in childhood an d in T he youth to expand our soul say for instance in study . is not eno u g h to take i n to conside ration the narro w s p an o f our p resen t li f e we . here will be a ti m e when this g eneration will hav e T passed away when we shall be no m ore— and yet we . en tirel y upon a wise choice an d direction which is o f his own m akin g .

our w il l to pass into act h as no right to be considered f or . T hey con ti nue to live in us for o ur souls h ave g ro w n . itself alone . a continuation of th eir soul life - . T H E DA T A O F E THICS . lon g sin c e passe d away in the flu x of m atter but th e . structures i n o u r b rain (representin g t h e physio lo g ical basis o f our m e m ories) as t h ey were shaped . li f e is a l aw also in the develo p m en t of our whole race T h e souls of o ur ancestors an d t h eir thought s . ethical d uty for th e si n gle m o m en ts of m an s life and ’ the in d ivi d ual ato m s of his body is base d on the very sam e principle as the ethical du ty of in d ivi d uals towar d hu m anity A sin g le m otive in our soul that presses u p o n . The con tinu ity of sou l li f e an d t h e pre servation o f - the form s of brain tissue which are t h e p h ysiolo g ical basis of t h ou g hts and the m e m ories of th ou g h ts are . m aterial particle s t h at did the work at that ti m e hav e . are as little lost as i s the work of our sc h ool days . The continuity of t h e so ul l ife of h u m an ity is as- stron g and d e m onstrable as that of the indivi d u al The . . throu g h our for m er activity re m ain b ecause the t e . . - . all the other m otives have at least the sa m e ri g h t Thus we ou g ht to co m p are the m an d d ecide which . . 43 in g at sc h ool c on tinue to live in us even now T h e . w ill co n tri b ute m ost to enhance hu m an sou l lif e Every . thus c onstitu tin g a co ntin ui ty of so u l life - . . fro m theirs they are a reprod uction a re for m atio n . ne w al o f ou r brai n ti ssues in d eed t h e rene w al o f all . li v i n g structures preserves t h e form s once produced . . p aten t to every one of u s B ut the contin uity of so ul .

- relat ions of the individual and the social m o tives like so m any invisible threads p ull in h is m ind p ower f ully so that for the peace o f his soul and f or h is o w n sa tisfaction he m ust obey . and those whic h tend to lower the sta n dard of hu m a n sou l li f e in o urselves or - in the race s h ould never be per m itted to pass into action . th e su p erindividual ele m ent o f th e soul T h e d ata o f . . cause of i ts connection s wi th m ankind wh ic h f or m . . T he data of ethics are not m otives that are e q uivalen t . or he will ruin hi m self .44 T H E E T HI C A L ’ ’ I A O E L E JI . . . What a poor creature m an would be i f we co ul d de p rive his soul of all those thoughts that represen t his connection s with m ankind ! T h e stren g th of a tiger chiefly lies in h is m u scles and his teeth yet th e greatness and the strength of m an lies in his relation to the h u m an race T h e hu m an soul i s power f ul b e . m o tive m ust be weighed against al l other m otives of the presen t and the f u ture . a fford the g reatest pleasure are by no m eans tho se which deserve the highest e t h ical a pp roval . I f all the m otives of m an were so m any sin g le and isolated or so verei g n f eelin g s there would be no e thics . e thics therefore cannot be f ound i n the indiv i d u al alone as a separated being b u t in the super individual . i e of eq u al value but une q ual m o tives une q ual i n . their w orth and those which ei ther pro m ise or act u ally . .

passion s by self discipline will preserve hi s f reedo m - . All t h e sa g es of m ankin d all the g reat m oral . to leave that alone canno t be held re sponsible . e lude without touchin g an i m portant poin t concern i n g wh ich there is lit tle a g ree m ent and sti ll less clear n ess . m an who yields to his passion s enslaves hi m self he . Epictetus sai d : N o one can deprive us o f our free ” “ will an d S chiller said . M an is f ree e en were he ’ born i n chains . 45 H avin g sketche d as briefly as possible the condi tions of ethics that m ake ethics possible that con . teachers of the worl d have inculcated the truth tha t a m an can b e f ree if he Wants to be and that f reedo m of . . co m m its actions which later on will brin g con sequences u p on h im that he will have to re g ret or they will e n tan g le h im in a net o f circu m stances that will be like iron fetters upon his will B u t he who controls hi s . d ition its g ro w th and its i m portance I will not con . a slave who does not act fro m free will who is co m pelled to do this an d . I t i s the proble m of m an s f reedo m of will ’ I s there . will is possible only by observing the m oral law The . of will . I t is g enerally conceded that a free m an only can be held res pon sible for h is ac tion . Thi s d oc tri n e of f re e w i ll h as o n th e o n e h an d by . free will or is f ree will an illusion . T H E DA T A O F E THICS .

th e adversaries o f relig ious et h ics rose and decl are d that there is no such a thin g as freedo m of will E v ery . will not stan d a close exa m ination I t is erroneo u sly . act of ours is d eter m ined and therefore t h ey declare d . n o m e n a are d eter m ined by causes yet the action s of . Th e cause t h at sets the will i n to m otion . a p pear to us as the arbitrary whi m of an alien ate d p erson and people whose actions are n o t deter m i ned by m otives canno t be considered responsible an d ou gh t . The ol d theological conception of the free d o m o f will is not only untenable it is s elf contradictory an d . . do m of wi l l has been represe n te d as if i t were an e x c e p tio n in t h e course o f natural processes All ph e . conditions The action o f a f ree will of th is type m u s t . theolo g ians been declared to be an inscrutable m ystery . and on the ot h er hand i t has bee n d enounce d by s o calle d freet h inkers as an illusion The i d ea of fre e . fo r an . any sense in the conce p tion that a m an can will d if fe re n tl y fro m what he wills ! I n op p osition to this f alse state m ent of a free w ill . “ ”— as the f reedo m to will as one wills as i f there were . a free wi ll wer e supposed not to be deter m i ne d by c au s e . de fi ned not as the f reedo m to act as one wills bu t .4 6 T H E E TH I C A L P M IE L E I I . m otives it would indicate a state of d isease . to be con fi ne d in an asylu m . “ ” . we c all m otive I f free will m ean t a will not deter m ined by . bu t a m ere reflex m otion cause d th ro u g h patholo gical . - . un m otived action is pro p erly consi d ered n o action . .

de rs to o d I n th at case th e f ree m an w ould be h e who . B o th obey the co m pulsion of a n atural l aw . h i m s el f co m pels hi m s e lf to w h at e ver acti o n s h e u n de r . as he d oes o f necessity and a m oral m an also acts m orally of necessity . tinction bet w een necessi ty and co m pulsion N e ce s . their m otives . bo th are so they say slaves o f . l o g ian s as well as their anta g o nists i s a lack of dis . laws of thou g h t are very ri g id and ad m it o f no freedo m . are deter m ined by a m otive o f his o w n not by a forei g n . if he w ere n o t forced to do it A f ree m an l et us say . an arti st full o f an idea executes hi s work without any . co m pulsion he works o f his o w n f ree w ill H is ac tion s . however is an act o f violence to force a m an to do . w ill there is certainly no freedo m o f thou g ht for the . m otive . S tran g e these very sa m e men who obj ect so strongly to the i d ea of free w il l are the very sa m e m e n who . . . . “ the m selves freethinkers I f there i s no f reedo m o f . . cla m or for freedo m of thought and g e n erally call . to work for his m aster is not f ree he w ould n o t work . The m istake m ade by bot h the old sc h ool o f theo . . s ity is that w hich is d eter m ined by l a w co m p ulsion . 47 we are co m pelled to act as we do The cri m inal acts . pressure T here f ore we call h im f ree . . A f reeth inker tells m e that a m an s m otive co m p els ’ h im to act as he does accordingly m an i s a slave o f his . I w ould have no obj ec tion to the usage o f the word co m pulsio n in that sense i f it w ere p ro perly u n . so m ethin g a g ainst his will A slave that is co m pelle d . T H E DA TA O F E T II I C S .

The re is no doubt that the actions of a m an are strictly deter m ined by his m otive s A will not d eter . and a freethi nker an en slaved thinker . . i m p ression in o u r m ind as if the act whic h i s d e ter m ined by a m oti v e that resides wit h in a m an s so u l ’ and i s a p art and a characteristic feature o f hi m self i s . word co m pul sion i s contrary to custo m and we wo uld . . . takes w hile the slave is co m pelled by other thin g s for . no f reedo m of thought in the sense that w e m ay reach this or that co ncl usion j ust as we please . ac . instance by his m aster s w hip B u t this usage of th e . m an were as irresponsible for his action as is a slav e . . if we changed our language in this way pro d uce th e . F reedo m of thou g ht can m ean only the absence of all co m p ulsion that prevents thou g ht o f thinking i n .4 8 T H E E T II I C A L P R O B L E /ll . o f soc i ety to whic h they h av e to con f or m if their . has rigoro u sly to obey the laws o f thou g h t T here i s . . the use of i m p lan tin g m oral m otives into the m ind s of m e n o f teachi n g th e m the laws o f n ature an d the laws . se n ce of all co m pulsion thought in order to be correct . exactly the sa m e as that act which i s the result of c o m p ulsion I t would p roduce th e i m pression as i f a free . What would be . m ined by a m otive is as nonsensica l as an e ffect not prod u ced through a cause And i f action s could . ’ . accordance with the laws o f thou g h t Yet in the ah . A f ree m an in that case ought to be called a slave . be willed by a will not deter m ined throu g h m o tiv e s eth ics would have no sense .

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. M ar k ! L ib ty i t ly er s. Fo r A n arc h y u n ru ly M u st l a e l v e . a s av e . y ou s til l . j ustice of order and of f reedo m . an d society will be be tter than it is now it will b e t h e realization of the highest ideals o f m anki n d of . .5 0 T H E E THI CA L P R OB L E M . A u t m y f w ill on o o . A w ea kl i g k f pl n see s or e as u re s . R lt l esu t f s e arn o o re s e e H eed N at l w d m u re s ’ a s an e as u re s T th ly m ak e yo f ru on s u re e . M an s ’ f re e d om m e an s not lic e nc e N o r ac t io n w it h ou t c au s e M an s ’ f re e d om is o b e is a n c e U n to t h e s o u l ’ s ow n l aw s . . ru .

would have to go also . P re s c ie n tifi c ethics was m ythological . All m yths in their literal m e anin g involve the m i n d in absur d ities and so all m ytholo g ical dog m as u nl e ss . c o v e ry o f m athe m atics or logic Being indis p ensable . I t was f eared that i f the le tter sh ould go the s p irit . allegorically interpret e d and understood accordin g to th e p urpose fo r w h ich they were in v ented are contrary . . H ow could uneducate d peo p le understand the application o f abstract pri nci p les o ther w ise than in p arables If e t h ics were not o f such p ara m oun t im . . E as a science began with d oubt T H IC S I t was . considered indispensable f or all who sought p artici p atio n in the sacred rewards p ro m ised in ethical m yth s . c e p te d no t in thei r al l e g o ric al b u t in their l iteral m ean ing B elie f i n their literal m eanin g was very soon . . portance i t wo u ld scarcely h ave arisen be fore the dis . whether or not non e gotistical m otives can exist and - if they exist w heth er their ori g in m ig h t no t be o f a . to the wel f are and p rogress o f the hu m an race eth ics . d oub te d whether or not there i s an y true ethics . T H E T H E O R IE S O F E T H IC S . as it ha d to be . was fi rst taught in m y ths and legends which were s e . natural growth .

bear in m ind t h at every scienti fi c truth has beco m e a p o ssession o f the hu m an m ind only throu g h an exa m ‘ in at io n f ro m m any di ff eren t poin ts of view The .52 T H E E T II I C A L P ROB L EM . who kne w better than their predecessors because they had rea p ed the f rui ts o f their labors L et us therefor e . the for m er ne g ative bol d hasty . scien ti fi c rather slow to un d erstand n e w tru t h s b ut . believer obj ecte d to do g m as i nco m patible w ith reason and he obj ec te d also to any ethics base d upon m y th ological ideas . T h e develop m en t o f ethics as a science has been a continuo us battle between the infi d el doubter and th e pio u s believer . . g reatly appreciating the valuable g old con tai n e d in the old truths We fi n d— h o w coul d it be othe rwise . to hu m an r e ason . The path of science in i ts victorious pro g ress i s strewn with errors of heroes who foug h t for truth The . de f enders of tho se conceptions w h ich ha d to b e t e je c te d did no l ess valuable an d i ndispensab l e w or k . m isunderstandings on both sides . s e rt io n s . the latter con s ervative m ore scholarly tha n . . They convey truth s whi c h in their m ytholo g ical g arb m ust appear p aradoxical The n u . latter de f ensive . radical i n conviction s prone to m ake s w eepi n g as . the f or m er g ener ally a g gressive th e . m istakes of the searchers for truth have often bee n d ecried or at least ridiculed not only by the ir re s p e c tive adversaries but also by the following generation s . an d ready to welco m e any n e w discove ry that would see m to overthrow the ol d established views .

ence of conscience in m an s so u l re m ain s unexplained ’ an d is co n si d ere d as inexplicable T h e sense of . i f a m an is g ui d e d by m oral m otives we m ust assu m e that a s u . . were m erely a ch ild of nature he could f ollo w the n at . . esta b lis h their m ytholo g y as indispensable used to . . m otives that are altruistic and n o n egotistic this is an . The ol d do g m atic teachers of ethics anxious to . in d ubitable sign that he carries within his soul a spark of t h e supernatural the divine C on science is the . an d the p resence of conscience proves that m a n is created in the i m age o f so m ethin g su p ernatural — o f God an d that th is s u p e rn atu ral being m u st exist . F ro m the standpoin t of su p ernaturalis m the pres . they are atte m pts to fi n d the truth an d often contain g er m s of the truth or represen t one phase of i t which is di s torted only by a one sided con - c e p tio n . m an d iffers fro m natural p heno m ena . TI IE T H E ORIES OF E THICS . ural m otives o f egotis m only S ince he possesses . Fo r i n the searc h f or trut h every pat h has to be f ollowed and e very possible solution m ust be considered M ost o f . voice of Go d . con science teaches m an his duty . . p e rn a t u ral influence is at work in his heart I f m a n . argue in this way “ All the sciences m ay be able to prove that within each sp h ere o f their i n ve s tiga tion s natural laws rule su p re m e Ye t the conduc t o f . the errors in the develo p m ent of the sc iences are n e c e s s ary errors . 53 than t h ose who were on the rig h t track .

. d u ty is declared to be a m iracl e . altruistic m otives alto g ether and exa m ples f ro m re a l li f e where no egotistic m otive could have i n flue n ced . not only gives h im satis f action to brin g such sacri fi ces . contra in diction to natural laws and which co m e to us by an act o f di v ine revelation The idea o f ri g h t we are told . . m an who gives away m oney in the expectation o f re c e iv in gi t back with intere st . p hilosophers den o unced the idea th at m an coul d be in p ossessio n o f any o ther tha n natural m otives they declared it i rrational and in their zeal to de f eat the ir . . f riends in his country m en sacri fi ces bro ught f or the ir .54 T H E E T IH C A L P R O B L E JI . but he is al s o supposed to have brou g ht the m i n orde r to get f air returns f or t h e m H e is said to be like a . is within u s and all we c an do is to discover it there . by an i ntrospec tion in to the secrets o f so u l li f e F ro m - . the idea o f w ha t i s rig h t and the m ean in g of the o ught are tre ated as f acts not ca p able o f analysis which stand . wel f are sprin g f ro m th ere egotis m n o thing m ore I t . a e d as a s p e c ial and re fi ned kind o f egotis m A p e r . m a n loves H im s e lf in his wi f e in hi s children in h i s . so m e in fi d e l I n op p osition to the in tuitional ist . . ad v ersary they m aintained that m an f ollo w ed on ly egotistic m otives T h ey denied the existence o f p urely . a m a n were so explained t h at altruistic m otives ap . the m ethod reco m m ended by this class o f eth ical e n q u ire rs . The religiou s teacher o f ethics had al w ays i n siste d . their conception o f ethics is called i n tuitio n al is m .

’ was an atte m pt to base ethics upon p urely egotistic mo H b fdin g critic iz es B ent h am in h is Gru n d l ag e der I mm a n en E th ik . Bentha m i s generally looked upon as the m ost c on sis te n t and classical repre sentative o f Utilitarianis m . . the ve ry sa m e thing as the use f ul every th ing that is u se f u l is good and use f ul i s that which a fford s m ore . 55 u pon the sovereignty o f the m oral co m m and . is to avoid those pleasures which in th e en d will necessarily cause pain and to end ure with p a . an d h is works are a m odel of psycholo g ical insight an d keen j udg m en t N evertheless we m ust regard . suppre s s the natural desire to seek p leasure and to avoi d pain The whole p urpose of e thics he d e . . . his views as one p hase in the hi s tory o f ethics only which is n o w reco g nized as one sided The f ail ure of - . . unbeliever atte m p tin g to under m ine an i m p orta n t ar g u m e n t o f the believer m aintained that ethics d id . tie n c e tho se p ain s which are unavoidable ond ition s c for f uture p leasures The good it was m aintained is . . B e nt h am ' s e rror. . it m ust reign supre m e over pleasures and p ains The . . c l are d. this class of ethical en q uirers adopted f or their vie w ” the n am e U tilitarianis m . TI I E T H E O R IE S O E E T IH C S . . he y s a s. Bent h a m s ethics is conceded even by t h ose who are ’ * his f ollowers and disciples B entha m s utilitarian is m . nothin g o f the kind Ethics i f it tried could n o t . e are b t l u c e a r c on ce rn in g t h e ir ow n intere s ts . is th e su pp iti th t th os on a e re is a p fer e ct h arm o n y am on g th e e g o tis tic in te re s ts o f al l i d i id n l if th y v u a s. pleasure than p ain F ro m their de fi nition of g ood .

. they arg ued that al l o ur - m otives being parts of our own personality m ust . . Utilitarians is their den ial o f the p ossible existenc e o f super individ ual m otives . higher law than sel f interest are indubitab le facts o f - . be egotistic A n d yet the non ego tistic the su p er . tiv e s . ness o f the individual is m aintained to be the aim o f ethics bu t the greatest happiness of the greatest n u m . lik e invisible threads p ower f ully pull on m an s m in d . . they are not su p ernatural as is clai m ed by intuitionali st s .56 T H E E THI CA L P R O /31 15 11 . . the unknown power which they sup p ose to be the originator o f these m otives T h e weakness o f the . individual m o tives the i m pulses tha t ur g e u s to obey a . . T h e relation s o f m an with h is surroundings and wi th his f ellow m en es t ablish so m any co nnections which . - . - . . surrender o f the cardinal point o f egotistic ethics . soul li f e H owever though they are super ind ividual - . ’ principle and overthrows the whole syste m I t is a . T h e weakness o f in tuitionalists is their des p air o f ever e xplainin g th e natural origin and m eaning o f m oral m otives They are so overawed by a reveren t . . m odern Utilitarianis m recogn izes the necessity o f ad m itting non egotistic m otives- N o t the happi . ’ and set the springs o f his action f ree in which he re . ber T his step however is inconsistent with Ben tha m s . ad m iration o f t h e p resence of super individual m o - tiv e s that they bow down in th e d ust and worshi p . cognizes the represen tation o f a higher interest and a greater concern than his p leasures and i ndivi d u al wel fare . .

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has been altered since then m ust be given by twen ty . Every act was use f u l to so m ebody and the wh ole . m ay be p roductive o f good i f g oo d m eans p l e as u r . n iable that the en ter p rise of runnin g horse cars on - B roadway in N e w York is u se f ul not only to the co m p any who undertook the work b u t also to society . able to individ uals Take for instance the well . . . thing that could brin g har m was publici ty N o w if . . containing eighteen thousand dollars to thirteen alder m e n and the f ranchise was s p eedily given . . the ac t o f . I n that direction no har m coul d be don e The o nly . f our alder m en N o w there were so m e doubts not con . known Broadway street railway case I t is unde - . another proposal by so m e other co m p any to lay the track s o f the railway through another street m ight no t be p re f erable and there m ay have been still m ore . . their characters were not so pure as to su ff er greatly . p ush m atters and kee p the m aj ority of the alder m e n in good hu m or H e succeeded by sending envelopes . . T l /l E T Il /C P A O B L E II ’ 58 IL ’ I ~ . sche m e was useful to society also I t is true that . the useful were the standard o f m orality . o ff ering m oney was a degradation o f the m oral cha rac ter o f the alder m en B ut a f ter all they did no t m in d an d . F ranchises according to a law o f N e w York which . . points o f deliberation L et us suppose that the Broad . cern ing the use f ulness o f the enter p ri se but whether . . pa ined by the loss o f ti m e caused through p rotrac ted deliberation .H e was a practical m an he wan t e d to . way sche m e was p re f erable B ut t h e m anager was .

public bene fi t The bribery was co m m itted as a m ean s . . te ll e c tu al wel f are and ennobles their c h aracters T hey . w o uld fit the f acts to their princi p le in stea d o f tryin g to fi n d a principle that should be suited to all facts . The conscienc e o f the p eo p le at lar g e conde m ned th e act . and yet there were m any opinion s in fav dr of the m ana g er on the ground that though he had acted f ro m private interest h is en terprise had been f or the .And we answer t h is question in the ne g ative . d o not m ean that only which bene fi ts the m aterial in te re s ts of m e n but also that which pro m otes their in . to a good end and i t was rather un f ortunat e that it had beco m e known . . the utility o f con sequences consti tutes the m orality o f an act . the second j u ry was selec ted wi th great care T h e . s econd j ury brought in a verdict o f guil ty . T H E T II E O R I E S O E E T HICS . O pinion on such exa m p les explain that by use f ul they . We do not dec ide here whether bribery i s e x c u s able in a state where honorable en ter p rises can p ros per only by m ean s o f bribing We o n ly inquire wheth e r . Utilitarian is m I nd e ed no one does N o t even Utili . . ti o ns to secure secrecy . t arian s ! U tilitarians would if they had to give thei r . The first j ury did not agree on the case and ha d to b e dis m issed T his roused a stor m o f indignation an d . 59 the m anager ought to be conde m ned o n account o f his c arelessness that he neglected the necessary p re c au . S i m ilar acts m ay hap p en which do no t beco m e public Who dares to de f end the m on th e ground of .

Bentha m g oes very far in the defense of the U tili tarian p rinciple .6 0 T H E E THI CA L P A O B L E /ll ’ . average m an calls use f ul that w h ich affor d s h im tan g ib l e advantages o f so m e kind and co m m on parl ance disting uishes very well f ro m use f ul ac ts those which are good O ur language and the m eanin g o f words are . ’ o f ten i m p els h im to acts that are not use f ul to h im an d prevent h im f ro m doing what he natural ly consider s as e x tre m ely useful . he m aintains that the m ost abo m in able pleasu re o f a cri m inal act could be j usti fi able if it re m ained alone . ” accusto m ed to use the word use f ul in the p uri fi ed and tran s fi g u re d m eani n g w h ich i t has receive d at the hands o f so m e noble hearted U tilitarian s The - . We have no obj ection to U tilitarians who use th e ” word use f ul in this narrow m eanin g Yet we would . I t i s to be conde m ned solely because of the evil consequences of the pain incurred the . . a d vise the m to be care f ul lest th e m eaning of the ir words be m isunderstood T h e average m an is not . I n order to su it the f acts to the princi p le o f u til i ty . m o n p arlance m irrors in th is distinction bet w een good and use f ul the voice o f m an s conscience which very . only an expression o f the instincts of our soul C om . they wo uld l i m i t the idea o f use f ulness to that wh ich we call m oral goo d ness . chances o f w h ich are so great that in co m pari son to the m the pleas u re of a cri m e is re d uced to zero .

so . presenc e s in the soul o f m an which for the reason that . it ou gh t not to be o m itt e d . there f ore h e d e nied their existence T h e tru th is tha t . be d enied tha t an a pp eal to the higher d uties of m an is alway s m ore success f ul than to the lower desires of s el fi s h ness The h igher m otives accor d in gly are live . th e y are not always patent cannot be disregard e d . l fro m th e m ere egotistic interest of s e l f p re s e rv atio n . E very one of u s shoul d . I f B enth a m s views were correct our m oral teachers ’ . . cerning the futility of sel fi shness should at the sa m e ti m e n o t be neglected I t is an i m portan t tr uth . e licit ar ti fi cial an d unnatural f eelin g s Yet it cannot . An ethical teacher ought to ap pe al to th e highest m otive s m an i s ca p able o f B ut in f or m ation con . Ben th a m in his search a f ter truth co uld not di scover th e sacr e d f eelin gs of p urely altruistic m otives tha t are ofte n to o d eeply concealed in the h u m an heart an d . ou gh t to b e f aith f ul to truth and ough t to appeal to the . . B u t thi s is n o reason f or m aintainin g that m oral acts are al w ays d one fro m a consciou s or u ncon scious self interest . T H E THE ORIE S OF E THICS . e g otis m of mank in d only an d not to th e hi g her m otives of su p er in d ivid ual duties These higher m otives would - . s ho u ld the m oral m otives be lackin g in their m oral p u r i ty m an w o u l d nevertheless be forced to act m orally . 6r It i s v e ry valuable fo r ethical teachers to know that m e n of such e xtre m e v iews as B en tha m reco g n iz e th e o v erwhel m in g evils con se q uent upon i m m oral acts . be at best a sel f delusion an d it would be i m m oral to - .

to look out f or so m ethin g higher than t h e g rati fi catio n of our fleeting p ro p en sities T h é e ff ects o f our li f e . and to the exten t that we have don e this ou r so u l li f e will be p reserved in theirs A thoug h tless - . T h ere are so m eti m es dark m o m ents in our live s when w e do not kno w h o w to decide and the decision . ness o f the p resent li f e and look do w n u p on o ur o w n f ate f ro m the higher stand p oint o f eternity L e t us . . in such m o m ents i m agine that we had died that w e are no m ore and that our lives have long bee n en d ed . the ethical m an howeve r bears in m ind the im portance o f hi s soul li f e a f ter d eath - . after we ha ve p assed out o f e xistence T h e e x a m . P R O B L E JI . in the souls o f our f riends and our childre n We . . contribute in for m ing the soul s o f the f ollo w ing ge n e rat io n s . I n such m o m ents we should soar abo v e th e n arro w . as to wh at is right and p ro p er m ay be ve ry di fi c ult f . While our bodies rest in the grave o ur deed s o u r . thoughts our words contin ue to influence hu m an i ty . . T he natural instit u tions of society are such as to m ake the li f e o f a m an who seeks his own e x clusiv e adv an ta g e unbearable and f ull o f bitterness . of an e g otistic pleasure seeker co uld be f ull o f u n - m ixed j oy the a pp roac h of d e ath would teach u s . m a n is biased by th e i m p re ssions o f the fleeting m o m en t . . The idea o f eternal rest will cal m our passio n s an d . know that p u re egotis m always de f eats its own en d s . of all o ur actions wheth er good or evil r e m ain lon g .62 T H E E T il / C A I . And i f the life . p les we set the thoughts w e h ave uttered live on . .

is adapte d f or cutting so the action s of m an are de c l are d to be good i f they are ada p te d to increase the ha pp in ess o f the greatest n u m ber . o u r soul then let u s con f ess un to oursel v es what w e . TI I E T II E O /i I E S O ’ I " E THI CS . g ood a pp le i s ad apted for servin g as f ood a good kni f e . w is h we had done while alive F ro m this stand p oin . d o in g right S ho uld we now tell p e o p l é that the old . “ ” i d eas o f ri g h t and wrong are m erely vague notions ” o f what is use f ul and obnoxious S hould we tell the m that they m u st be guided by what they would ac . B y goodness he under stand s the q uality o f being a d a p ted to so m e end A . 63 soot h e o u r anxieties When such peace co m es ove r . m aterial goodness “ f or what is the use f ul but m a te rial goodness T h e U tilitarian m akes m oral goodn ess a sub d ivision o i general goo d nes s . lose si g h t of its aim wh ich is to give m an m otives f or . t w e shall best be able to silence th e t u m ultuous d esires of the m o m en t and let our nob l er self co m e to the front . Ethics is a practical science and we m ust never . c or d ing to their ver y best knowled ge consider as m ost . m oral goodness an d m aterial use f uln e ss . useful ! I believe that ethical teac h ers will no t be in c l in e d to throw so lightly overboard the m ost valuable i d eal of m ankind or to barter m oral goodness f o r . A m oral teacher will not take so easily to U tili t arian is m because it slurs over the di fference bet w een . H e will .

and bein g f ai th f ul to truth inclu d es all the variou s m oral co m m an ds which a syste m of ethics can co n tain . S o lon g as we are honest disci p les of tru th we hav e . I f et h ics is based en f acts an d a pp lied to facts it. . p ro m i s e s to be m ore u s e f ul tha n t h e tr u t h h e will h el p us an d a d vise u s n o t to do . .64 T H E E T II I C A L P R O B L E JI . an d the d esire to re m ain in accord with truth we m ay . will reco g n ize as a basic principle the search fo r tru th and the adaptation to truth F acts are the d ata o f . . - . T ruth is a correct repre s entation o f f acts in our m ind . The p rinciple o f truthfulness is a f ar m ore de fi ni te an d correct basis of et h ics t h an th e principle of utili ty . An honest search for truth is the con d ition of all ethic s . and i f such c o n flic ts h ap pe n to take p lac e in ou r ul if a lie acco rdin g to so . . our be st kno w le d g e . rat he r p o i n t o u t t h at t h e re m ay b e co n flic ts betw e e n . pr e fer that which is useful fo r increasi n g th e h e alt h an d n obility of o ur soul . lost as to be unable to recti fy our course o f action . be in the p li g ht of sel f conde m nation - . . a g ood g uide to lead us We m ay go astray w e m ay. often fi n d occasion to regret not hav ing had m ore c o m p l e te knowledge but we shall never . reality with which we h a v e to deal i n o ur e xperienc e . m oral goo d n e s s an d u se f uln e s s . what appears as use f ul to our an d perhaps also to . m ake m istakes yet we shall never be so co m ple tely . ot h e r peo p le s m aterial co m fort an d well be i n g b u t to ’ . With the love o f tru th as o ur source o f inspirat io n . .

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fi r m ness of J oha n nes H uss a l t h ou g h it see m s to m e . the act I f a feeling o f pleasure acco m panies a noble . by t h e m otive t h at the future j oy is preferab l e to th e present pain Th is m otive m i gh t accoun t for the . w h o like Giordano B runo . . H e h ad in al l h is ad v e n tu res n o t freed h im s e l f . m ean s e x pect that fut ure a g es woul d pay ho m age to h im as a m artyr of free tho ugh t H is death w as by . isolate d savants had sy m pat h y with h im I t is b e yon d . p th e act w as p erf ormed Thus th e e x plan at io n e xp lains . d is p ute that no consideration of pleasure or pain e m .66 T H E E T II I C A L P R O B L E IPI . P rinciple and the O ne B ru n o h ad a p ro fo u n d ly p io u s h e art fu ll . tha t it d oes n o t su ffi ciently accoun t f or it B ut . n othin g . of en t h u s ias m fo r e v e ry h t in g h oly . how can we e x plain the m artyr d o m of u nbeli evers . . no m ean s a g r e at even t in his ti m e it exci te d little or ' no co m m en t and no one with the exception o f a fe w . ive of any conseq u ence Adolf L asson says i n th e . I t is possible that those w h o bel ieve in a futu re life in H eave n where they e x pect to be rewarde d f or their v irtues e x ercise d here upon eart h m ay be gu i d e d . an inci d enta l effect bu t it w as n ot l lz e u rp os e f or w h irl : . . su ff er a painful death for . intro d uction to Bruno s essay on “ The C ause th e ’ . te re d i n to h is m ind but si m ply love of truth irrespec t . their convi ctions wi thout an y possible expec tation of pleasurable return s Gior d ano Bruno coul d by n o . act of painfu l sacri fi ce it is an une x pec te d enj oy m e n t .

s o to fo rc e h im to re c an t B u t h e did n o t fi n d h im s e l f re fu ted . w o rl d an d al on e in th e h an ds of h is j ail o rs T h e y e ar in wh ich B ru n o w as b u rn e d (Fe h r 9 th r6 o o ) w as a . n o o n e am o n g t h e m w h o h ad s y m p ath y w ith h is l amen tabl e d e ath . . . . t: a H e d onist p h ilosop h e rs in their eagerness to lay a . Wh at tortu re s th is o n ce s o se re n e an d s e l f co n fi de n t m an m u s t - h av e s u ffe re d in th is d e e p an d in n e r s tru gg l e d ese rte d by al l th e . Be n tha m speaks of pleasurable feelin g s as being always goo d so lon g as they re m ain isolate d and u n c onnecte d w ith e v il conse q uences Thi s betrays a . . . j u b il ee y e ar M ill ion s o f p il g rims v is ite d R o m e b u t th e re w as . Ye t . to p e rs u ad e h im o f h is e rrors by sc ie n tifi c arg u me n ts an d h o p e d . d ata of e thics are no t isolate d f eelin gs but a c o m . ” e s tan t re n e g ad e . m an sta n d s to th e worl d and to his fellow beings . 67 ' fro m h is attac h me n t to th e faith o f h is c h il d h oo d and f ro m th e . . ple x of feelings bearing upon the rela tions in which . re v e re n ce fo r th e au th o rity h e h ad l o n g res p e c te d S o l o n g as h is . T H E T II E O R I E S OF E T III C S . an d h e c o u l d n o t abj u re h is p h il os o p h y w ith o u t ren o u n c in g tru th . T h u s h e d e l u d e d h im s e l f an d h is j u d ge s fo r s o m e tim e w ith th e fal se h o p e o f b e in g abl e to rec an t h e d e m an d e d ag ain and ag ain n ew res p ites fo r d e l ib e ration . fu n d a m ental m isunderstandin g as to th e nat ure of e th i cs S in g le an d i s olated fe e lin g s are the data of . h is j u dg es acc o rd in g to th e u s u al m e th o d o f in q u is itors atte m p te d . n a tural b asis for ethics overlook several poin ts of great . . im por ta n ce Above all t h ey overlook the fact th at the . re l ig io u s s e n tim e n t w as appe al e d to h e w as re ad y to y ie l d . . T h e on l y p e rso n fro m w h os e v e n o m ou s an d h e in o u s re p ort w e k n o w so m e p artic u l ars ab o u t th e h is to ry o f Gio rd an o B ru n o s ’ d ea th is th at s p ite f u l S c io p piu s call ed can is g rammaticu s a p ro t .

which to esti m ate these m otives . . e thics T h e feelin g s we have are d i fferent in in te n . pleasu re has to be consi d ered b ut th e the kin d an d . thi s criterion of ethics which enables u s to g au g e thei r m oral worth The d ata of ethic s are m oti v es o f ac . t ain that there is a criterion which d oes not d epe n d upon whethe r they are pleasurable or painful I t is . I t i s a m istake to m ake p leasure and pai n the stan d ar d of m oral esti m ation An d in d ee d ethics have . j udging about the worth o f m otives irrespective of t he feelin gs of pleasure and pain that m ay acco m pany the in ten d ed action s of these m otives . been in vented in or d e r to counterbalance the powe r of the m any m otives that allure m an to i m m oral act s . nature of the pleasure only The n obler an d h i g h e r . . . ity for m our li f e Because they are differ e n t w e m ust . s ity . tion and the obj ect of ethics i s to fi n d a standard by . I f there were no principle above the feelings of plea s ure an d pain accor d ing to which we m ust regulate o u r actions we ought to say tha t the ideal of e thics i s an .68 TI IE E T III C A L P R GE L EM reflex actions b ut they canno t con stitut e any basis of . have a criterion by which to j ud g e the m We m ain . kinds o f pleasure are preferable to the lowe r ki nds . V ery well If th e q uality of the pleasure is t h at w hi c h . The answer o f H edonists to these obj ections as a rule consists in co m p lain ts of bein g m isunderstoo d . They m aintain t h at not the i n tensity and q uan t i ty of . i m possibility F o r ethics introduces a criterion fo r . degree an d kin d an d all to g ether in their total .

an d i t would be barbarously rude i f a m an who kno w s th e serio usness o f the occasion could thi nk in th is way . un d er s ole m n and grave circ u m stances he sho ul d d i s . ” m e no pleasure . b e such as to ran ge high according to the ethical s ta n dard it wo uld outweigh the greatest q u antities and i n ten sitie s of lower pleasures And i f the acco m pany . anted to wear his red j acket an d wee p ingly said : I f “ w I can t wear m y red j acke t the whole f uneral will give ’ .H ow childish is this expression . Will H edonists be ridic ulo us enough to m aintai n that the boy ought to wear black because . . that color bein g m ore ap p ropriate ou g ht to g ive h im a higher kind o f pleasure ! Any nor m al m an would be shocked at hi m sel f if . m ig h t be exceedin gly g reat or s m all i f its q u al ity . T H E ’ T II E O A I E S OF E THI CS . 69 m akes i ts value we m ust consider the standard with . T h e pleasure . cov e r hi m sel f regulati n g his actions accordin g to the principle o f g aining m ore or less p leasure N ay . w h ich th is quality is to be deter m ined as the c rite rion o f ethics b u t not the pleasure itsel f . An anecdote is told about a little village urchin who w as dressed i n black f or attendin g a f uneral T h e boy . eve n the co n siderat i on o f a higher kind o f pleasure in . leave th e action j ust as m oral T h e duty of ethics accordin g ly wo u ld be to d e te r m in e the n ature of that higher quality o f hu m an m otives and m ake i t so stron g that it will overr u le in o u r hearts all f ear o f pain and desire f or pleasure . in g pleasure were abse n t altogether wo uld that not .

ih P leasure has erroneously been i d enti fi e d w i th growth and pain with decay I f that were so child . bearing ought to be the greatest p leasure and d eath the greate s t p ain B ut i t is a fact that all g rowt h .7 0 T H E E T H ICA L P R O B L E III . . H edonis m accor d ing ly woul d be c orrect only if . T ee thin g is a g rowth bu t it gives no p l easur e . . m ark that pleasure and pain are by no m eans si m ple an d de fi n ite feelings so that they coul d be e m ploy ed as a standard f or an obj ective esti m ate o f action . p roduce s disturbances and th us in . T hat which gives happiness being di ff erent accor d in g ’ to age te m pera m ent h e re ditary c h arac te r an d habi t s . . I n addition to all these obj ections we have to t e . the plan to m ake ha p piness the aim of l i f e has n o m ean in g A pleasure to one person is very often a n . or che w in g in fi shing or swi m m in g i n playin g m is . in natural and another in unnatural enj oy m en ts O n e . c h ie y o u s tricks or in perfor m ing noble de e ds . can educate m e n to fi n d pleas u re in war or in pe ac e f ul p ursuits in intoxication or in sobriety in s m o kin g . cases wh e re no pleasure at all is involved . . . . m an is p leased with a rational use o f his energ ies . we understand by pleasure that attitu d e o f in de p e n d ence and sel f control which raises m an above pleasure s an d pain s . while another delights in f ollies or even in vices We . . . wo uld be inco m patible w ith t rue m orality .cases it causes m ost pain . . . abo m ination to another O ne m an fi nds his h appin e ss .

s c io u s n e s s . T H E THE ORI E S OF E THI CS . This d e s i re i s natu ral because m an is a l ivin g m ac h ine frei g hte d w it h vital ener g y . d epen d s upon the intensity o f the wan ts P ains are eithe r . no pain on ly th e resistance of m an s vitality a g ainst t h e de c ay o f ’ d eath is pai n fu l The stru g gle of d eath bein g o v e r . ca u ses of pain If then the g reatest a m ou nt of pleasure . . case however not t h e s u m or the a m o unt of pleasure . w ants un satisfi e d or other d isturbances tha t are p e r c e iv e d by consciousness Growth as w ell as d ec ay m ay . . tain wants the a m ount of pleasure in satisfying the m . - . m ake m an greater ki n d er and m ore powerful In tha t . a rti fi cial I f o ur nature has beco m e accusto m e d to c e r . 7 1 to babe s . The fact is that pleasures c o n s i s t al w ays in the . D eath in itself however is . w ere to be consi d ered the purpose of life w e ou g h t . to educate ourselves to such wan ts as are noble an d e lev atin g such as widen the ran g e of our soul lif e an d . satisfaction of wants an d wants are e it h e r natu ral o r . i m perative wan t of our soul will be t h e perfor m ance o f o ur duties . there is no pain but a peace f ul fa d in g away o f c on . produce d istu rbances both accordin g ly c an beco m e . . . would have to be consi d ere d as ethica l but th e kin d . t h e desire to use this en e r g y i s eve r . life we m ust let ethics so e d ucate u s that the m ost . of pleasure B efore w e m ake happiness the aim of . D eath in itself is no m ore painful th an s leep . M an has a natural d esire f or activi ty .

who has or who knows of no d uties the m otives which . - desire for pleasure B ut this se calle d natural desire . T h e m oral worth of a m an does not d epend upon th e . should for the sake o f their own soul li f e i m pose upon - the m selves heavy d uties as heavy as they can bear . gress leads in the li ne of g reatest resistance T h e . wherever we investigate the m e thods o f prog ress we shall fi n d that it is far fro m taki n g place in the lin e of least resistance O n the con trary al m o st every pro . . in g exactly cri m i n al can allow the m selves to let thei r . H ence i t follows that the greatest blessin g f or a m an is to h ave d uties which coerce h im to p er f or m so m e useful work R ich peo p le who without b e c o m . useful work his natural want f or act ivity will co m pel . least resistance H ence rises the s o called nat u ral . h im to do so m e th i n g never m ind w h at To a m an . da n gerous p li g ht H o w hardly s hall they that hav e ” riches . they will direc t his energies as it were in the line of .72 T H E E THI CA L P ROB L EM present I n case m an doe s not S pend his ener g y in . . - for pleasure is the greatest danger f or a m an An d . attain a nor m al . live well that can live for the sake of enj oyi n g li f e . . . action f ollow the line of least resistance are in a m ost . not to say a stron g devel . develop m en t in the line o f least re s i stanc e leads to in evi table r u in . . pro m ise to give h im pleas u re will beco m e the stron g est . op m e n t o f th eir souls T hose that are rich that c an . T hey should e d ucate their child ren so that they f eel unhappy unless they h ave great duties to p erfor m .

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an d as th o u g h p as s in g t h ro u g h an o m in o u s u n e as y d re am . . the world around us in which we live and th u s i t ai d s us in our endeavors to esca p e f ro m the m iseries cause d by o ur i g norance and f olly . . . . what m akes h im so i m p ressive is that he does it . without exaggeration H e says . describes the m isery of life in m ost vivid colors an d . destroy th e illu sion s o f a childish f aith which h as beco m e dear to us Bu t truth be it ever so sad i s th e . . S cho p enha uer . It throws light upon . . cond u ct is a religio n . . lik e the j oy o f intoxication I t is neither lastin g no r . . th e w ill fi n d s its e l f as an in d iv id u al in an e n d l e s s an d b o u n d l e ss w o rl d am o n g in n u m e rabl e in d iv id u al s all s tri in g su ffe rin g e rrin g . it h u r . li f e attract e d m e m ost p ower f ully . A m o n g all the philosophies with which I beca m e acquainted there is one that at a certain period o f m y . rie s b ac k to th e o l d u n c o n s c io u s n e s s Un til th e n h o we v e r its de . can n oth ing will help A s alvation by illusions i s . an y salvation i t m ust be gained by truth an d by boldly f acing the truth I f truth cannot help nothin g . only m eans that can cu re the ills of li f e I f there i s . it is that of Arth u r S cho p enhauer the great pessi m ist . sadder than before I nste ad of hel p ing it will har m . ence a p pear at fi rst sigh t to be destructive T hey . v . . . is it wholeso m e and when it is gone i t will lea ve us . . te n ds to co m e as a salvation .74 T H E E THI CA L P ROB L EM . H w ak e n e d to l ife fro m th e n ig h t o f u n c o n sc io u s n e s s av in g a . The religion of science like all other reli g ions co m e s to the rescue o f m an I t is true that the truths o f sci . E very reli gion co m es or pre .

. . . v an is h in g l ik e an o p tic d e l u s io n wh e n w e h av e all o w e d o u rs e l e s v to b e e n tic e d th ith e r H app in e s s ac c o rd in g ly l ie s al w ay s in th e . . th at th e c o e te d o bj e c t w as l itt l e d e s irabl e T h u s s o m e tim e s h o p e v . e arth ly h app in es s is d e s tin ed to be f ru s trate d or to b e re c o g n iz e d as an ill u s io n T h e c o n d itio n s o f th is l ie d ee p in th e n atu re o f . v . g a in e d by i n c e s s a n t to il a n d c o n s tan t c ar e in b a t tl e ag ain s t w an t . L ife p ro v e s a co n t in u e d d e c e p tio n in gre at as w e ll as s m a l l . th e b o tto m l e s s aby s s o f its h e art C o n s id e r too wh at g ratifi ca . . tio ns o f e v e ry kin d m an g e n e rally re c e i e s th e y are u s u ally n o th in g v m ore th an th e m e ag re p re s e r atio n o f th is e is te n c e itse l f d aily v x . w ith d e ath f o re v e r in th e v an E v e ry th in g in l ife in d ic ate s th at . app e ar as th o u g h t h e y w e re in te n d e d an d c al c u l a te d to aw ak e n th e c o n v ic tio n t h at n o th in g wh ate v r is w o rt h y o f o u r s tri in g d riv in g e v . T h e c o m p arativ e ly h app y are u s u ally on ly app are n tly s o o r are . fu tu re o r in th e p as t an d th e p re s en t is to b e c o m p are d to a s m all d ark c l o u d wh ic h th e w in d d ri e s o v e r a s u n n y p l ainv B e f o re it . an d b e h in d it al l is b rig h t it al o n e c as ts a s h ad o w . b u t to tak e away T h e f as c in atio n o f d is tan c e p res e n ts a p arad ise . T H E THE OR I E S O F E THI CS . th e re f ore is fo re v e r u n s atis f ac to ry . . . T h e p res e n t . . . v d isa ppo in tm e n t as we ll as th e c o n s titu tio n o f l ife t h ro u g h o u t .I f it m ak e s a pro m is e it d o e s n o t k e e p it u n l e ss to s h o w . o f so m e th in g w e s h o u l d b e c o m e d is g u s te d w ith th at it is d iffic u l t . x . th in gs . . th e f u tu re u n c e rtain th e p as t irrec o e rabl e v . . . tin e d to b e h app y O n th e c on trary th e e e rl as tin g d e l u s io n an d . s u ffi c e to s till its l o n g in g s p u t a fi n al e n d to its c rav in gs an d fill . w is h be g e ts a n e w o n e N o satis fac tio n p o s s ibl e in th e w o rl d c o u l d . . A c c o rd in g ly th e l ife o f m o s t o f u s p ro es s ad an d s h ort . its l c aim s in e x h au bl e an d e v e ry satis fi e ds ti . l ik e l o n g l iv e d p e rs o n s rare e c e p tio n s —l e f t as a b ait fo r th e re s t - . v . s o m e tim e s th e f u lfil m e n t o f h 0 pe de l u d e s u s I f it g a e it w as . . to c o m p re h e n d h o w an y o n e c ou l d h a e m is tak e n th is an d b e e n v pe rs u ad e d th at l ife w as to be th an k f u lly e n j o y e d an d m an w as des . m atte rs . an d m is h aps fo il in g al l c al c u l atio n b e ars s o p l ain ly th e c h arac te r .L ife w ith its h o u rly d aily w e e kly an d y e arly . 75 s ires are bo u n d l e s s . s m all g re ate r an d g re at ad v e rs itie s w it h its d is app o in te d h o p e s . .

fo r al l t in g s h f ro m t h e v o i d C ll d f th d a e or . Th l d g d xp i en o h di h d a e an e e r e nce . trat its e l f W h at th o u h as t w ill e d it s ay s e n ds th u s . s h ak e an d f all . th e s e n te n c e o f n atu re s j u d g m e n t u pon th e wo rth o f al l b e in g s by ' d e s troy in g th e m . e n . th e wh o l e in th is th at th e o bj e c ts o f h is w is h e s c o n s tan tly d e l u d e . p e n c e are th e d ay s d e ath t h e re c e ip t. . w il l ‘ ‘ ’ e .76 T H E E 7 YI I C A L an d w re s t l ing —th at al l goo d s are n au g h t th e worl d b an k ru p t at . e s e rv e to b e d e s t ro y d e . — so th at x . c i a in c o pp e r pe n c e e v an d wh ic h at l as t w e m u s t re c e ip t . T hu s . . o u r w ill m ay tu rn a w ay f ro m it . all e n d s an d l if e a b u s in e s s th at d o e s n o t p ay e p e n se s . T h e m an n e r in wh ic h th is v an ity o f al l o bj e c ts o f th e w ill “ re e al s its e l f v is in th e fi rs t p l ac e t im e . c o n s e q u e n tl y t h e y b rin g m o re to rm e n t t h an p l e as u re u n til at l e n g th e v e n th e wh o l e g ro u n d u p o n wh ic h th e y al l . . se n te n c e o f c on de iii n atio n u p o n th e w ill to l i e p as s e d by n a tu re v . v s in ce th ro u g h t im e al l o u r e n j o y m e n ts a n d p l e asu re s c o m e to n au g h t . . an a e u n e rs a n . F o r at l as t tim e p roc l aim s . . . A ft h p if l d l g e r a s e a rc so a n u an so on Th t l l h i l if h h b i th w g a a s e e as e en n e ro n . m e an s o f wh ic h th e an it y o f th in g s app e ars as tran s ito rin e ss . h e rs e l f wh ic h d ec l ares th at th is w ill is a s triv in g th at m u s t fru s . s tan d g iv e s w ay in as m u c h as h is l ife its e l f is an n ih il ate d . T im e is th e fo rm by . o f th e h app ie s t m ortal is s till th e m o m e n t h e f all s as ! e p as th e . A nd j u st ly so . T w b t t th ’ e re e e r. an n an . h e rec e iv e s th e l as t c o n fi rm ation th at al l h is s triv in g an d w il l in g w e re a bl u n d e r an d an e rro r . . T he . A ge an d wh ic h e v e ry l ife n e c e s s arily h u rries are th e d e ath . w e re n a u ght c re a te d . s o m e th in g b e tte r T h e l e sso n s wh ic h e ac h o n e l e arn s f ro m h is l ife oc o n s is t o n . . ’ - Goe tli e . an d w e af te rw ard as k in as to n is h m e n t wh at h as be c o m e o f th e m A c c o rd in g ly o u r l ife re s e m b l e s a p ay m e n t wh ic h w e re . L d h im t d ath d m k h im d t d ea o e . to . W h ate v er m ay b e s aid to th e co n trary th e h app ie s t m o me n t . .

c l oc k s w o u n d u p to g o an d do n o t k n o w wh y E ac h tim e wh e n a . . m an is b o rn th e c l oc k is w o u n d u p ag ain to p l ay 0 5 th e sa m e h ac k n e y e d tu n e bar for b ar m e as u re fo r m e as u re w ith u n im p ortan t . ‘ i T m t h i g b tt t t b s so e n e er no o e. S chopenhauer s pe ssi m is m is not exag g erated H is ’ . . 1 Yet is th ere n o t so m e hope that in th e course of evolution h u m ani ty m ay attain a state o f perfec t ad . . the deno m inator o f which represen ts o ur desires an d the nu m era tor their g ratifi c atio n s Every pro g ress . j ust m en t so that every m an can enj oy undi sturbed hap . ai e unli m ited an d ha pp iness depends upon the sati s ' . . . a ever ou as een. th o u g h ts T h e ir l iv e s c o n s is t o f flab by l o n g in g an d p in in g o f . . . faction o f our wants H a pp iness accordin gly i s rel a . . 77 h appies t u n m omen t of th e u n h app ie s t m o rtal th e m o m en t h e aw ak e n s . 1 I bid W a W u V V l I p 379 . n. . . . a. . . L or d B y ron sa ys C j y th in h h o u n t o e r th e ' en o s e o u rs av e s e . . T H E THE ORI E S OF E THI CS . . ’ I t is in d e e d in c re d ibl e h ow s tal e an d e m p ty are th e fate s of m o s t p eo p l e h o w du ll an d h ee d l e s s are al l th e ir fe e l in g s an d . . C th y d ay f m g i h f ee ’ t ou n o er s ro an u s r . d re am y re e l in g th ro u g h th e s ev e n ag e s to d eath an d th is is ao . allows the increase of both . . . p in e s s E ven that hope is a flatteri n g illusion of o p tim is tic th in kers it can never be f u l fi lled O ur wan ts . v ariat io n s . d reary description of life is a f aith f ul portrayal of the facts of reality as they m ust a pp ear f ro m the s tan d poin t S h p c h W W V V l I I C h ap 46 o en au e r. A d k w wh t nth h tb no . . tive and S cho p enhauer j ustly likens it to a fraction . o . . . . c o m p an ie d w ith a n u m be r o f triv ial th o u g h ts T h e y are l ik e . o .

’ har m oniou s Y I T th i t h es g h t I h l d w ith fi m p o s i t ou o r e rs s e nc e T h l t l t f w i d m t m p it t e as re s u o s o s a s ru e H ly hi f e on d m d xi t e arn s s re e o an e s e nc e . W h d ily o q th m a wco n u e rs e an e . . o f e g o tis m ' . be d i s appointe d w her e ver he g oes H is ve ry pleasures . . case i f M ephistopheles gives h im the opportunity o f . character as is F au st who yearns for a higher life can . . . pi n e to f ld ee e s ire .e f or g ets the i m pet uous desir e for pleas u res in a great work that he undertakes f or hu m a n ity . overco m e all the te m ptation s H e tastes o f the plea . Th u s in d e s ire I h a s te n to e n o j y . H e fi nds that satis f action lies not in the aim solely but in the e ffort to reach the aim not in lib . A m an who l ik e F aust can s atis f y al l his d esires . A nd in en o j ym e n t. unli m ited enj oy m ent e x clai m wi th F aust . is truly in the hands of S atan as Goethe in hi s great . o f one s f ate in building one s own li f e and m akin g it ’ .7 8 T H E E THI CA L P ROB L EM . e t ty b ut in attaini n g and deserving liberty not in th e . Yet as soon as F aust abandons the stand p oint o f ego tis m . is fac tio n for the longin g o f his soul in any one o f the m . turn either into g all or th e d is g u st of satie ty I f the .he fi nds a satis f action wh ich he had never e x p e c te d H . . satis f action of d esires i s reco g n ized as the supre m e and only purpose of life m an will in the m ost fort unat e . s ures li f e and fi nds the m shallo w T here is no s at of . philosophical allegory de m o nstr ates O nly a stron g . T h e m an who s e eks exclusively hi s own will . har m onious enj o y m ent of li f e but i n bein g the m aster .

h i g her kind of pleasure wh ich has nothing in co m m on with that which is generally called pleasure Fo r i t . H e quotes Aristotle s vie w that the p ro p er ’ . i s a satis f action of the powerful su p er i n div id u al yearn - in g s o f the so u l A n d this is the only happiness that . m o m ent i s co m e and F aust dies B u t that which . and he . eth 2 are e re In p ro u df f l i g f h l fty bl i ore e e n o su c o ss . 79 F aust has beco m e too old to enj oy the fruits of his labor h i m self but he f eels eternity breathin g through his . Mr H erbert S pencer builds h is syste m o f ethics . . s F au st had pled g e d his life to M e p histophele s as s oon as he should enj oy a m o m en t o f satisfaction T h e . fo r “ seekin g to de fin e ha p piness in ter m s o f vi rtue in ” s tea d oi d e fi n in g v irtu e in t e r m s of hap p in e ss . I t was none of the p l easures of e g otis m I t was a . I n o w e n jo y th h ig h t m m t —t h i e es o en . soul H is work w ill l iv e aft e r h im an d be a bl e ssin g . T H E T II E O R I E S O E E T III C S . m an can at tain . the s upre m e g ood o f m an will consist in p er f or m in g thi s work with excellence or virtue herein he will ” obtai n ha p pi n ess M r Sp encer bla m es Aristotle . work of m an consists in the active exercise o f the ” m ental ca p acities con f or m ably to reason and that . upon the supposition that cond uciveness to ha p “ p in e s s is t h e ulti m ate test o f p er f ection i n a m an s ’ ” nature . unto thousand s T h e trac e s c an n o t o f m in e e art h ly b e in g In te e n s p e ris h —th y . gave h im this satis f actio n was non e of S atan s gifts ’ .

. tain that the solution o f a m athe m atical proble m i s right in so far and because it g ives pleasure to h im who has solve d it ! I know of circle s q uarers wh o d erive a g reater satis f action fro m their m ost ridic u lous bl u n d ers than an y discovere r or inven tor possibly can attain by m ost i m portant an d use f u l d iscoveries . pain givin g effects are incorrect and the sa m e hol d s - good f or all the depart m ents of h u m an activity an d the tr u ths of scien ti fi c inquiry B ut who woul d m ain . call the m cri m es. . pleasurable sensation s are correct those which h ave .80 TI I E E T II I C A L ’ P A O B L E /ll . . Yet a m oral act we are tol d is g ood solely because . . T here is a g reat di ff erenc e between pleasu res an d the peace of soul that a g oo d con science alone can give . . “ Mr S pencer classes both as pleasu ra b le sen s atio n s and m akes the m the test of ethics The . h appiness of wh ich Ari stotl e speaks consis ts i n the s atis f action of having done one s duty w h ich h as ’ . cer m igh t with the v ery sa m e ar g u m en ts he u ses for his theory of eth ics declare that the ulti m ate test o f . seriously atte m pts to j ustify the opin ion t h at if im . m oral acts caused agreeable s e nsations we w oul d not . an d in so far as it pro d uces pl e asurable sen sations . “ ” logical trut h i s i ts con d uciveness to happine ss . Those lo g ical argu m ents he m i g ht say which cause . nothin g in co m m on wit h any “ pleasurable sen sa ' tion for it is no sensation an d has as little to d o with sense activity as for instance h as our satisfaction - at the correctness of a lo g ical j u d g m ent M r Sp e n .

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liv in g if but the aim of life is high enough to give va l ue to the work of li f e . o er u o rs e sa e er s een o e n e sense t h at h m a ity t h u n g h at p ou t n t i a tate f h app i e re s e n w ill o n s o n ss. . d M li i m h b or d by m a th e or s as ee n u se so e u o rs as a mo d i fi d p t im i m a e o s m t h i g t h at i m id w ay b tw . f or a life worth being live d is on e that is f u ll o f active asp irations for so m ething better * and hi g her . M li i m e T he w or s . liv i n g accordingly depends exclusively on the p ur . ’ power to increase the spiritual treasure of h u m an soul li f e which h e has received T h e question I s li f e worth . . i f a m an seeks h is own i f he us e s his rich inheritance . its own tro ubles L i f e can acquire value only by the . like the pro digal son and wastes his substance to g et as m uch p leasure as p ossible out o f the treasures that h is fat h ers have gathered H owever li f e is worth . labor an d sorrow . pose to which life is d e v ote d L i f e is no t worth livin g . very one of us has at his birth an d throu gh his E ed ucation received a rich and m ost valuable in h e ri ~ tance f ro m h is f athers and i t stands in every one s . as a tale that i s told althou g h they m ay be four score . . h i h e p e t d I h a all d i f m p bl i ti T he et cs re re s n e ve c e n or er u ca on s of m in e . - years or m ore O ur actions only can and m ust giv e . v alue to the days of our li f e Yet i s their stren g th . use to which it is p ut I f our days are e m pty o f any . s so e n p tim i m s e ee n o s an d p essi mi m s B y th a th th m t m h a b e m pl y d i th .82 T H E E T III C A L P R O B L E III . n e v e rt h l e e ss . P essi m is m has tau ght that l i f e fro m t h e standpoi nt of a p leasure seeker h as no value i f we expect a sat - is fac tio no f our ego tistic de sires li f e will not be wort h . action worthy to be done then they are indeed spen t .

n c se r e s e os s . . e is t w no th it wor t bl if w l i m ly f th s o n j y m t f l if ro u es e ve e re or e en o en o e . b u t as u n to c arn al ev as u n to b ab e s in C h ris t . T h M el i i m h e p p d f lly or s pt th t th f p im i m th at l if e re ro os e u ac c e s e ru o es s s . . . l ig io n s are not wrong . . e o re v a u e s e th m e w ill h i l if b e w o re th l i i g s e or v n . c h il d I t h o u g h t as . “ W h e n I w as a c h il d I s pak e as a c h il d I u n d ers tood as a . a c h il d b u t wh e n I be c am e a m an I p u t aw ay . We do not inten d to abolish the truth of the ol d religions but to puri fy the m fro m their m ytholo g ical . m y ths and the ti m e has co m e that we are no lon g er satis fi ed with m yths T h e apostle says . c h il d is h th in g s . . character We do not co m e to destroy but to ful fi l . . 83 T he ethical life accordingly a ffords i n deed the only salvation f or m an and the old religio n s have been re . t e th e re e r. . en . e re rn e s ar e id al t h t e s im t th a l f m th m an a e l abl w ill b e h i l if and e sou o a an . sense indicated will not endan g er but will revive . churc h li f e I t will m ake al l th in g s new . e s ro n e r. . . they contain all o f the m this all i m p ortant truth - Yet the trut h is wrappe d i n . I h av e fe d y o u w it h m ilk an d n o t w ith m e at for h ith e rto y e . re ach by a d by h a e i te c i w h i h al l m i i w ill b im p ibl e n su c n x s n e. T H E T II E O R I E S OF E T II I C S . w e re n o t abl e t b a it n e ith e r y e t n ow are y e abl e o e r . . M l i i m pl a e or s th al f l if i id ces l th at t ae v d th a w l im it u e o e n ea s r n sc e n e n rro s o f i d i id al x i t n v eu T h g at e th t s enc g th mo ea . l ig io n s of salvation to the extent that they have helped m an to raise hi m self above his egotis m The old re . b re th re n c o u l d n o t s pe ak u n to y o u as u n to s p iritu al A nd I . T herefore the solu tion of the ethical p roble m in the . ankin d has passed through the p hase o f child M hood in which i t could be tau g ht only by m yths and parables As says S t P aul .

N ay . We do n o t c om b at f re e d om O f art . ne o ne s . O l d p ph i ro f l fi ll i g ! ec es u n A d th n gh h t i ap t r ro u ou r e ar s s r u e O f p g ro w m ly t h ill i g re s s ar r n . B t 1 ! u 0w l ig i a ne re on B t f m th g m d ay i g . will n o t b e a n e w cree d as are the ol d d og m atic re l ig io n s. n W h f th h m p o u r er u an ro g re s s A d w n p w y ill i s ee a a u s on . o re s no o a c In va u e g ph t s d tale re s ran s c e n en O u r c re e d is n o t e rratic . T h C e d f ld re e s om bl i g o are c ru n A d w n th i e re l ti e r re v e a on T h ely h p i l i i g on O e n v n L if w l d b d l ati e ou e eso on . - s a n . Th ou g h h ig h . n or t h at o f S c ie n c e . W h e h ly ip t av e n o o s cr u re s . u rs s ro e er s ec n A w f it h i ne a b m n ou r oso s I g w i g l ig h t d i pl y i g s ro n . Ou r l i t d g m ti . b ut a reli g ion of facts a religion of science . o u r as p i ati n r o I s ye t c on c re t e an d r l ea . G re at t th w it h b ru d s tl k ro a e r ou oo N w mi i e h s s on s t d av e c re a e . By p ifi d R l ig i u r e e on O l u r s ou l td s are e e v a e . ne w d ctri o e s . . h d m i ti O f t is en o na on th y i l if f e s c o n u s io n ’ A re e . T he eth ic al move m en t th u s cannot h elp brin g in g u s a n e w reli g ion An d the n e w reli g ion of ethic s . . T o re n d er l if e m o re bl e no Is ou r s u bl im id l e ea . b th w ith o ou r re l ig io n A re j i di fi o ne n rm a ll i an c e .84 T H E E THI CA L P ROB L EM . N w e im a w h p s.

.

IN D E X .

A bb t D F E x
o , r. . .
, . B lie d i fid l 5
e v e r an n e , 2 .

A b mi o ti d pl
na 7 o n an e as u re , 0. B th m 55 6 6 6 7
en a , , 0, 1, .

A tic th i
on , e l d k w l dg ca , an no e e, 5 . B ib y 5 9
r er , .

A t i ty
c at
vi ld i f 7
, n u ra e s re o r, 1. B d w y t t il w y
ro a a s re e -
ra a c as e ,

A d p t ti
a p g
a d p f
on , ro re s s an e r e c t, iv . B Gi d
ru no , 66 6 7 o r an o , , .

A d p t ti
a t t
a t h a d th i
on o ru n e cs , 64 . B ddh 7
u a, .

A dl P f
e r, F l ix i 7
ro e s s o r e , x, 1 . B tl ii
u e r, .

A lg b e d th i
ra an i al e cs, v . t see so

c al By L d 77
ro n , or , .

cul ti a on ,

A li i N t
ve, 36 s a u re , .
C a cul l at io n of pl e as u ra bl f l i e ee ngs
A ll xi t
-
e ity f 9
s ence , u n o , 2 .
65
A l t i m iii
.

ru s , .
C au s e an d m o tiv e , 35
A l t i ti
.

ru sd g t i t i m ti
c an e o s c o ves , 38 , h il d b pl
C e arin g an d e as u re , 70 .

5+ C h it 7 4
r s 1 21.
lt l
, , ,

A ru is t ic m o t iv e s n o t u n n at u ra , 65 .
C h h u rc e s an d e t hi cs, i, 14 , 15 .
A na ly s is o f e t hi l m ca o t iv e s , 65 .
C h h u rc es an d th e S o c ie tie s f or E th
A h t x
n arc is s, .
i al C l t
c u u re , 13.
A hy s
n arc , o.
C h h l if
u rc -
e , et hi cs w i ll re v iv e ,
83 .

A p tl St P
os l 83e au
l g ym e n an d t h e p fi
ri c at io n o f
.
, .
C er u te
A ppl i t i f kca w l dg on o no e e an d e t hi l ca
l ig io n , x ii.
l 6
ru e s, .
C l iff d or , P ro f W K iii
. . .

A p i i 7
r or 2
mp l s io n an d f w ill
, .
C o u re e , 47 .

A p i i r ord th i 6 an e cs , 2 .
C o n c il a te
~
re l ig i n w it h o s c ie n c e , e f
A i t tl
r s o 79 8 e, , 1.
f o rt to , ii .

A i t tl d Sp ie w s of
f
’ ’
r s o e s an en c er s v
C o n u c iu s , 7 .

h pp i a 79 n ess , .
C o n s c ie n c e , 2 5 , 39 , 4 0 , 5 3, 60 .

A it h m ti l
r x m pl f e ca e a e o et hi cs, iv , C o n s c io u s n e s s an d h
g ro w t , 9 .

65 .
C on tin u it y o f s ou llf -
i e , 4 0, 4 3 .

A u t h o rit y f t th o ru , 10 .
C o p e rn ic u s , 17 .
th ity t p h
A u or o re ac , x ii.
C ri m e an d ev i l ,eq c on s u en ce s of, 60 .

A u to n o m y f w il l 4 9
o , , 50 .
C rit e rio n o f e th i 68 cs , .

C rit ic is m s s o l i it d
c e , vn .

B a b es in C h ris t, 83 .

B ad , d e fi n it ion o f , 31 , 4 2 . D a ta of e t hi c s , 25 e t s e q q .

B arrie rs b e tw e e n th e in iv i d d l u a an d D e at h an dp i a n, 71 .

h u m an it y 4 . 0 . Dea th , sou l l if -
e a t e r, f 62 .

B as is o f e th i c s an d b li f i m e e n a g ic , 9 . De fi n it io n o f g o o an d b ad, 31, 4 2 d .

B a s is o f e th i c s an d d gm i o as , . De fi n it io n o f re ig ion , 7 l .

B as is o f e th i cs a n d f t 8 ac s , 1 . De fi n it io n s of th e g oo d , tw o c on

B as is o f e .
th i c s an d l ig i x re on , . t rad ic t o ry , by y M me R o . e r, iv .

B a s is o f e th i cs, w h t i th i a s e x. De fi n ition o f U til it a ian i m r s , ii .

INDE X .

D e m arc at io n b e tw ee n ol d an d n e w Giz y c k i P , f G
ro . e o rg e v on , i i i , iv , v .

et hi cs, li n e o f, 18 . Go d an d L apl ace , 18, 20 .

D e te rm in is m , 4 6 , e t se q q -
. Go d, c on s c ie n c e v o ic e o f, 53 .

D o g m as an d t h e b as is o f e t hi cs, i . Go d no g ho st bu p i it
t s r , 2 1, 22 .

D o g m as a nd t h e re l ig i on o f s c ie n c e , Go d, th e b e l ie f i p n a e rs on a l an d

10 . su pe rn at u ra l . 12 .

D o g m at ic b li e e v e rs an d t h e et hi l ca Go d, tru t hi n th e i d e a o f, 20.

p blro e m , 13. Go o d d f l 57 6 6 3
an u se u , , 0, .

D o g m atis t an d th e b as is o f e th ic s , x i i . Go o d d fi it i f 3 4
, e n on o , 1, 2.

D ou bt an d e t hi c s as a s c ie n ce , 51 . Go o d w ill K t d fi iti
-
, an
'
s e n on o f th e ,

D re am e r an d th i k n e r, 19 . 32 .

Du t y , m ot iv e s o f, 2 5 . Goo d a d f l 55 n u se u , .

Du ty , w e ig ht o f, an d m o ra w o rt l h , 73 . Go o d d pt d t
ness , a a e o so me e n d, 63 .

Go e th 78 79 8
e, 1.
d y
, ,

w t h a d pl
E u c a tio n , n e c e s s it o f, 1 2
G ro e as u re , 70
.
n .

E g o tis t ic an d a tru l is t ic m o t iv e s , 38 ,
Gro w.th , u n c o n s c io u s , 9 .

S4
E n j o y m e n t an d h e al t h V i i , .
H a b it an d m o ra it l y 2 1
E n j o y m e n t Go e t h e o n 8 1
, .

, , .
H a pp i n e s s an d d ti 7 u es, 1.
E p ic te tu s on fre e w ill 4 5 , .
H a pp i d p im i m
n e s s an ess s 77 .

E rrors o f th e s e arc h e rs for tru th 5 2
,

, .
H a pp i nes s in t e rm s o f v irtu e , 79 , 8 1 .

Es t im atio n o f m o u v e s 37 , .
H a pp i ne ss, is it t h e e n d o f re as on !
E s t im at io n p rin c ipl e o f 4 0, , .

30
E te rn it y e t h ic s o f 4 2
.

, , .
H a pp i ne ss -
p rin c i pl e an d m o ra l s, ii
E te rn ity s tan d p o in t o f 6 2
.

, , .
H a pp i n e s s , th e g re at e s t h app i n e s s of
E th ic a l R e c o rd th e i ii ix x x i m b
t h e g re ate s t n u 5 6 , iii
, , , , , , .
e r,
E th o l o g y 27
.

,
H e d i m 6 5 6 7 68 69
on s
E v o l u tio n o f e th ic s an d k n ow l e d g e 6
, , , , .

, .
H ig h k i d f pl
er 69 n o e as u re ,
E v o l u tio n o f s ou l 4 1
.

H ig h m ti s lf d l e u s io n , 61
.
,
er o ves no e -

E xp e rien ce an d e th ic s 33
.

, .
H b tf di g P f H al d iii
n , ro . ar , , v , v i, 55 .

H m D a id 4
F ac ts an d th e b as is o f e t h ic s , 18 .
u e, v , 1 .

Fac ts an d m od e rn s c ie n c e s , 22 .
H u ss, J h 66 o an n e s , .

Fac t s , et hi c s to be b as e d p u on , 33 .
I, or s p ak i
e ng in th e fi rs t pe rs on , 39
ha fi th
.

Fa it n d s c ie n ti c t ru 6 , 1 .
Id l e a s an d e t hi c s , 19 .
Fau 78, 79 , 8 1 Id l
s t,
e a s , o rig in o f , 19
.

l j d l
.

Fe e in g s an d u g me n t , m ora
Id l b
v.
,
ea s o rn o f w n t , 2 3.
l
Fo o an d S o c rate s , v , v i .
I m m o rta l sou l of m an in d , 4 2 k
b il ity t
.

Fo re c as t , th e a o , 27.
In fall ibl e , c o n s c ie n ce n o t , 40
l f K
.

Fo rm a is m o t 32 an , .
In fid l a e nd b li e e v e r, 52 .

Form s of b rain tis s u -
e, 43 I n s tin c t an d re aso n ,
.

39
d h ht l
.

Fre e om of an d
t ou g aw s of
l
I n tu it io n a is m , ii, iii, 5 4 , 5 6
h ht 47
.

t ou g , .
l
I n to e ran t , re l ig io n o f s c ie nc e , 10 .
Fre e th i k e n d th e b as is o f e t h ic
a n r, s,
I rre s is t i bl f e o rc e o f some m o ra m o l
x ii.
t iv e s , 39
ll a p l
.

n d c om
Fre e w i u s ion , 47 .
Iso l at e d f e e l in g s do n ot c on s t itu t e
Fre e w ill a n d th e m o ra l aw , 4 5 l .
et h i 44 c s, 6 7, 68
w ill h y y
, .

Fre e n e it e r a m s te r n or an
Ins p i ati r on , 9
ll
.

i u s io n , 46 .

Fu lfil , not d e s troy , 83 .
J o di P ro f Frie d ric h iii
, . , .

Fu n e ra la nd pl e as u re , 69 .
J u s tice an d l o v e x , .

88 T H E E T I II C A L P R O B L E /ll .

K an t, 29 , 30 , 32 . O c c as ion o f th e t h re e l e c tu re s , i .

K now e l dg e an d e t h ic al ac t io n , 5 . O ld re l ig i on s n o t w ron g , ii .

020 : C ou r t , T h e , i ii, ix , .

L a pl a c e an d Go d 1 8, 20 .
O d
r e r o f n atu re an d re as o n , 31 .

id e a l 9
,

O rig in o f
L aw th i al p i it
s, 1
d th r 3
.

s an e e c s , .

L w ff m 7
a s o or , 2 .
O rth c d ox , R e l ig i on o f s c ie n c e is , 10 .

L t it
e as fp g re s s an c e ro re s s n ot in th e
l i e f 72n o , .
P ag an is m o f C h isti
r an it y , 22 .

L k y W E H iii
ec , . . .
, .
P ain an d d is t u r ba nc e s , 71 .

L thu 5 e r, 1 .
P l y ii
a e , .

P a bl e ra s an d re l ig i on , 2 1 .

M ag ic , b li f i
e e n , an d s c ie n c e , 8, 9 .
P a bl e a
ra s nd e t h ic s, 51 .

M an an d p ig , v, v i. P as s io n s e n s a v e , 4 5 l
d
.

M at e ria l g oo d ne ss an d m o ra l g oo P e a ce of s o u l , v, 80 .

n es s , 63 .
P en a l l aw 7 s, .

M a x im f th i K t 32
o e cs , an

s, .
P er e f c t ad p t a ation , iv .

M a x im P f Gi y k i
, ro . z c
'
s, v .
P e s s im is m an d h app in ss 77 e , .

M e l i i m 8 83
or s , 2, .
P h il os o p h y a d l ig i 7 8
n re on , , .

M e m y f li i g
or b ta o36 v n su s n ce .
P h il o so p h i s a d th b a i o f th ic
e n e s s e s
M e t ap h y i f m l l w f at
s cs , or a a s o n u ra l 16 , 17 .

s c ie n c e , 28. P ig an d m an , v , v i.

M e ta p h y i f th i 3 s cs o e cs , 0. P l an o f b il d i
u n g , an d e t hi cs , x i.
M e p h i t p h l 79
s o e es , .
P l at o , v , v i.

M ill J h S t o t ii n i u ar v, v 26 P l e as u re an d a b m i ati o n on , 70
.
, , , , .

M ill i m
enn u d th i 49 an e cs , .
P l a e su r abl e f l i g c tiee n , on n u o u s s ta t e
M i a l
r c e, sense o f d ty d l u e c a re d to be o f, v , v i .

a. 5 3 an d 5 4 P l e as u re an d g row t h , 70 .

M is o l gy 3
o , 1.
P l e as u re s an d th e s atis ac t io n f '

of
M o d p ag
e rn an is m , 2 2 .
w an ts , 7 1 .

M or al w th or an d w e ig ht of d tyu , 7 2, P l e as u re no t th e p p u r os e of m o ra l
73 .
ac t s , 66 .

M o t iv e an d c an e ,
'

35 .
P l e as u re s o f e g o t is m , 7 8, 79
d e t e rm in e d
.

M o t iv e s . 46 .
P l e as u re s e e k e r, 6 2 , 82 .

M o t iv e s fo r ac tio n , t h e d a ta o f e t hi cs ,
P o s itiv is m an d p h y ic 28 m e ta s s, .

25 P tic l th
rac t h i al p
a , bl e m 3 e e c ro , , 4 .

M y th ol o g ic al th i e cs, 51 .
P h i g m r l e sy
re a c n i o a s, a x
d
, .

M y th l o o gy f th i o e cs consi d e re in P r c i tifi
es th i
en 5 c e cs , 1.
di p s e ns abl 53 e, .
P i ipl i
r nc th i 37
e n e cs , .

P i c ipl
r n f t r thf l e o 64 u u ne s s , .

N a t ion , T ire , (! u o t atio n ) , x . P i c ipl
r n th th ic al i
e, e e , x .

N li t x
at io n a s s, . P i ipl
r nc f ig h t dw
e o g 4 r an ron , .

N t l l tio
a u ra se ec n an d e t hi cs, 5 . P g s
ro t in th
re s n o l i of l as t e ne e re

N t i
a u re l i 36 s a v e, . s is t an c e , 72 .

N w b i
e f th ias s o e c s , x ii. P ron o u n I , 39 .

N w th i
e b t
e cs u no n ew m o ra it l y , 1 1. P u rp os e o f m ora l ac ts n o t pl e as u re ,

N w e l ig i 84 re on , . 66 .

N bl e e l f 6 3
o r s , P u r p o s e o f re as on , 30 .

N m m itt l
on - c o ii a , x . P u r ifi c ation o f re l ig io n , 1111.

P u rs u i t o f h app i ness an d e t h ic s , v i,

O bj e c tiv e an d s u bj e c tiv e w o r ld , 41 . VII.

.

W an t . 5 6 . . . 6 4 . W o rl d a n e tw o rk o f c au s es an d ef V ic to rio u s. an d pl e as U til it arian is m . 36 m o v e m en t wi ll b e . T H E E T II I C A L P A O B L E AI ’ 90 . 5 9 . . W f an ts . . v . t h e orig in o f id l e a s . . 16 . 71 . t h e s at is ac t io n o f. 23 . . . U f l se u an d. g oo d 57 . . 8 1 . U t il ity o f c o n s eq e nc e s an d m o ra it l y . 2 3. . W o rl d o bj e c tiv e an d s u bj e c tiv e 41 Vi rt u e in te rm s of h pp i a n ess . . ii. W ill an d ac tio n 36 . . u re s . W orl d th e rie s an d e th ic s 17 - . in th e e nd th e et h i al c f . 55 . 60 . e e ts . 79 . W u n d t P ro f W m iii . 59 W o rl d a fi e l d fo r re al iz in g id e al s . . iii. .

6 . O R NA T UR A L . T H E M O R B ID ST A T E S O F A T T E NT IO N . I d io cy . a . ” r a eu r. t ' . I n h ibit iqn . . Su rp ris e . t/z oris ea T ' A u ra n s l a t on . l) . A T T E NT IO N . d d F ix e I e as an d E c s tas y . 2. DR A W ER F . . D is t rac t io n . co . C H I C A GO . A RT IFIC IA L . . A t te n t io n in S l eep an d H yp n o s is . VO L U NT A RY OR . o. C l o t /i . or “ T H E R evu e P H I LO SO P H I ! U E . 9 s c 0 o ttention . T he w or d w it h k w ill b e re a an e ag e r in t e re s t an d w it hp ro fi t by all w h o -h a v e l fo l o w e d th t d el pm t re c e n ev e o en s of py s c h o ogl y p u on t he ha m of bi l o o g ic al sc ie n c e . L O N GM A X S . P UB L IC A T IO NS O F T H E P EN O UR T UB . E m o t io n a State s l . i T re atin g o f th e fo ll ow ing to p ics 1 . 75 C e n ts . c as s x . S P O NT A NE OU S . P x o rs s so x or C OM P A R A T I V E xxn ER I M ENT A L E XP P SY CH O LO GY A T T H E C OLLE G E D E FR A NC E A N D E D IT O R . do we ll t o re a . A T T E NT IO N . o I I y po c h o n dria . A l it l b k h h l l h i g th e p p e r t ra in in g o f c h ild h wil l d —A t A m t t e oo w c a av n ro re n at eart . L o x oo x P U B L I SH E R S . —S t m " Ed i b g h ro s in n u r . a. I ts M e c h an is m . Ph ys ical M an ife s tat io n s . R lB O T . (1. e . B v T H . O . 16 9 - 1 75 L A SA LLE ST P . P R E SS NO T IC E S . T h e Fee in g l of E ffo rt . I i . t ' .

p re face o f h is o rk s o S ar w c rit ic is e s . B in e t p C o ie s o f T be O pen C on rt co n tain in g th e isc u ss ion . aper . T h is boo k h as aro u se the ive ie s t dis cu s s io n M r Geo rg e d l l . l Voc /z e n SC /i r if t . . j d p in g M r R o m an e s s R e o in de r w e re . T he P sychic L ife of M icro O rganisms - . T H E M ETH O D or L O S O P H Y A S A S Y ST E M P H I A TIC A R R A N G E M E N T O F K N O W L E D GE . I t is re v e re n t . e z r s. P R E SS N O T I C E S ph y —l . “ A w or k o f p ro fou n d ph il o so p h y an d l o g ica l th i ki n ng D r C aru s is a n e l e e ar an d w e l d e n e . . ew or e r ew S ta n da r d . u is e c rit ic a n o te s by -M ’ j p bl h d l . m ay be . k p th pp h h f l “I u t t in g fo r lyso e a r a ft e r it s a in Fre n c t is c are u t ran s l a e ara n c e n t dy L p ‘ — ’ i fe o f M ic ro O rg an is m s . P R E SS N O T I C E S . 50 C /s . A STUDY IN E XP ER IM EN TA L P SY C H O LO GY . B Y D R P A U L C A R US ' . “H fo rt ifi e s h is t e o r b y s u c h a e h y w ea th l o f e x ac t o b s e rv at io n s an d e x p e ri m e n ts . o . . k ih g d l d y R ykj ik I l d " w or l w ri t t e n w t re at c e arn e ss an u ci it e av c e an . a n d h is w o r is v e r s u g g e s t iv e P u bl ic O p i n ion k y . . f ! . an d c o m re e n s iv e d H e is w il in g fo r o t e r e o ”— p h l h p pl t e o t h k ' in fo r t h e m S L l V C b . . . ” o n c e e n t e r rise is crim i n at io n ' L o u rt P u b C . . H is re as on in g is l " l —N Y k H b c . d b o tain e fo r 4 0 ce n ts d 16 7720 132 p g a es C l ot/t 7 5 C ts P . B in e t re ie ‘. em !e ' P l: i . wh p su bj e c t o f th e eve o men t o f s c ic a d o w ers M l p B in e t in th e py h l p . M an d M r R o m ane s re o in e . . on on . d py h l y M B in e t . h as s h o w n at and . a te rw ar co n tri u te. “T h b k g ly i e h di oo i f th l f i t s e tsd m i f t y s t ro n n t e re c t o n o e o t es an o s t sat s ac or p h il ph i l d i ifi h g h oso ca m ki g i an pp l t h i ll g sc e n t d c t ou t no w a n ts a ea o t e n te i e n c e an p ti f h ld ” as ira on o T h C / t m R g t t B e w or . FUNDA M E NT A L P R O B L E M S . “A g oo d in t ro d u c t io n t o t he s t u dy of f o rm a l ph il oso e S cots m a n . u e is e r . ( A ph il phi l M jO g l l g i il g it d b6 k m h im p k i a 0 “ re n e a r u u e s e ” oso ca g g S e . . t h e e m in e n t E n g l is s c ie n t is t os e o s itio n o n t h e h . “L e l e c te u r n e s e ra pas di p e n sé de v o ir l es dé t il a et de li l ’ oeu v re e ll e —R s s re ’ m em p . “H i i i h m l s re as o n n s7 g d h i l t l Y B t B as a s t ro n o ra an et ca e r. . pl d . g an t an d e o q u e n t e x l p fi d onent o f M o n is m . - u a r te r ly R e v i e w . os p l: tou e l ik e t o re a d mu h h at D r C aru s h as w rit te n o n t e se s o rt s t u c of w . t h a t t h e re a e r w h o fo l lo w s h is d d e m o n s t ra t io n ca re fu ll y c an h dl y f l ar ai of c o n v i c t io n Yo r T r i b u n e . B Y A L FR E D B l NE T .e z u r " Se it e a u r z s s e ns c i a l f tl iclz e B . . J h o n R o m an e s . e nc os o n ea c o n . as e ing u n e x c e e b i n t h e re prese n ta t io n o f ll d mo d e rn b l g alio o t ic in v e s i ” g at io n s R e o r m ed . h h di es . e rl in . e l e v a t e . — . E d in b u rg h . . to h p ly f d b d l t h e co u m n s o f I lz e O p en C o u rt an artic e i n ic h e v in ic ate th e ' l wh h d d p s ta n d o in t h e h ad ta e n an d c ritic is e in re tu rn th e s c o og o f k . os to n . “ De m V e rfas se r ste h e n b s e in er ph il ph i sc h en B il d g rtl n dlic h e —N t w u ng ne en n oso t fi c h t ig e n at u rw is s e n sc h ft l ha ic e K e n n t n l s . P i r ce . O ne D ol l a r . ac co m a n y . T h e O ' t io n o f \t i ine t s s u f T o h e P s y c h ic en - p d i mn d L d . . “W e re c o m m e n d the b k oo t o a l l e arn e s t s t u d e n ts of th e g r t p bl m ea f ro e s o e v o l u t io n .