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Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Viorel Ionescu et-al, 2017 designed a conventional circular double split-ring resonator (SRR)
type unit cell structure exhibiting two resonant frequencies in the Ultra-Wideband (UWB)
wireless communication domain. This structure, considered as possible individual sub-
wavelength building block of a notch filtering system, was numerically implemented by using
the Finite Element Method (FEM) based Comsol Multiphysics software. The dependence of
resonance frequencies on the SRR model parameters, like split width (g), conducting strip width
(c), the gap between rings (d), substrate thickness (h) and substrate permittivity was investigated
through this paper. Surface current density distribution for three different ring slits was also
computed here for a proper selection of the slit width of the resonant rings. ring width = 5 mm,
re1 = 11 mm, ri1 = 10 mm, re2 = 7.5 mm, ri2 = 6.7 mm and g1 = g2 = g = 1 mm. For the
validation model we considered a FR4 dielectric substrate with side length of 15 mm, substrate
thickness of 1.6 mm, copper layer thickness of 30 μm and a dielectric constant of 3.85. A
uniform distribution of the magnetic field along the inner and outer rings, in opposite direction of
ring slits was observed at resonance The gap distance between rings d = 0.25 mm was selected
for the final model due to the biggest negative displacement of the second resonant frequency at
the lowest transmission coefficient s21 = - 44 dB. Modification of the substrate thickness and
permittivity at different values offered an useful information regarding to the proper selection of
the substrate type and his optimal thickness, for the final model being considered as a substrate
an RT/Duroid 6006 material with εr = 6.15 and h = 2.5 mm.

Vitawat Sittakul et-al, 2017, Designed a compact multiband L-shaped slot antenna using
complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) for Wireless Local Area (WLAN) applications. They
designed a very small-profile antenna (less than 20x25mm2) that can operate in multi-band
frequency ranges around 2.4GHz and 5.2GHz. By etching F-shaped slots on each radiator side of
rectangular-patch antenna on circular-shaped ground plane, a multi-band antenna can be

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achieved and the operation frequencies can be tuned via the F-shape slot geometry. The antenna
was designed using the time domain CST Microwave Studio (MWS) simulator. The proposed
antenna was designed on the FR4 dielectric substrate of thickness 1.6mm, relative permittivity
(ɛr) 04.5 and dielectric loss tangent 0.02. It can be seen that the overall size is only
9.55mmx9.26mm or about 0.075λ0 x 0.072λ0 where λ0 is the free space wavelength of the wave
at the first resonant frequency 2.4GHz. The antenna was composed of a rectangular shaped
radiator with L-shaped slots with the same geometry on the left and right sides. At the back of
the antenna substrate, there were a rectangular and circular ground planes. Here on the circular
ground plane, a CSRR was placed. Computer software (CST) was used to simulate the antenna
operation and optimize these parameters. The two resonant frequencies for WLAN bands at 2.4
GHz and 5.2 GHz respectively. For both frequency bands, the S11(s) were below -20 dB with
the -10dB bandwidth of 134 MHz and 119 MHz at 2.4GHz and the -10dB bandwidth of 1.11
GHz and369 MHz at 5.2 GHz respectively.

D.kitayama et-al, 2017 proposed a variable-focal-length lens in the microwave band based
single-layer metamaterial. To make the lens with single-layer metamaterial, they applied Fresnel-
zone plate theory, in which the transmission intensity distribution in the lens was controlled. In
the lens, a split-ring-resonator (SRR) structure was used as a unit cell to utilize the loop-current
resonance mode because it provides a small unit cell with a small aspect ratio. To electrically
control the transmission characteristics, they mounted varactor diodes on the split gaps in the
SRRs. Additional gaps were introduced into the SRRs to avoid breaking the asymmetry of the
loop current path, which results in an 18-dB change in the intensity of the waves. By electrically
controlling the location of the transparent and opaque zones according to Fresnel-zone-plate
theory, they experimentally verified the dynamic control of focus and focal length with single
layer metamaterial.

H. Chauhan et-al, 2017 Designed an improved complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR)
sensor for nondestructive testing of dielectric samples in the S-band (2-4GHz). Two sensors were
presented here,first sensor was designed by loading the microstrip line with a single CSRR unit
cell and the second sensor was designed by loading the line with a pair of identical CSRRs unit
cell. The later shows the higher sensitivity towards the loss tangent of the material under test and

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hence appears to be more appropriate for the characterization of low loss dielectric samples and
small impurity detection. Numerical models were developed for both the sensors to calculate the
complex permittivity of sample. The sensors are designed and numerically tested using a 3-D full
wave electromagnetic simulator, the Computer Simulation Technology Microwave Studio (CST-
MWS). The determined complex permittivity results of various reference samples from both the
sensors show good agreement with reference data and the results also illustrate that the
microstrip line sensor loaded with double CSRRs unit cell was more sensitive and accurate than
the microstrip line sensor loaded with single CSRR unit cell.

D. Pal et-al, 2017, designed a complimentary split ring resonator (CSRR) enhanced wideband
log-periodic antenna with coupled microstrip line feeding. Here in this work, coupled line
feeding to the patches was proposed to avoid individual microstrip feed matching complexities.
Three CSRR elements were etched in the ground plane. Individual patches were designed
according to the conventional log-periodic design rules. FR4 dielectric substrate was used to
design a five-element log-periodic patch with CSRR printed on the ground plane. The result
shows a wide operating band ranging from 4.5 GHz to 9 GHz. Surface current distribution of the
antenna shows a strong resonance of CSRR’s placed in the ground plane. The design approach of
the antenna is reported and performance of the proposed antenna has been evaluated through
three dimensional electromagnetic simulation validating performance enhancement of the
antenna due to presence of CSRRs. Antennas designed in this work may be used in satellite and
indoor wireless communication.

Dalfiah. J et-al, 2017, designed a Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) fed ring antenna is designed
using Advanced Design System (ADS) software by means of several parametric studies and
fabricated using wet etching method of fabrication. The resultant antenna was working at short
communication such as ISM band frequency 2.45GHz. FR4 Glass Epoxy material was used as a
substrate. Even though it produces low bandwidth signal, using stub the bandwidth is slightly
improved up to 100MHz. Since the UWB antennas occupy a wider band of frequencies, the
specific application band is needed in between this range. In order to achieve this band, notch
operation is performed by the use of split rings The SRR was constructed by two conducting
rings, i.e., two metal rings which was made up of copper and were separated by a gap, each with

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a split at opposite sides. This antenna is used at the frequency of 2.45GHz(ISM band) with
reduced return loss.
A. W. M. Saadh et-al, 2017, designed a compact Double Negative (DNG) metamaterial antenna
has a volume of 0.33λ0 × 0.27λ0 × 0.01λ0 at lower resonance of 3.3 GHz. For extraction of
permeability and permittivity of the metamaterial circular split ring resonator (SRR) waveguide
medium was used. The antenna operates at 3.3 GHz with S11 < −10 dB bandwidth of about 5.45
% (3.21–3.39 GHz). Stable radiation characteristics, good impedance matching and VSWR < 2
is obtained for the proposed design. The proposed metamaterial antenna is intended for the use of
WiMAX application (3.3 GHz).
M. Mishra et-al, 2018, investigated a compact dual-band open-ended metamaterial antenna for
microwave frequency applications. Designed antenna has been incorporated with U-shaped slot,
meandered line inductance and a square stub. The designed compact antenna having a total
footprint area of 0.266λ0 × 0.092λ0 with respect to the zeroth order resonance frequency of
2.58GHz. The designed antenna demonstrates −10dB fractional bandwidth of 4.26% and 28.03%
with respect to the center frequency of 2.58 and 5.28GHz respectively. Further, the designed
antenna offers an average broadside gain of 1.52dBi and 1.84dBi for both the working bands
respectively. In addition to above the designed antenna offers an average radiation efficiency of
76.73% and 95.53% in both the working bands. Design and simulation of the proposed antenna
has been performed using HFSS 14.0 3D simulation software. The performance and size of
antenna make it suitable for different WLAN (5.15–5.35, 5.47–5.725, 5.725–5.850GHz) and Wi-
MAX (2.5–2.69, 5.2–5.8 GHz) applications.
P. Akram, 2018 designed a Metasurface to replace ground plane of the rectangular patch
antenna. The Metasurface structure was capable of guiding energy in unpredictable way and it
became very useful factor in working with EM energy and light energy. When subjected to
changes in its designing parameters it exhibits significance change in the way it is manipulating
the waves and the materials used also causes changes in its way of working and the di-electric
filled or all di-electric thin Metasurfaces were considered in this work a coaxial fed rectangular
patch antenna which operate at 10GHz was considered for analysis. Metasurface having 0.2cm
pin height and 0.2cm gap between plates will fill with different dielectric substrates with
dielectric constants 2.2, 2.94 and 6.15 and comparative performance analysis is illustrated.

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V. Priyanka et-al, 2017. Designed an UWB antenna with single SRR for WLAN and WiMAX
applications. This antenna consists of rectangular patch fed with a microstrip line, using FR4
substrate with thickness of 1.6 mm and dielectric constant of 4.2. The antenna has a partial
ground plane which is loaded with a metamaterial unit cell to obtain a wide bandwidth having
resonant characteristics at 2.4GHz (IEEE 802.11b) for WLAN and 5.8GHz (IEEE 802.16d) for
WiMAX. The proposed metamaterial antenna has overall size of 20×30×1.6mm3 and VSWR <;
2 for the resonating frequency, which provides a good impedance matching. For the proposed
single SRR UWB antenna, simulation results for gain, radiation pattern, and VSWR along with
minimum return loss has been obtained.
Aidin Mehdipour et-al, 2014 designed miniaturized low-profile monopole antennas loaded by
metamaterial (MTM) structures. The antenna was loaded by zeroth-order resonator (ZOR) and
complimentary split-ring resonator (CSSR) units, resonating over three frequency bands so that
they can be tuned by changing the geometrical parameters of the MTM structures. Surface
current distribution and equivalent circuit models were provided to describe the principle of
operation. The experimental results were presented to validate the numerical results. Showing the
monopole-shape radiation pattern characteristics at all resonant frequencies, the proposed MTM
antennas are suitable for vehicular wireless applications. The antenna consists of a printed -
directed monopole antenna loaded by a CSRR unit named as CSRR1, and four mushroom units
located at xy plane loaded by CSRR structures named as CSRR2. The antenna was feed through
a 50-ohm SMA connector from below the ground plane. The connector pin was connected to the
feed section. It was observed that the resonant frequency of wire monopole was around 2.1 GHz
and by loading the wire monopole with CRLH unit , the second frequency band was introduced
at 3.2 GHz and the third resonant occurs at around 5.2 GHz. However, the resonance at3.2 GHz
not well matched and it cannot be well tuned without affecting frequency band.
L. C. Paul, 2017 designed and analyze the performance of a metamaterial (MTM) based
microstrip patch antenna (MPA) by introducing three dual isosceles triangular slots on the
metallic patch. At First, a conventional microstrip patch antenna was designed using Isola FR-
408 (loss free) substrate material having dielectric constant of 3.75. Then the slotted microstrip
patch antenna has been designed and verified as left handed metamaterial (LHM) with the help
of Nicolson Ross Weir (NRW) method. All the simulations have been accomplished by CST
microwave studio 2011. The bandwidth of the proposed MTM antenna is enhanced by 464.93%

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compared to our designed conventional MPA (77 MHz for conventional MPA and 435 MHz for
metamaterial MPA) and the return loss is reduced from -11.89 dB to -55.34 dB and directivity
was increased from 6.713 dB to 7.187 dB. The voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of the
proposed metamaterial antenna was of 1.0034 which is very close to unity.

2.2 COMPARISON TABLE & OUTCOMES

Table 2.1 Comparison Table
Name of Shape of MM Dimension Software Frequency Application
researcher unit cell of MM unit used band used
cell
Viorel circular double 11 mm Comsol UWB The dependence of ‘f’ on
Ionescu et- split-ring radius of Multiphy range split width, conducting
al, 2017 resonator outer ring sics 10.5 & 17 strip width, the gap
GHz between rings, substrate
thickness and substrate
permittivity
Vitawat L-shaped slot 0.075λ0 x CST 2.4 and ( WLAN) 60% reduction
Sittakul et- antenna using 0.072λ0 5.2 GHz in size.
al, 2017 CSRR (9.55x9.26
mm)
D.kitayama Varactor 5.5 x 5.5 CST 18-dB variable-focal-length
et-al, 2017 loaded SRR mm sq change in lens
array the
intensity
of the
waves
H. Chauhan Double CSRR 3.5 mm CST 2-4 GHz nondestructive testing of
et-al, 2017 radius of dielectric samples
outer ring
D. Pal et-al, CSRR for log 3.5 mm HFSS 4.5 to 9 Wide band application
2017 periodic radius of GHz
antenna outer ring
Dalfiah. J CPW feed ring 4.5 mm ADS 2.45 GHz ISM Band
et-al, 2017 antenna ring

A. W. M. DNG MM 0.33λ0 × ADS 3.3 GHz BW 5.45 % (3.21–3.39
Saadh et-al, antenna 0.27λ0 × WI MAX GHz)
2017 0.01λ0

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M. Mishra Antenna with 0.266λ0 × HFSS 5.15-5.8 bandwidth of 4.26% and
et-al, 2018 U-shaped slot, 0.092λ0 (WLAN) 28.03% with respect to
meandered 2.5-2.69 the center frequency of
line (WIMAX) 2.58 and 5.28GHz
inductance and
a square stub
P. Akram, Meta surface 0.2cm pin HFSS 10 GHz Energy Harvesting
2018 with antennaheight and
0.2cm gap
V. Priyanka UWB antenna 20×30×1. CST 2.4 GHz WLAN and Wi Max
et-al, 2017 with SRR 6mm3 5.8 GHz application

L. C. Paul, Triangular 11mm x CST 9.16 GHz BW of the MTM antenna
2017 MM with 25 mm enhanced by 464.93%
MPA

 Authors are used various shape of MM unit cells. These shapes are SRR, CSRR, double
CSRR etc Triangular SRR etc.
 Maximum dimension was 11 mm outer ring radius simulated at 10.5 and 17 GHz
 Average dimension of the unit cell is 3.5 mm to 5.5 mm
 Planar antennas are embedded with the various MM unit cell to improve BW.
 BW enhanced by 464.93%.
 Meander line, U slot, meta surface with post and pins are used for bandwidth
enhancement.
 Frequency band from 2.5 GHz to 10 GHz are used in various applications.
 Energy harvesting can be an application of metamaterial
 Various applications are WLAN, WIMAX, energy harvesting

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