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Chapter3

PROBLEM FORMULATION & DESIGN OF ANTENNA

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Antenna will always become a key part of the wireless system. Microstrip patch antennas are
now become reached at their saturation and they need to be replace by some other technology, In
this context here we are design a MM based antenna. Metamaterials are the 21th century
electromagnetic they have a property of negative refractive index and this property not found in
the nature. So we have to create the metamaterials in the lab. They are artificially created
materials. Metamaterials have negative values of epsilon and mu.

In our dissertation we present design of a monopole antenna which is resonant at 2.4 GHz
frequency here we have use defective ground technique and also cut a slit in the defective
ground to create the another band of the antenna and then design a metamaterial structure &
embedded with the antenna with different configurations and see the results.

Various stages of design and validation process.

1. Designing of monopole antenna
2. Create Multiband in the antenna
3. Designing of split ring resonator.
4. Embedded the SRR with the antenna
5. Analysis of the various configurations of the antenna.
6. Fabrication of hardware.
7. Test the results of hardware and compare with the software results.
 Software requirement

In our dissertation work we are using ANSIS HFSS software version-15. HFSS is
electromagnetic computation simulator, which is working on FEM method. Some other
competitive softwares are also available like CST, IE3D, FEKO etc.

 Hardware fabrication

Hardware was fabricated from the Delhi, Ancomp company and tested at the women’s
engineering college Ajmer on Agilent N5234A VNA.

3.2 DESIGN OF MONOPOLE ANTENNA

 In this dissertation work we have made three designs. These are

 Monopole without slit and SRR

 Monopole with slit and without SRR

 Monopole with slit and SRR ( With Hardware )

 Monopole with slit and different SRR configuration.

3.2.1 Design without slit

Firstly we have design the proposed monopole antenna. This antenna is designed on the FR4
Glass epoxy substrate having the dielectric constant 4.4 and loss tangent is 0.002. Substrate
thickness is 0.8 mm. In the front side of the antenna there is only monopole which is 53.5 mm
long and 3 mm wide. At the back side of the antenna a partial ground is placed. The dimension
of the ground plane is 70 mm x 30 mm. Front view of antenna and back side view of antenna is
shown in Fig 3.1(a) & (b) respectively. Where

a = 65 mm,

b = 70 mm,

w = 3 mm,

L1 = 35 mm,

L2 = 30 mm.

Ground size: 70 mm x 30 mm

Monopole dimension: 53.5mm x 3 mm

Fig 3.1 (a) monopole antenna front view (b) backside view

Simulation of the antenna is done on HFSS software. The solution frequency was keep 2.4 GHz.
Maximum number of passes was 15 and maximum delta S is 0.02. In simulation we have use the
lamda refinement. Sweep type is fast and in the frequency setup menu type was linear count.
Count was 201. Time domain calculation has done. Foe excitation we assign the lumped port to
the antenna.
Due the DGS to etching in the ground plane, the current distribution in the ground plane changes
resulting in an equivalent inductance (Ls) and capacitance (Cs).The DGS structure functions as a
resonant circuit coupled to microstrip line, the defect produced in the ground plane provides
Band rejection characteristics

S11 parameter of the antenna is shown in Fig 3.2. Here we can see that the antenna is resonant at
2.4 GHz frequency. Bandwidth of the antenna is approximately 800 MHz. At 2.4 GHz frequency
value of S11 is -16 dB. Radiation pattern of the antenna is shown in Fig 3.3. Here we are getting
-0.7 dB gain.

Fig 3.2 S11 parameter diagram of monopole antenna

Fig. 3.3 Radiation pattern diagram of monopole antenna
3.2.2 Design with slit

To improve the return loss and also create one more band in the antenna we have make a slit on
the ground plane. The dimension of the vertical slit is slit

L3 = 3.5 mm x 1 mm

and the dimension of the horizontal slit is

L4 = 17.5 mm x 1 mm.

Fig. 3.3 (a) monopole antenna with slit front view (b) backside view

The simulation configuration is same as the previously mentioned antenna. The simulation
results i.e. S parameters and radiation pattern is shown in Fig 3.4 and 3.5 respectively.

Fig 3.4 S11 parameter diagram of monopole antenna with slit
Fig. 3.5 S11 radiation pattern diagram of monopole antenna with slit

By Fig. 3.4 we can say that we are getting two resonant frequencies i.e. 2.7 GHz and 7.6 GHz. at
2.7 GHz the value of S11 parameter is -45 dB. Which far better and we can see in Fig 3.5 that
radiation curve is distorted at we are getting -2.3 dB gain at 2.7 GHz.

So by inserting the slit we are getting better S11 and two bands but also with poor gain.

3.3 FABRICATION OF ANTENNA

We have design our antenna on HFSS software. Antenna was fabricated at Ancomp Co. New
Delhi and tested at Woman’s Engineering College, Ajmer on Agilent N5234A VNA. To
fabricate the antenna we have adopt following process.

 Design and simulate the antenna in HFSS
 Generate the dxf file separately of ground, patch and substrate (box outline)
 Open dxf files separately in Dip trace software
 Create .gdr (Garber) file and save.
 From .gbr files manufacturer create the mask and fabricate the antenna.
Fig. 3.6 PCB Layout of antenna