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Chapter - 1



Antenna is an essential part of the wireless system. It plays a vital role in the field of
communication. Presently we have reached up to tera hertz frequencies where antenna is playing
a challenging role. On the other hand biomedical antenna, smart antenna and active antennas are
going to be implemented in the next generation of wireless devices.

Table 1.1 is showing the successive development in the antenna type and its technology of
mobile phones.

Table 1.1 Development in antenna technology.

By the table we can see that early in 19 th century we were using the antennas for few kilo hertz
frequencies. Some monopole and dipole type antennas were suitable for these applications. But in the
70’s patch antenna come into the picture for mobile phone handsets. Now the days frequency range

goes upto 5 GHz in mobile phones and we are using the various frequency bands so we have to
equire multi band and wide band antennas to full fill all the requirements of the user.
These are the following points which are essential for mobile antenna

 A multiband antenna has to be built in the mobile phone.

 Size of the antenna must be small as possible,

 For high data rate MIMO or Smart antenna is required.

1.2 Parameters of antenna.

Here we are discussing some very important terms of antenna by which we can be able to define
that how antenna is working or what is the characteristic of the antenna.

1.2.1 Radiation Pattern

Radiation pattern is defined that antenna is radiating the power in which direction. It is basically
a graphical or mathematical representation of power radiated by an antenna. Characteristic of the
radiated power is different near the antenna, little bit far away of the antenna and in the far field
region. These characteristics are shown in Fig 11.

Fig 1.1 Various regions around antenna.

Parameters of antenna pattern
1- Main lobe contain the direction of maximum radiation..
2- Side Lobe is the radiation lobe of any directional lobe except the intended direction.
3- Back lope is radiation in opposite direction to the main loobe
4- Half-Power Beam width is -3db point of the radiation pattern.
5- First Null Beam width (FNBW) – Where first zero occurs of the main lobe.

Figure 1.2 A polar figure of an antenna with performance Parameters.

1.2.2 Directivity

Directivity tell us the direction of maximum radiation of an antenna.

Where Theta is the elevation angle
And Phi is the azimuth angle.

Table 1.2 Directivity of some antennas

1.2.3 Polarization

Polarization can be defined as the orientation of the electric and magnetic field vectors in the
direction of wave propagation. There are two type of polarization

 Linear polarization : in the linear polarization electrical field and magnetic field
propagate in the direction of the plane wave. Linerar polarisation are of two types
 Vertical polarization (Fig a)
 Horizontal polarization (Fig b)

Fig 1.3 Linear polarization of antenna

 Circular polarization
In this polarization electric field is rotate either in the clockwise direction (RHCP) or in
the anticlockwise direction (LHCP). For circular polarization value of axial ratio is 1. If it
is not one it comes in the category of elliptical polarization.

1.2.4 Antenna Gain:

Antenna gain is the property of the antenna which show the ratio of transmitted power of the test
antenna to the transmitted power of the reference antenna in a particular direction

1.2.5 Antenna beam width

Antenna beam width is the half power point of the radiation pattern or in the radiation pattern
diagram 3 dB less point show the antenna beam width.

Fig.1.4 Beamwidth diagram of the antenna

1.2.6 Bandwidth

Bandwidth of the antenna is the range of frequency over which antenna characteristics remain


Monopole antennas are in the shape of a single wire antenna. They have a ground plane which
behaves like a reflector. This ground plane may be of finite length or may be of infinite length.
Wavelength antenna far field is remain same as that of the dipole antenna.
Input impedance of monopole antenna is given by

Zin = 36.5+j21.25 (which is half of the dipole antenna)

Similarly directivity of monopole is given by

D = 2X Directivity of dipole = 3.286

Height of the monopole antenna is given by

h + r = 0.24 lamda

where r is the radius of the wire and it should be less than lamda/20.

Ground plane size play an important role in the gain and radiation pattern of the antenna.
monopole antennas are used in the various applications like mobile phones, cars etc. Fig shows a
monopole antenna.

Fig.1.5 Monopole antenna


There are a lot of work is going on the metamaterials. Metamateral (MM) materials are virtual
material whose characteristics are generally not found in the nature. So these materials are
created in the labs and they exhibit the negative permeability and negative permittivity. The
metamaterials are first explain by Veselago [1] in 1968. These materials are also known as left
handed material [2,3].

For metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability, several names and terminologies
have been suggested, such as “left-handed” media; media with negative refractive index;
“backward-wave media” (BW media); and “double-negative (DNG)” metamaterials, to name a
It is well known that the response of a system to the presence of an electromagnetic field is
determined to a large extent by the properties of the materials involved. We describe these
properties by defining the macroscopic parameters permittivity ε and permeability μ of these
materials. This allows for the classification of a medium as follows. A medium with both
permittivity and permeability greater than zero (ε > 0, μ > 0) will be designated a double positive
(DPS) medium. Most naturally occurring media (e.g., dielectrics) fall under this designation. A
medium with permittivity less than zero and permeability greater than zero (ε < 0,μ > 0) will be
designated an epsilon-negative (ENG) medium. In certain frequency regimes many plasmas
exhibit this characteristic.
For example, noble metals (e.g., silver, gold) behave in this manner in the infrared (IR) and
visible frequency domains. A medium with the permittivity greater than zero and permeability
less than zero (ε > 0, μ < 0) will be designated a mu negative (MNG) medium. In certain
frequency regimes some gyrotropic materials exhibit this characteristic. Artificial materials have
been constructed that also have DPS, ENG, and MNG properties. A medium with the
permittivity and permeability less than zero (ε < 0, μ < 0) will be designated a DNG medium. To
date, this class of materials has only been demonstrated with artificial constructs. This medium
classification can be graphically illustrated as shown in Figure 1.6.

Fig 1.6 Material classification

 Artificial Dielectric

In natural dielectrics, local electromagnetic interactions at the atomic or molecular level
produced by an applied field result in a macroscopic response that may be described by an
electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. These constitutive parameters acquire meaning
only when the lattice exhibits some degree of spatial order and the wavelength of the impressed
field is much longer than the lattice spacing.

 Negative Permittivity

It is well known that plasmas are described by a permittivity function that becomes negative
below a plasma frequency wp , causing the propagation constant in the plasma to become
imaginary. In this frequency region, electromagnetic waves incident on the plasma suffer reactive
attenuation and are reflected.

There are various types of metamaterials which are used by the various researchers. Some of
them are
 Circular ring
 Square Ring
 Meander line

 Triangular
 Chiral
 Z-shaped
 H-shaped
 Omega shaped
 3D metamaterial

Fig 1.7 Various type of metamaterials