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FLUID POWER

Design Data Sheet
Revised Sheet 42 - Womack Design Data File

MATCHING A HYDRAULIC MOTOR TO THE LOAD

On the design of a new machine which is to be run with a turns out to be more than is available from the pump, then
hydraulic motor, a determination of required speed and horse- some of the speed must be sacrificed, but never the torque
power must be made so a model with suitable ratings can Load torque is the twisting or turning effort which must
be selected. This issue describes several methods of making be exerted on the load shaft to start the load and/or to run
such a determination. it at maximum rated speed. This torque must be supplied by
the hydraulic drive motor. The amount of torque which will be
Hydraulic vs. Electric Motor Characteristics required from the motor can be estimated in one of several
Designers who are experienced only in selecting electric ways:
motor drives need to be careful in designing hydraulic drives
because of important differences between these two motors. Torque Estimation by Measurement
Normally, an electric motor is selected on the basis of It is essential that characteristics of the load be considered
horsepower. It is selected to match an existing power source when attempting to estimate hydraulic motor torque for
which provides constant voltage and frequency. If it happens starting and/or running. Some loads require more torque
to be a little oversize for the job, no harm is done, although it to break them away from a standstill than to run them after
may cost a little too much. they have started. Other loads require only a small amount
This is not true of a hydraulic motor. It is selected on the of breakaway torque but torque requirements increase in
basis of torque and speed rather than horsepower. It cannot proportion to speed.
be selected without also considering the pressure and flow Breakaway Torque. Figure 1. Breakaway, or starting
of the pump which will supply it with fluid. If it is inadvertently torque can be measured with a torque wrench on small
selected oversize for the job, its performance will not be as machines, or by using a long lever loaded with weights until
good as if it were correctly sized. Hydraulic pump and motor the load shaft breaks away and starts to rotate. Torque is
must work as a team. For optimum performance, the pump calculated by multiplying lever arm length, in feet, times the
and motor must be correctly matched. weight necessary to break the shaft away. Torque will be in
An electric motor is relatively easy to select because, at foot-lbs. On this type load, if the hydraulic motor can supply
any given horsepower, there are only a few fixed speeds from breakaway torque, it can also run the load at any speed.
which to choose, and it does not have to be matched to the
Load Lever Arm
alternator which supplies the power. On an induction type Shaft
electric motor, starting torque is always greater than running Length, Feet
torque, so this type motor can start any load which it can
run. It can start under a full torque load, or even an overload,
although if started too frequently, there will be an excessive
heat build-up in the windings.
The reverse is true of a hydraulic motor. Starting torque LOAD
is uncertain, but nearly always is less than running torque,
so this type motor cannot necessarily start under full load
but it can run any load it can start. Usually, it cannot start a
full torque load unless it has been oversized to gain starting
torque. If purposely selected oversize, then it will likely have
poor speed regulation with the result that it cannot cover as WEIGHT
wide a speed range with acceptable performance.
Figure 1. Breakaway torque of a load can be measured
Torque Determination with a lever and weight, a spring scale, or a torque wrench.
Torque, not horsepower, is the basis for proper selection Figure 1. Breakaway torque of a load can be measured with
of a hydraulic motor. In nearly every application the desired a lever and weight, a spring scale, or a torque wrench.
speed is already known, leaving only the torque to be Electric Motor Substitution. The running torque can be
determined. determined by temporarily coupling an electric motor to the
Torque is always the most significant factor in any hydraulic load shaft and measuring the motor line current while it is
motor system - much more significant than either speed or running. By referring to a torque/current performance curve
horsepower. Unless the motor has sufficient torque to start for the motor, the running torque can be determined with a fair
the load or to run it at maximum speed, the system can never degree of accuracy. Then, a hydraulic motor can be selected
work properly no matter how much horsepower is available. and the system PSI can be established which will give the
After a hydraulic motor has been tentatively selected, the required running torque. Of course the electric motor speed
horsepower can be computed from speed and torque. If this should approximate the maximum running speed of the load.

© 1990 by Womack Machine Supply Co. All rights reserved. Illegal to reproduce any part of this sheet without permission. Printed in U.S.A.
This company assumes no liability for errors in data nor in safe and/or satisfactory operation of equipment designed from this information.

42

Then basically the new back toward the input. and on which the torque boxes.000] = 81. Mechanical Estimation is by comparing horsepower. the drill manufacturer will usually furnish HP and recommended Torque Estimation by Calculation speed specifications. etc. The proposed the input shaft of the machine. Or perhaps larger parts From these estimations of input HP and speed. input An induction type electric motor can produce about 3 times speed for the hydraulic motor is computed as described the starting torque of most hydraulic motors of the same above in this column. RPM is revolutions per minute. then the HP can HP is calculated as follows: be divided by speed to find the hydraulic motor torque.000]. etc.com . work backwards toward This is the easiest method where applicable. On a machine for drilling. www. fps is feet per second. horsepower rating. Perhaps the new chain drives. is force to move load. Winch Example: A winch. Then four times the HP is needed. that the machine exerts force. Convert travel speed into If the machine output will be linear motion. HP = (15. TX 75234 No calculations are possible unless the force. Drilling Machine.000 × 180] + [1 × 33. and travel Tel: 800-859-9801 distance during a specified time interval are known or Fax: 214-630-5314 assumed. RPM is the speed of the rotary output. one step at a time. is distance and if high starting torque is required. π is 3. making allowances for measure input torque. are known. These figures can be adjusted back to On machines of new design. lbs. adding new machine can be compared with an existing machine sufficient HP at each step to make up for friction losses in gear which does essentially the same job. Calculate the total drawbar Since the final output of the machine will be mechanical. in lbs applied at end of lever arm. L is lever length in feet.. finally arriving at the speed of machine will manufacture parts of the same size but twice the input shaft to which the hydraulic motor will be coupled. in minutes. Suppose the new machine is to manufacture the larger parts and at twice the rate of the existing machine. as fast. use this formula to Where: T is torque.000 lbs. Select hydraulic wheel motor to meet these to compute HP output: conditions. twice the horsepower T (torque in ft-lbs) = HP × 5252 ÷ RPM will be required. Womack Machine Supply Co. use this formula wheel RPM. must raise a 15.000 load at a speed of 3 ft/second. Using the wheel radius. D is drum or wheel diameter. in ft-lbs. HP = T × RPM ÷ 5. If the machine output will be rotary. inches/minute. F is force or weight. 180 ft. pull (horizontal thrust) to overcome all road and operating the starting point for calculations is to compute the mechanical conditions.. in which: (B) RPM = S ÷ [π × D] (D) T is the torque produced. calculate wheel torque output HP. compute the mechanical HP output. mph is miles per hour. But perhaps the new machine is to produce twice as many In a similar manner start with the output speed and work parts per hour as the existing machine. designs.where there is no way to the input shaft of the drilling machine. existing machine.. F is the linear force output. the are to be manufactured which will require twice the torque hydraulic motor torque can be computed: but at the same production rate. D is distance. Torque 13835 Senlac Dr. starting torque of the electric motor on the existing machine. the hydraulic motor traveled in one minute (computed from 3 ft/sec). D. or horsepower. adjusting for speed changes through machine will require twice the horsepower.8 HP Caution! If the existing machine is powered with an electric motor and the new machine with a hydraulic motor. bearings. gear boxes.14. nor to compare performance with an frictional losses and speed changes. in feet. in ft.womack-educational. hence twice the horsepower. Drum RPM is computed from Formula (D) in box. in inches. from a hydraulic motor coupled to the input shaft. F. This will give the estimated HP required and speed.Volume 3” HP = (F × D) ÷ [t × 33.Torque Estimation by Comparison After HP output is determined. in which: (A) published by Womack Machine Supply Co. Vehicle Wheel Motor. 15. in lbs. T=F×L (C) through distance. 1 represents must be selected by comparing its starting torque with the a time of 1 minute. with Formula (C) in the box below. having a 20” diameter drum.252. through which the force is exerted. torque and HP must be calculated. RPM = mph × D ÷ 336 (E) RPM = fps × D ÷ 229 (F) Where: S is cable linear speed. Published by: WOMACK EDUCATIONAL PUBLICATIONS Torquemust mustbe becalculated calculatedon onmost mostnew newdesigns. Again. REFERENCE FORMULA t is time. Farmers Branch. Information for estimating drawbar pull and making calculations is given in “Industrial Fluid Power .