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Location

&
Locating Devices
Prof. Ms. Amruta A. Rane
Assistant Professor,
DJSCE, University of Mumbai,
Mumbai.

Location System
• The location refers to the establishment of a desired relationship between the
workpiece and the jigs or fixture.

• Correctness of location directly influences the accuracy of the finished product.

• The location system in conjunction with the clamping system should completely
constrain the workpiece or eliminate as many of the six degrees of freedom as in
necessary for operation to be completed with required accuracy.

The Six Degrees of Freedom
• Figure shows a body that is free in space.
• A body in this condition had six degrees of freedom, three of these are freedoms
of translation and three are freedoms of rotation.

The Choice of Location System • The requirements of the location system depend upon workpiece before operation and the operation being performed. .

The Choice of Location System • When there is choice of location points the most effective location system must be selected. .

r. . so that hole will always be at distance D from face A irrespective of the variation in length L. Location and Workpiece Dimensions • Face A should be used as datum.Location Principles • Workpiece Requisites: Dimensional requirements of the workpiece stated on component drawing. face A. • Location should be w.t.

05 and φ40 has tolerance of 0. • A machined surface is preferable to an unmachined one. • Location from φ40 bore would be less accurate than location from φ80.Location Principles • Accuracy: Location should be done on most accurate surface of the workpiece.1 so the workpiece can be located most accurately from outside diameter φ110. • When more than one machined surfaces are available. . locate on the most accurate surface. Accuracy of Location surfaces • The φ80 has tolerance of 0.

Location Principles • Constraints: Location should prevent linear and rotary motion of the workpiece along and around the three major axes X. Y and Z. Six Degrees of Freedom .

Motion Economy in Location • If we drill hole B first and use it for location while drilling hole C. it is possible to load the workpiece on both the locators in hole A and B in one motion as both the locators would be parallel. • Parallel locators are preferable to those placed at right angles.Location Principles • Motion economy: Location should facilitate easy and quick loading of the workpiece in the fixture. .

• We can only locate effectively on surface A or B.Location Principles • Redundant Location: A redundant location is said to exist when two locators are attempting to constrain one freedom from two location points. • Redundant locators must be avoided. Redundant Location • The distance between surface A and B would vary according to the process capability. .

distortion.Location Principles: Redundant Location Redundant Location • We can only location workpiece effectively on one machined surface. • Inaccurate location can result in bending. • The clamping force would distort the workpiece and distorted part would spring back to its original position when the workpiece is unclamped. • Redundant location will also occur if the workpiece is located from two concentric cylinders or between two fixed V-locators. flatness error. • Redundant location can be prevented by providing an adjustable support. Workpiece Distortion due to Redundant Location Adjustable Support • We can only locate effectively on surface A or B. dimensional error. .

Location Principles: Redundant Location • The workpiece is located over two pins. Redundant Location . • The purpose of pin 2 is to prevent rotation about pin 1 but the system is such that both the pins are attempting to constrain the workpiece along X-X.

Foolproofing • It would be impossible to load the workpiece wrongly due to the foolproofing pin.Location Principles: Foolproofing • Foolproofing: The location system should positively prevent wrong loading of the workpiece by foolproofing. .

Locating Methods .

• Made from casehardened steel accurately ground to size.Locating Methods • Locators are made separate from the fixture or jig body. • A workpiece can be located from: i.Cylindrical surface . Profile iii. Plane surface ii.

Location from Plane Surface .

Location from Plane surface There are three most common types of locating points • Buttons • Pins • Pads .

• When the plane is defined by three buttons. • They are made of steel. • Crowned buttons are used for unmachined surfaces. • Ground after heat treatment to have precise dimensions • Flat buttons are used against machined surfaces only. . • Usually alloy steel. However they do not provide a well- defined bearing area. low carbon steel (AISI 1113) hardened to 53-57 RC. they are surface ground across their faces after installation.Location from Plane surface: Buttons • Buttons are round and have either a flat head or a crowned head. low grade tool steel hardened to 40-45 RC.

Location from Plane surface: Buttons Buttons are termed as – • Rest buttons • Stop buttons .

• Spot facing is done around the hole to provide the seating for the head of the buttons • Hole is chamfered to ensure good seating. • Undercut is provided under the head. • The shank ends with 30o chamfer. .Location from Plane surface: Button Positioning • Installation of the button in the fixture body is done with press fit in a cylindrical bore (reamed or precision bored).

04mm.03 to 0. resulting in oversize ranging from 0. . • The shanks on the buttons are supplied with standardised tolerances. • Rest and stop buttons are commercially available in standardised dimensions.Location from Plane surface: Buttons • The buttons have interference fit / press fit with the hole in the fixture.

25mm). • R = 3/2 D • L = ½ (D + H) • B=¾D • B = ¾ (D – 3) • L=¾D . H can be selected from 1/3 D to 4/3 D (5 to selected from1/3 D to D. H can be • For the crowned buttons.Location from Plane surface: Buttons • For the flat buttons.

Location from Plane surface: Buttons

Location from Plane surface: Threaded Buttons
• A threaded shank buttons are also used.
• They are installed in a tapped hole.
• This practice is not recommended as screw thread requires clearance and is less
accurate with respect to location and direction.

Location from Plane surface: Hollow Buttons
• Hollow buttons are fastened by separate screws.
• The screw head is countersunk safely below the face of the button.

Location from Plane surface: Hollow Buttons .

• Buttons can be substituted for pins. . • Used for a nest. • Pins as side stop should be used only on shallow parts with light side loads. • Height of the pin is not a critical dimension. • Installed by press fit. • With or without a shank of a reduced diameter. • Pins can be used on unmachined surfaces. • They are used as side stops and for locating in holes.Location from Plane surface: Pins • A pin is a cylindrical component that is contacted on its side. but pins can not be substituted for buttons.

Location from Plane surface: Pins .

• They are ground flat and parallel. • Pads are placed at locations not easily accessible by the operator. Hence.Location from Plane surface: Pads • Pads are usually flat components made from steel and heat treated to similar hardness levels. They are lightly polishes to make them smooth to touch. • They are used as base locators in cases where rest buttons do not provide sufficient bearing area. . the edges and corners of a pad are usually not rounded or chamfered as the edges on rest buttons. • Pads are fastened by means of screws with countersunk heads.

Location from Plane surface: Pads • Dowel pins are used to secure the position of the pads. Since screws are not capable of precision location. .

• For large components the pads can be screwed to the body of the fixture as shown in figure.Location from Plane surface • A machined surface can be better located by pads having a flat surface. • Due to use of locating pads only seats for the pads need to be machined instead of entire body of the large fixture which saves machining time. Location Pads for Large Fixtures .

Standard Dowel Pins . • Two dowel pins are required for locating a component and they are placed as far as possible.Location from Cylinder: Dowel Pins • Dowels are used for permanent assembly of two parts with significant precision.

Location from Cylinder: Dowel Pins .

• The straight type is available in unhardened and hardened form. • Tapered pins are easily taken out by the application of light pressure or a blow on the small end. . • The recommended bearing length of a dowel pin in each part is 1 ½ to 2 times the diameter of the pin. • Dowel pins are extensively used in the construction of built-up fixture bodies. • Dowel pins are cylindrical or tapered. • The fit of the dowel pin can be a press fit Standard Dowel Pins in each part.Location from Cylinder: Dowel Pins • Dowel pin holes are drilled through so that the pin can be taken out.

Location from Cylinder: Dowel Pins .

• The dowels P and Q should be placed as far a possible. plate B can pivot around P. • If we use only one dowel pin P. Use of Dowels .Location from Cylinder • It is necessary to use two dowel pins to ensure that the workpiece is completely constrained.

• The pins should be placed as widely as possible for more accurate location. • Three location pins having spherical surfaces at locating points can be used. Adjustable Support for Rectangular Workpieces .Location from Plane surface • A plane surface can be located from 3 points on the plane surface. • A rough. • An adjustable support with locking nut can be used. unmachined surface can be located with three location pads having point contact. • The height is adjusted to make the workpiece surface parallel to the baseplate.

• The number of additional supports would depend on the shape. Adjustable Support • The bolt with hex nut . • Additional adjustable supports are necessary to prevent distortion and vibrations in workpiece during clamping and machining.Location from Plane surface • 3 pins can define the plane but they can’t provide adequate support to the workpiece during machining operation. size and strength of the workpiece.

Location from Plane surface Adjustable Support .

uneven surfaces adjustable locating pads are used. • Castings and forgings are located by adjustable screw pads.Location from Plane surface • For locating very rough. Adjustable Locators .

• The retaining screw prevents the pad from being pushed out of the housing by the spring. . • inclined surface on wedge pin raises the pad when the wedge pin is pushed forward by height adjusting screw. • Pad is locked in position by clamping screw.Location from Plane surface • Sometimes adjustable support is provided at inaccessible place since it is difficult to reach a support which is in recess or is distant from an operator. • When the adjusting screw is withdrawn the return spring pushes the wedge pin towards the right and the pad slides down by gravity.

• The pivot pin of the rocker acts as a single point complementing the pother two points “F” in defining the plane. • It provides contact at four points without contradicting the three-point location of the plane. • The rocker provides support at two points “R”. It provides itself to suit the surface to be located.Location from Plane surface • Square and rectangular workpieces can be located by replacing one of the locating pads by an equalising rocker. Equalising Rocker Location .

Location from Plane surface • For small workpieces location pads are not necessary. • The fixture body itself is machined suitably to provide locating surface. .

. dirt or swarf do not obstruct proper location through positive contact of the workpiece with locating surface.Location from Plane surface • Ample recess is provided in the corners so that burr on the workpiece corners.

Location from Profile .

Sighting location . • The workpiece is placed on the plate in such a way that there is equal margin on all the sides.Location from Profile • A sighting plate is provided for simple components where appearance is important. • It is slightly bigger than the workpiece.

Location from Profile • The profile of a workpiece can also be located by confining the profile with cylindrical locating pins. Profile location by pins .

• A partial nest can be used.Location from Profile • The profile of the workpiece can be located by providing pocket or nest around the profile of the workpiece. Location nests . • The inside profile of the nest matches with the outside of the workpiece. • The height of the nest should be lesser than the workpiece to ease unloading.

Location from Cylinder .

Location from Cylinder • It is most common and convenient form of location. • When the cylinder is located on its axis and base. • Clamping from top prevents linear motion along Y-Y axis. All other motions are constrained. it can only rotate about its axis. Cylindrical locator .

• The locator itself is located in fixture by a concentric diameter generally made press fit in the fixture body.Location from Cylinder • The seating surface of the locator should be recessed to provide space for dirt or workpiece burr. • The cylinder is best location shape because a cylindrical locator is least difficult to produce and eliminates five of the six Cylindrical locator degrees of freedom. • The chamfer is called “lead”. • There should be ample chamfer or radius at the entry point so that the components can be loaded quickly. .

Location from Cylinder Circular locators types – • Inside locators • Outside locators Problems with cylindrical locators - • Jamming • Clearance .

• A workpiece is likely to be tilted to the axis of the location post during quick loading. • Jamming occurs when part has entered short distance into the inside locator or around an inside locator.Location from Cylinder: Jamming • Jamming is result of a friction. . • The amount of clearance. the length of the engagement and steadiness of the hand of the operator are reason for jamming.

• If the part is slightly tilted. . • The workpiece has dia. • The locator has dia. the length of engagement. W.Location from Cylinder: Jamming • The part has entered the locator over a short length “L”. where “C” is clearance. (W-C). then one side of the leading edge comes in contact with the inside of the locator and is caught up by the friction resulting in jamming.

• A long lead aligns the axis of the workpiece with locating post. Prevention of jamming .Location from Cylinder: Jamming • The length of the locator should be small to prevent jamming of the workpiece. • If the locator is long and lead is short. made undersize in central portion. • Long location posts are used for fragile workpieces since locator provides support to the workpieces. • Long locators are relieved i.e. the workpiece would get jammed on the post.

Location from Cylinder: Jamming • For the length of engagement L. • L1 = 0.97 D .02 D • L2 = 0.12 D • L3 = 1. • The distance between L1 and L2 is where jamming possible and likely to occur. there exist two critical values L1 and L2.7 (D)1/2 • d = 0. • This area can be completely eliminated by providing a relief-groove on the locator over a length of at least from L1 to L2. which can be calculated.

Location from Cylinder Location Post .

• C washer is used. • Location post is secured to the base otherwise it will be pulled out by clamping force. • The post is secured by retainer nut or a grub screw. Locators subjected to axial pull .Location from Cylinder Locating post • They are used for anchoring clamping studs.

Location from Cylinder: Jamming • The jamming of the workpiece on the locating post can also be prevented by providing special lead at the entry point. Jamming prevention lead .

• They have lead at entry point and central portion is relieved in case of long pots.Location from Cylinder • Location pot is used for locating a cylinder on outside diameter. .

• The variation is taken care of by making one of the two location pins diamond shaped. we must take into account variation in centre distance of the two holes. the accurate one should be used for principal cylindrical location with full pin. • Out of the two holes. • The diamond shaped pin is used to constrain pivoting of the workpiece around the principal locator. • The locating surface of a diamond pin is usually less than 8% of a full cylindrical pin.Location from Cylinder • When we use two holes in workpiece for location. Diamond Pin Application .

Location from Cylinder • A location pin is positioned as far away as possible from the principal locator in order to minimise the angular error. .

Location from Cylinder Conical Location • Used to locate rough machined surfaces of castings and forgings. Conical Locators . • They locate the workpiece from hole or shaft. • Centralization • A conical locator is considered as superior as it has a capacity to accommodate a slight variation in the hole diameter of the component without affecting the accuracy of location. • Similar to location posts and pots.

Location from Cylinder Vee (V) Location: • Used to locate cylindrical surfaces from outside. • 2 “V” locators are used for accurate location. . • A “V” locator can be adjusted quickly by using a cam for adjustment. • Return spring is provided to bring back the V locator to its original position. • Fixed V Blocks are attached to fixture Fixed V locator body by screws and dowelled to prevent shifting during operation. • Fixed V blocks are used for approximate location.

• Adjustable along the axis of “V”. • The side of V face is sometimes inclined slightly to provide downward clamping force. Screw adjusted V locator .Location from Cylinder • Adjustable V Block – for more accurate location. • Guide plate is provided to guide and to constrain movement along the axis of V. to take care of size of workpiece.

Location from Cylinder Inclined V: • When a sliding V locator is used. Inclined V . a small downward clamping force can be introduced by inclining the sides of the V.

Location from Cylinder • A swinging eyebolt is used when a V plate has to be withdrawn quickly. Quick action V locator .

Suitable position of V for drilling vertical hole .Location from Cylinder • When a cylindrical workpiece is located by a V block. the V block should be placed in such a way that its centre line is vertical. the centre would always lie on the centre line of V. • For drilling vertical holes in round bars.

• Hole would be eccentric or offset in undersize and oversize bar. the variation in the diameter of the workpiece would lead to errors. Unsuitable position of V for drilling vertical hole .Location from Cylinder • If V block axis is horizontal.

Location system should positively prevent wrong loading of the workpiece by foolproofing. Y and Z axes. Redundant locators must be avoided. 2.Summary 1. The workpiece should be prevented from moving along and rotating around the X. Location system should facilitate easy and quick loading and unloading of the workpiece and aim at motion economy. It is preferable to use a more accurately machined surface than a less accurate surface for location. . Location must be related to the dimensional requirements stated on the component / workpiece drawing. 3. 6. 4. 5.

A cube can be prevented from linear movement and rotation around axes X.Summary Locating Methods: Plane surfaces 1. A reasonably flat surface can be located by three pins of equal height having spherical surfaces at the location points. 2. 6. . 3. 4. Y and Z by six location pads. A rough. uneven or tapered plane surface should be located by adjustable location pins having spherical ends. 5. There should be ample clearance for burr or dirt to ensure proper seating of the workpiece surfaces. Additional adjustable supports are necessary to prevents vibrations or distortion of the workpiece machining operation. A machined surface can be located by pads having flat surface.

. 2. 4. Workpiece with little variation can be located precisely with nesting plates with suitable provision for unloading or ejection. Variations in workpiece sizes from batch to batch can be taken care of by using eccentric locators whose eccentricity can be set to suit the batch.Summary Locating Methods: Profile 1. Locating pins can also be used to locate a profile or cylindrical workpieces. A profile can be located approximately by aligning it with a slightly bigger sighting plate. 3.

V blocks should be positioned in such a way that the variation in the workpiece would not affect the location for the operation. adjustable guided V block is necessary. 3. 6. 5. When two location pins are used. . 7. Rough cored holes and bosses are located on conical locators which often have integral clamping arrangement and drill bush. Long locators for fragile workpieces should be relieved at the centre. The V block can be adjusted by a screw or a cam. The main cylindrical pin should be longer than the diamond pin in order to facilitate easy loading of the workpiece. Location posts which are also use for clamping should be retained a nut or a grub screw. For precise location. 8. Spigots used for locating bores should have ample lead for easy entry and their length should be short to prevent jamming of the workpiece. Fixed V blocks are used to locate approximately the outside surface of the cylinder.Summary Locating Methods: Cylinder 1. less important one should be made diamond- shaped. 4. 2.

Joshi. . Jigs and Fixture.A. 2. M. III Ed. 3.References 1. THM. – Kempster. Henrikson. Jig and Fixture Design Manual. Erik K.H. Industrail Press.H. P.Pub ELBS. An introduction to jig and tool Design.

Thank You! .