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SCORE

Test - 3

GS Mains
Test Series
IAS - 2017

Ethics - 1
TEST - 03

GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

ETHICS, INTEGRITY AND APTITUDE


Time Allowed: 3 hrs. Max. Marks: 250

SECTION - A
1. What do you mean by virtues? How are they related to excellence and happiness?

2. What is a role model? How are role models made? Illustrate and analyse how do role models
influence virtues, morals and ethics in a society?

E
3. ‘It is futile to factor in moral and ethical issues in the school and university system because

4.
OR
although learning them is easier, it is far more difficult to practice them’. Comment.

Define the term values. Explain any two values in each of the following categories:

(a) Values in the self.


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(b) Values in human-human interaction.

(c) Values in interaction with the nature.


5. Can ethics solve the problem of poverty and hunger in India? Analyze.
6. "When a man assumes a public trust, he should consider himself as public property". Illustrate
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the essence of the statement.


7. Answer the following questions related to linkage of free thinking and self-development:

(a) 'Real freedom is of the mind and spirit; it can never come to us from the outside.' Analyze
the essence of this statement with reference to the working experience of Indian bureaucracy.

(b) 'There is only one corner of the universe you can be certain of improving and that is your
own self'. Explain the essence of statement. Also examine how a civil servant can live by
maintaining its true self.
8. How 'social contract ethics' differ from 'natural laws ethics'? Which of the two is better and
why?
9. How do you see the difference between doves, eagles and vultures - as ethical and moral
categories of different human beings? Which of these personifies the best of human being?
Explain why?
10. While acting for 'change' and 'progress', should we be disappointed because we can do too
little? Give reasons in favour of your stand.
11. What is 'principle of ethical egoism'? Do you agree with the statement that 'in general, nature
of human society, if not properly regulated, would result in a chaos and a state of war? Why
'conflict' becomes a more natural outcome than 'cooperation' in modern societies?
12. "What is right is right and what is wrong is wrong and there are no gray areas."Comment
critically on the practical dimensions of the statement.

Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude [1]


13. “Opportunities are those gateways to success and fulfillment that open up often but people
generally fail to recognize it.” What are the major barriers in recognizing the opportunities in
career of a civil servant? And what one can do to improve their ability of noticing new
opportunities?

SECTION - B
14. There are various religious and cultural occasions in India when a large number of people
gather to form a big procession which marches from one area of the city for celebrations and
emersion of statues to other areas dominated by people of different religions and sects. In such
cases the possibility of riots and conflicts are very high. Suppose you are the Police Superintendent
in one such area where after Puja (worship), a procession of a particular community is learnt
to have planned to pass through some streets before emersion of the statue in the river eventually.
Answer the following questions?
(a) As Superintendent of Police what will you do if you learn about marching of such a
procession to the areas dominated by other communities which have a record of mistrust?

E
(b) Will you completely ban movement of a religious procession in case of apprehension of a
conflict? Give reasons. OR
(c) In case a conflict takes place during the marching of a procession and a riot like situation
arises, state the steps you would take to keep the situation under control.
15. In a vaccination programme you are made the officer in charge of the campaign and the team
members would have to be guided and led by you. You are answerable for any lapse and
SC

misdemeanor. To ensure the campaign runs perfectly, enumerate the 5 most important check
list which you would ensure before the members of your team reach out to households. Also
explain why have you chosen those precautions in your check list.
16. You are an education minister of a state. Recently, lot of reports on how women teachers of
secondary school dresses up came and emphasized that many teachers wear ungracious and
party type of attires against Indian cultural ethos while they are in school. People from one
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cultural group meet you and wants you to clear your mind about that to the public. There is an
opinion in air that such things put indelible mark on the impressionable minds of the adolescent
students about 'image of teachers' in general and 'women' in particular. Public expects something
from you in the given situation. Answer the following questions related to it:
(a) As a minister, when public is expecting something from you, what would you do to safeguard
the Indian cultural ethos regarding teachers and women on dress matters?
(b) You are a minister in official capacity and a public representative, but you must also have
your personal opinion than the public expectations. Do you think that dress is a matter of
personal choice and there should be no official dictate regarding it?
(c) Also can you say that what matter is quality of education and not the type of dress teachers
wear?
(d) There must be views from both the sides, one may go with you and other will criticize you.
Give arguments for and against the dress code for teachers in schools.
17. This is your first independent field posting as District Collector. The district, where you are
posted now, has become infamous for child marriages. The first eight months of your joining
witnessed around 50 cases of stopping of child marriages in the central district. However, many
such cases went unchecked. The District Social Welfare Department, ChildLine and Police
stopped a total of six child marriages in one month alone. With the addition of the new cases,
the district has crossed an alarming number of 50 cases of child marriages prevented till now

[ 2 ] Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude


in the same year. One day you received a direct call on your mobile about the case of a child
marriage in your district. You rushed to the spot and tried to rescue the girl.
As District Collector answer the following questions:

(a) What are the options before you to handle this situation?
(b) Discuss the limitations of each option.
(c) Discuss in detail one option which you consider is the best in the given scenario.
18. You are a senior civil engineer incharge of a very big road project. You find that project contractor
is working honestly and strictly as per the work schedule and also maintaining the quality of
work. Suddenly his only son met with an accident and hence he is preoccupied in his treatment.
The project got delayed and the quality of work got slightly affected. Your subordinates are
putting pressure on you to take strict action against the contractor.

E
(a) What are the various options available to you?
(b) Evaluate the merits and demerits of each option and choose the option you would adopt,
giving reasons.
OR
19. There is a 14 year old boy studying in class IX. He lives with his parents. His father is an Excise
Superintendent, incharge of different excise outlets besides Head of District Excise Office. His
father returns home in drunken condition practically every evening. He also finds that his
father brings money every day and put that inside the Almirah. The boy reads in newspaper
SC

various stories about corruption and at a relatively younger age, has developed a repulsion for
the same.

(a) Bring out and discuss the ethical issues involved in the above case.
(b) What will be the appropriate way of expression to convey the feeling to his father by the
boy?
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

Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude [3]


TEST - 03

GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

ETHICS, INTEGRITY AND APTITUDE


Time Allowed: 3 hrs. Max. Marks: 250

Q. Marks Instructions to Candidate

1.
• There are 19 questions.
2.
3.
4. • All questions are compulsory
5.
6. • The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated
7. against it.
8.
9.
• Content of the answer is more important than its length.
10.
11.
• Answers must be written in the space provided.
12.
13.
14. Any page or portion of the page left blank in the Question-
15. cum-Answer Booklet must be clearly struck off.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Name _______________________________

Roll No.___________________________
1. Invigilator Signature _______________ Mobile No.___________________________
2. Invigilator Signature _______________ Date ________________________________

Signature ____________________________
REMARKS GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
Roll No.____________ GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

SECTION - A

Q1. What do you mean by virtues? How are they related to excellence and happiness?
(150 Words) (10 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q2. What is a role model? How are role models made? Illustrate and analyse how do role
models influence virtues, morals and ethics in a society? (150 Words) (10 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q3. ‘It is futile to factor in moral and ethical issues in the school and university system
because although learning them is easier, it is far more difficult to practice them’.
Comment. (150 Words) (10 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q4. Define the term values. Explain any two values in each of the following categories:
(150 Words) (10 Marks)

(a) Values in the self.

(b) Values in human-human interaction.

(c) Values in interaction with the nature.

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q5. Can ethics solve the problem of poverty and hunger in India? Analyze.
(150 Words) (10 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q6. "When a man assumes a public trust, he should consider himself as public property".
Illustrate the essence of the statement. (150 Words) (10 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q7. Answer the following questions related to linkage of free thinking and self-development:

(a) 'Real freedom is of the mind and spirit; it can never come to us from the outside.'
Analyze the essence of this statement with reference to the working experience of
Indian bureaucracy. (150 Words) (10 Marks)

(b) 'There is only one corner of the universe you can be certain of improving and that is
your own self'. Explain the essence of statement. Also examine how a civil servant
can live by maintaining its true self. (150 Words) (10 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q8. How 'social contract ethics' differ from 'natural laws ethics'? Which of the two is better
and why? (150 Words) (10 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q9. How do you see the difference between doves, eagles and vultures - as ethical and
moral categories of different human beings? Which of these personifies the best of human
being? Explain why? (150 Words) (10 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q10. While acting for 'change' and 'progress', should we be disappointed because we can do
too little? Give reasons in favour of your stand. (150 Words) (10 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q11. What is 'principle of ethical egoism'? Do you agree with the statement that 'in general,
nature of human society, if not properly regulated, would result in a chaos and a state of
war? Why 'conflict' becomes a more natural outcome than 'cooperation' in modern
societies? (150 Words) (10 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q12. "What is right is right and what is wrong is wrong and there are no gray areas."Comment
critically on the practical dimensions of the statement. (150 Words) (10 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q13. “Opportunities are those gateways to success and fulfillment that open up often but
people generally fail to recognize it.” What are the major barriers in recognizing the
opportunities in career of a civil servant? And what one can do to improve their ability
of noticing new opportunities? (150 Words) (10 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

SECTION - B
Q14. There are various religious and cultural occasions in India when a large number of
people gather to form a big procession which marches from one area of the city for
celebrations and emersion of statues to other areas dominated by people of different
religions and sects. In such cases the possibility of riots and conflicts are very high.
Suppose you are the Police Superintendent in one such area where after Puja (worship),
a procession of a particular community is learnt to have planned to pass through some
streets before emersion of the statue in the river eventually. Answer the following
questions?
(a) As Superintendent of Police what will you do if you learn about marching of such
a procession to the areas dominated by other communities which have a record
of mistrust?
(b) Will you completely ban movement of a religious procession in case of
apprehension of a conflict? Give reasons.
(c) In case a conflict takes place during the marching of a procession and a riot like
situation arises, state the steps you would take to keep the situation under control.
(250 Words) (20 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q15. In a vaccination programme you are made the officer in charge of the campaign and the
team members would have to be guided and led by you. You are answerable for any
lapse and misdemeanor. To ensure the campaign runs perfectly, enumerate the 5 most
important check list which you would ensure before the members of your team reach
out to households. Also explain why have you chosen those precautions in your check
list. (150 Words) (10 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q16. You are an education minister of a state. Recently, lot of reports on how women teachers
of secondary school dresses up came and emphasized that many teachers wear ungracious
and party type of attires against Indian cultural ethos while they are in school. People
from one cultural group meet you and wants you to clear your mind about that to the
public. There is an opinion in air that such things put indelible mark on the
impressionable minds of the adolescent students about 'image of teachers' in general
and 'women' in particular. Public expects something from you in the given situation.
Answer the following questions related to it:

(a) As a minister, when public is expecting something from you, what would you do to
safeguard the Indian cultural ethos regarding teachers and women on dress matters?

(b) You are a minister in official capacity and a public representative, but you must
also have your personal opinion than the public expectations. Do you think that
dress is a matter of personal choice and there should be no official dictate regarding
it?

(c) Also can you say that what matter is quality of education and not the type of dress
teachers wear?

(d) There must be views from both the sides, one may go with you and other will criticize
you. Give arguments for and against the dress code for teachers in schools.
(250 Words) (20 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q17. This is your first independent field posting as District Collector. The district, where you
are posted now, has become infamous for child marriages. The first eight months of
your joining witnessed around 50 cases of stopping of child marriages in the central
district. However, many such cases went unchecked. The District Social Welfare
Department, ChildLine and Police stopped a total of six child marriages in one month
alone. With the addition of the new cases, the district has crossed an alarming number
of 50 cases of child marriages prevented till now in the same year. One day you received
a direct call on your mobile about the case of a child marriage in your district. You
rushed to the spot and tried to rescue the girl.

As District Collector answer the following questions:

(a) What are the options before you to handle this situation?

(b) Discuss the limitations of each option.

(c) Discuss in detail one option which you consider is the best in the given scenario.
(250 Words) (20) Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q18. You are a senior civil engineer incharge of a very big road project. You find that project
contractor is working honestly and strictly as per the work schedule and also maintaining
the quality of work. Suddenly his only son met with an accident and hence he is
preoccupied in his treatment. The project got delayed and the quality of work got slightly
affected. Your subordinates are putting pressure on you to take strict action against the
contractor.

(a) What are the various options available to you?

(b) Evaluate the merits and demerits of each option and choose the option you would
adopt, giving reasons. (250 Words) (20 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Q19. There is a 14 year old boy studying in class IX. He lives with his parents. His father is an
Excise Superintendent, incharge of different excise outlets besides Head of District
Excise Office. His father returns home in drunken condition practically every evening.
He also finds that his father brings money every day and put that inside the Almirah.
The boy reads in newspaper various stories about corruption and at a relatively younger
age, has developed a repulsion for the same.

(a) Bring out and discuss the ethical issues involved in the above case.

(b) What will be the appropriate way of expression to convey the feeling to his father
by the boy? (250 Words) (20 Marks)

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
GS MAINS TEST SERIES 2017

Remarks
The answers are written in form of “Thinking Line” rather than complete answer to place the
aspirant in right thinking direction so that he/she may be able to grasp the requirement of the
question and how to approach the answer in objective and articulated manner. Content,
Context & Structure of the answer will be discussed in the class.

GS Mains Test Series 2017


Answer Hints: Test No.3

ETHICS, INTEGRITY AND APTITUDE


SECTION - A
1. What do you mean by virtues? How are they related to excellence and happiness?

Thinking line:

E
• Virtues are habits of mind, heart, and behavior. Virtues are the content of our character, the
elements of the human spirit.


OR
A morally excellent person has a character made-up of virtues valued as good. He or she
is honest, respectful, courageous, forgiving, and kind committed to doing the right thing no
matter what the personal cost, and does not bend to impulses, urges or desires, but acts
according to values and principles.
SC

• Virtues are universal and recognized by all cultures as basic qualities necessary for our well-
being and happiness.

• Happiness consists in achieving, through the course of a whole lifetime, all the goods -
health, wealth, knowledge, friends, etc. - that lead to the perfection of human nature and
to the enrichment of human life. This also includes pursuance for excellence. This requires
us to make choices, some of which may be very difficult.
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• Virtuous life lead to long term happiness as it gives inner satisfaction of the achievement.
2. What is a role model? How are role models made? Illustrate and analyse how do role
models influence virtues, morals and ethics in a society?
Thinking line:
• A role model is a person whose behavior, example, or success is or can be emulated by
others, especially by younger people. True role models are those who possess the qualities
that we would like to have and those who have affected us in a way that makes us want
to be better people.
• People who show passion for their work and have the capacity to infect others with their
passion, are other-focused as opposed to self-focused, have capability to handle adverse
situations and live virtuous life become role models for others.
• Hence Role models are those who shows vision and strong relationship built on trust.
• Role models are important because they help guide people in the right direction as they
make life decisions, they provide inspiration and support when needed, and they provide
examples of how to live a fulfilling, happy life. When observing the behavior, decisions or

Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude [1]


actions of a role model, individuals learn how to display positive personality characteristics
and moral traits.
• Role models can be your parents, friends or any great personality. Generally people see role
models in famous personalities. But more important is how an individual incorporate the
qualities in one's life by imitating the role models.
3. ‘It is futile to factor in moral and ethical issues in the school and university system because
although learning them is easier, it is far more difficult to practice them’. Comment.
Thinking line:
• Education is necessarily a process of inculcating values to equip the learner lead a life - a
kind of life that is satisfying to the individual in accordance with the cherished values and
ideals of the society.
• But there is need for reorienting education for values because the current model of education
contributes to the lopsided development of students. This model of education puts exclusive

E
focus on cognitive to the total neglect of the affective domain and presents an alienation
between head and heart. Students are nurtured in a spirit of excessive competition and are
OR
trained right from the beginning to relate to aggressive competition and facts detached from
contexts.
• Hence the aim of values education is to encourage young people's awareness of having
values and their corresponding relationship to the world in which they live.
• But practicing value education in real life is very difficult because they are tried to be
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inculcated externally.
4. Define the term values. Explain any two values in each of the following categories:
(a) Values in the self.
(b) Values in human-human interaction.
(c) Values in interaction with the nature.
GS

• Values are set of principles or standards of behavior that are regarded as desirable and are
held in high esteem. Values are a part of our ethical conduct. They are the outcome of
realization and understanding, which are always definite.
a) Values in the self:
i. Fearlessness: It is the capacity to act even while fear might be present. It's not the absence
of the fear but the ability to overcome the paralyzing effects.
ii. Honesty: It refers to a facet of moral character and connotes positive and virtuous attributes
such as integrity, truthfulness, straightforwardness, including straightforwardness of conduct,
along with the absence of lying, cheating, theft, etc. Furthermore, honesty means being
trustworthy, loyal, fair, and sincere.
b) Values in human-human interaction:
i. Respect: Respect means continuous acceptance of talent and personality in other human
being. Respect is most important universal human value. When we treat other people with
respect, we help them gain confidence and reveal inner potential that otherwise might go
untapped.
[2] Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude
ii. Selflessness: It is characterized by low levels of self-centeredness and a low degree of
importance given to the self. Self seeking and exploitation of the weak should be discouraged.
c) Values in interaction with nature:
i. Utility value: The principle of utility states that an action is "right if it produces as much
or more of an increase in happiness of all affected by it than any alternative action, and
wrong if it does not". The natural resources should be utilized keeping this principle in mind
so that sustainable development can be achieved.
ii. Aesthetic value: Aesthetic value is a judgment of value based on the appearance of an object
and the emotional responses it evokes. The inherent beauty nature should be maintained.
5. Can ethics solve the problem of poverty and hunger in India? Analyze.
Thinking line:
• Poverty and hunger have been a universal and increasing menace to humankind. There are

E
many inter-related issues that cause hunger and poverty that are related to socio-economic
and other factors. A large proportion of people have very limited access to income, resources,
education, health care and nutrition. OR
• The problem of hunger arises, more often than not, not from the non-availability of food; but
from the inaccessibility of the available food
• There is no doubt, such failures are not because of scarcity of resource, but because of lack
of moral responsibility. Target of these initiatives are not reaching the beneficiaries.
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• Corruption is a very serious social and societal evil as it generates economic distortions in
the public sector by diverting public investment into capital projects where bribes and kickbacks
are more plentiful. Corruption reduces the quality of government services and infrastructure,
and increases budgetary pressures on government.
• Being moral and ethical can help us to offer a dignified treatment to the poor and the
hungry. Ethics teaches to provide them their human rights by following one's ethical duty
towards them.
GS

6. "When a man assumes a public trust, he should consider himself as public property".
Illustrate the essence of the statement.
Thinking line:
• Public employment carries with it a unique obligation to uphold the public trust. It is the
confidence of the people that directs and empowers authorities to perform their duties and
obligations in accordance to what they ought to deliver to the people who put them in
position.
• Further trust can only be maintained through open, honest, accountable and transparent
government, fundamentally through good governance. This requires healthy public and
private relationships. The national interest should overpower self interest and conduct of the
civil servant should be in tune to the professional values.
• He should work selflessly to demonstrate the highest standards of professional competence,
efficiency and effectiveness, upholding the Constitution and the laws, and seeking to advance
the public good at all times and should put possibilities for personal advantage to one side.
• Public servants should work for betterment of society by sticking to their duties as prescribed
according to law alongwith integrity and honesty.
Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude [3]
7. Answer the following questions related to linkage of free thinking and self-development:
(a) 'Real freedom is of the mind and spirit; it can never come to us from the outside.' Analyze
the essence of this statement with reference to the working experience of Indian bureaucracy.
Thinking line:
• Freedom as 'inner freedom' emphasizes on the inner aspect of life. The closest English
equivalent would be 'freedom-hood' meaning 'freedom of one's consciousness state', the
conscious inner struggle for inner freedom for which all human beings strive for understanding
knowledge of one's connectedness with the world and other beings in the world i.e.
'enlightenment'.
• Enlightenment is the mental condition of inner freedom. Inner freedom is freedom from the
ignorance of human nature and human potentiality... 'freedom of thought', freedom of mind
and freedom of conscience.
• Freedom is said to exist when an individual is not subject to external controls or coercion

E
and is able to make independent decisions and act in an autonomous way.
• Freedom is also about expanding the ability of people to freely express themselves and
develop their potential.
OR
• Freedom in this sense is the condition in which people can develop their creativity and
capabilities.
• But the Politico-administrative relations have placed obstacles on the working of the Indian
Bureaucracy. Also the nexus between politicians-criminals is affecting the freedom of
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bureaucrats to implement the programmes and policies in a more creative and efficianet
manner.
• In the present era bureaucrats have been given sovereign power in their hands. But this
power is robbed by hosts of self-seekers. The ideal form of freedom is curtailed on every side.
• But as stated real freedom comes from inside hence bureaucrat should work according to
virtues and code of ethics to bring creativity and efficiency in the system.
GS

(b) 'There is only one corner of the universe you can be certain of improving and that is your
own self'. Explain the essence of statement. Also examine how a civil servant can live by
maintaining its true self.
Thinking line:
• The characteristics required for being an ethical and moral sound person can be taught to
people but whether he will adopt it or not depend on oneself attitude towards those values.
Self is the core of any development and the first stage and place of improvement.
• This is true for everything external to us. We can't control all the external conditions coming
in life; we can just keep our internal soul in peace and solace to handle the uncertainties
with perfection.
• The person can do all is to move for personal development. Personal development is about
developing and improving aspects of an individual which can include areas such as education,
motivation, feelings, health, skills, abilities, and more.
• As life and circumstances are constantly changing, it is necessary to continue developing as
a person in order to improve as individuals and to be able to adapt to changing situations.
Gandhi rightly said: "You must be the change you want to see in the world." "As human
[4] Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude
beings, our greatness lies not so much in being able to remake the world - that is the myth
of the atomic age - as in being able to remake ourselves."
• If you change yourself you will change your world. If you change how you think then you
will change how you feel and what actions you take. And so the world around you will
change. Not only because you are now viewing your environment through new lenses of
thoughts and emotions but also because the change within can allow you to take action in
ways you wouldn't have - or maybe even have thought about - while stuck in your old
thought patterns.
• And the problem with changing your outer world without changing yourself is that you will
still be you when you reach that change you have strived for. You will still have your flaws,
anger, negativity, self-sabotaging tendencies etc. intact.
• So any development starts with the "Self." This is place you are certain about. Once you
bring improvement consequence will reflect in the outer world also.
• Civil servant can live with a true self by following the ethical and virtuous path in

E
organization. Self determination and self confidence is important as trust in oneself will not
lead to succumbling by external pressure.
8.
OR
How 'social contract ethics' differ from 'natural laws ethics'? Which of the two is better
and why?
Thinking line:
• Natural Law Ethics means that there are laws (natural laws) that are higher than human-
made laws, because they are rooted in the very nature of humanity, which is universal to
SC

all societies. It states that some rights (natural rights) are bestowed on every human. Such
natural rights designate basic demands for liberty and life's necessities. They impose absolute
limits on people to resist when it oversteps its proper moral bounds.
• However, in the absence of political order and law, everyone would have unlimited natural
freedoms, including the "right to all things" and thus the freedom to plunder, rape, and
murder; there would be an endless "war of all against all". To avoid this, free men contract
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with each other to establish political community i.e. civil society through a social contract
in which they all gain security in return for subjecting themselves to an absolute Sovereign,
one man or an assembly of men. This lead to establishment of the concept of social contract
ethics.
• Natural Law ethical theory assumes that humans naturally strive to reach a state of peace
and psychological contentment, unfettered by material concerns. Whereas Social Contract
Ethics assumes that as human being does not or cannot have enough security, they are
constantly striving for power and wealth, to help ensure security.
9. How do you see the difference between doves, eagles and vultures - as ethical and moral
categories of different human beings? Which of these personifies the best of human being?
Explain why?
Thinking line:
• Doves are commonly seen as symbols of peace, love and hope. They are depicted as a
messenger of God or a symbol of the Holy Spirit.
• Eagles are the symbol for great strength, leadership and vision. In spite of its enormous size,
the eagle still takes flight, seemingly effortlessly. This symbolizes that illusion of limitation
should not be seen as an obstacle to success.
Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude [5]
• The vulture, however, is connoted in negative sense. Vulture search for the remains of an
animal and uses it for their survival. Similarly in the government system many human beings
utilize the loopholes present in the system for their advantage.
• The personality of a human being should be peace loving, patient, courageous, having strong
leadership qualities and should work with wisdom. The personality should be flexible
according to the situation but the basic ethical entities should be intact under all circumstances.
• The human being should not have the attribute of using others as the means to their ends.
10. While acting for 'change' and 'progress', should we be disappointed because we can do too
little? Give reasons in favour of your stand.
Thinking line:
• The process of change in a large-scale system is a mix of art and science. It requires scientific
principles to bring change and progress as well as requires social and human emotions for
strong determination and will power.

E
• But a system is "any collection of things that have some influence on one another." If we take
the example of Environment - Individual things like plants, people, schools, communities,
OR
and watersheds - are all systems of interrelated elements. All have well-defined niche and
role in the maintenance of system whether small or big.
• Hence one should not be disappointed that he can do nothing big to change the system, even
small and genuine steps can bring change.
11. What is 'principle of ethical egoism'? Do you agree with the statement that 'in general,
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nature of human society, if not properly regulated, would result in a chaos and a state of
war? Why 'conflict' becomes a more natural outcome than 'cooperation' in modern societies?
Thinking line:
• Ethical egoism is a normative theory, which states that moral agents ought to do what is in
their own self-interest. Ethical egoism holds that actions whose consequences will benefit the
doer can be considered ethical.
GS

• Ethical egoism does not, however, require moral agents to harm the interests and well-being
of others when making moral deliberation.
• The human beings are both rational and social human being, but due to negative emotions
the analytical and rational power of decision making reduces.
• Thus rules and regulations are needed to govern the human beings otherwise they may end
up in violating the basic human rights.
• The self-interest should not lead to harming the interests of others. There should be disciplined
freedom.
• The dichotomy between cooperation and conflict in the present era is visible. In the present
era ending up in conflict has become more difficult than following the path of cooperation.
• Cooperation allows people and groups to work together to achieve a common goal or derive
mutual benefits. Cooperation allows participants to exchange valuable information that
helps both sides improve their knowledge bases and work in a time- and resource-efficient
manner. But cooperation requires mutual understanding which due to less degree of cultural
similarity within and between the same societies is leading to development of intolerance.

[6] Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude


• Further cooperation requires rational decision making rather than emotional and abstract
decision making and the capability of that is decreasing among people.
12. "What is right is right and what is wrong is wrong and there are no gray areas."Comment
critically on the practical dimensions of the statement.
Thinking line:
• Every human being strives for happiness.
• When a person feels good after doing an act then it is a moral act. This is true because the
inner conscience never lies and always shows the correct path.
• When the balance is made between heart and mind then moral action is produced which
gives a sense of satisfaction and inner happiness.
• Morality is the body of standards or principles derived from a code of conduct.

E
• Thus, the demarcation between right and wrong is clear and rational mind can differentiate
it properly.

OR
But defining the morality becomes a quite difficult as principles vary from region to region
but the core principle remains the same.
13. “Opportunities are those gateways to success and fulfillment that open up often but people
generally fail to recognize it.” What are the major barriers in recognizing the opportunities
in career of a civil servant? And what one can do to improve their ability of noticing new
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opportunities?
Thinking line:
• Opportunity is an appropriate or favourable time or occasion that comes in the life of almost
everyone only if one takes it positively.
• In the life of a person so many opportunities come but he ignores or give little importance
GS

to them, sometimes unknowingly and sometimes knowingly. The result is that he suffers or
repents all his life.
• The major barriers in recognizing the opportunities in case of civil servant are:
i. Civil servant is so much busy in routine work thus focus more on current happenings rather
than creative thinking.
ii. Opportunities require people to move out of their comfort zone and people are scared of
change either due to lack of confidence or some external factor.
• Steps needed for improving the ability of noticing opportunities are: the individual should
be alert and prepared to hear the call of the opportunity that may come at any moment.
• An individual should be characterized by low levels of self-centeredness and a low degree
of importance given to the self. Whenever there is the notion of "self", there is fear; the fear
of failure, the fear of being defeated, the fear of being rejected, the fear of making mistake,
the fear of poor health, the fear of losing face and the fear of not being recognized. It is
rather common for us to see someone hesitating to do thing proactively because his or her
mind is too occupied with "self" which is followed by "fear". On the other hand, when one
forgets about "self", one will have no fear and see the opportunities more clearly.
Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude [7]
SECTION - B
14. There are various religious and cultural occasions in India when a large number of people
gather to form a big procession which marches from one area of the city for celebrations
and emersion of statues to other areas dominated by people of different religions and sects.
In such cases the possibility of riots and conflicts are very high. Suppose you are the Police
Superintendent in one such area where after Puja (worship), a procession of a particular
community is learnt to have planned to pass through some streets before emersion of the
statue in the river eventually. Answer the following questions?
(a) As Superintendent of Police what will you do if you learn about marching of such a
procession to the areas dominated by other communities which have a record of mistrust?
Thinking line:
• Maintenance of public order and the rule of law is a key function of the police. Hence
following steps can be taken:

E
a) Maintaining communication with the leaders of both the communities to avoid the clashes.
b) Deployment of large force so that any adverse situation can be handled properly.
OR
(b) Will you completely ban movement of a religious procession in case of apprehension of a
conflict? Give reasons.
Thinking line:
• Total ban of religion proceedings are not feasible as it may incite the violence and hurt the
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sentiments of the people.


• Police should work in partnership with the society and maintain law and order.
• If there is any concrete information of the mis-happening or about the miscreants then the
religious procession can be diverted or extra police protection may be provided.
(c) In case a conflict takes place during the marching of a procession and a riot like situation
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arises, state the steps you would take to keep the situation under control.
Thinking line:
• The steps which can be taken are:
a) Arresting the miscreants as a preventive step.
b) Deployment of forces (women also) to provide protection to the vulnerable.
c) Use of mild force at the first instance and if required extra force can be deployed.
d) To avoid any mis-happening curfew may be placed.
(Note: These are just Thinking Line. Detailed answer alongwith structure of the answer with
options will be discussed in class).
15. In a vaccination programme you are made the officer in charge of the campaign and the
team members would have to be guided and led by you. You are answerable for any lapse
and misdemeanor. To ensure the campaign runs perfectly, enumerate the 5 most important
check list which you would ensure before the members of your team reach out to households.
Also explain why have you chosen those precautions in your check list.

[8] Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude


Thinking line:

• Vaccination is must for reducing the child mortality and morbidity. Thus the officials should
work according to the proper guidelines and procedures listed by the experts.

• The important checklists for running the campaign successfully are:

a) Awareness drive for the vaccination so that individuals can be made aware about the
importance of vaccines and can be welcomed by households.

b) Identification of the beneficiaries in the area and allot the number of nodal officers according
to it so that maximum households can be covered in stipulated time.

c) Build a team consisting of ladies with proper identification badges.

d) Ensure adequate number of vaccines with proper storage and packaging.

e) Ensure proper methodology for biological waste management as the biological waste is more

E
harmful for the people.

(Note: These are just Thinking Line. Detailed answer alongwith structure of the answer with
OR
options will be discussed in class).

16. You are an education minister of a state. Recently, lot of reports on how women teachers
of secondary school dresses up came and emphasized that many teachers wear ungracious
and party type of attires against Indian cultural ethos while they are in school. People from
one cultural group meet you and wants you to clear your mind about that to the public.
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There is an opinion in air that such things put indelible mark on the impressionable minds
of the adolescent students about 'image of teachers' in general and 'women' in particular.
Public expects something from you in the given situation. Answer the following questions
related to it:

(a) As a minister, when public is expecting something from you, what would you do to safeguard
the Indian cultural ethos regarding teachers and women on dress matters?
GS

Thinking line:

• Dress code is a matter of discipline as well as cultural ethos and identity. The Minister
should suggest the stakeholders to seek a consensus with regard to these.

• He should not, however, interfere either with the choice of institutions or individuals.

• It is about a process to sensitize people regarding Indian cultural ethos as well as sanctity
of schools as a public place.

(b) You are a minister in official capacity and a public representative, but you must also have
your personal opinion than the public expectations. Do you think that dress is a matter of
personal choice and there should be no official dictate regarding it?

Thinking line:

• As a personal opinion, dress is a matter of personal choice.

• Rather than prohibition to people to choose their dresses, it is better to promote self-discipline
with the help of education and awareness.

Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude [9]


(c) Also can you say that what matter is quality of education and not the type of dress teachers
wear?
Thinking line:
• Education is a whole package of knowledge, skill and good social values and ethics. So all
these matter.
(d) There must be views from both the sides, one may go with you and other will criticize you.
Give arguments for and against the dress code for teachers in schools.
Thinking line:
• Arguments for dress code are based on protection of culture and instilling ethical and moral
values, especially regarding how to dress in public or places which have special sanctity.
• The other side of argument comes for the idea of freedom and liberty as well as privacy of
the individuals.

E
(Note: These are just Thinking Line. Detailed answer alongwith structure of the answer with
options will be discussed in class).
OR
17. This is your first independent field posting as District Collector. The district, where you are
posted now, has become infamous for child marriages. The first eight months of your
joining witnessed around 50 cases of stopping of child marriages in the central district.
However, many such cases went unchecked. The District Social Welfare Department, ChildLine
and Police stopped a total of six child marriages in one month alone. With the addition of
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the new cases, the district has crossed an alarming number of 50 cases of child marriages
prevented till now in the same year. One day you received a direct call on your mobile about
the case of a child marriage in your district. You rushed to the spot and tried to rescue the
girl.
As District Collector answer the following questions:
(a) What are the options before you to handle this situation?
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(b) Discuss the limitations of each option.


(c) Discuss in detail one option which you consider is the best in the given scenario.
Thinking line:
• Child marriage is an age old social practice because of various reasons. The main reasons
of early marriage for both male and female children vary. Often parents of daughters reveals
that the main reasons for early marriage of their girls are safety and security problems of
girls, traditional system, and pressure from relatives, economic hardship and poverty as well
as demand of dowry. The main reasons for early marriage of their boys are pressure from
relatives and family members, traditional system, economic hardship and poverty as well as
land ownership related issues.
• In the above case while solving the issue there could be two main problems one may face:
socio cultural issue and attitudinal problem of society. Also low levels of awareness about
negative impacts of child marriage act as hindrance.
• The options available are:
a) Strict implementation of law is must. But law alone may not solve the problem.
[10] Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude
b) Child marriages are not just because of traditions, but many other reasons: Poverty & lesser
demand for dowry are also major reasons. Hence programmes should be initiated for poverty
alleviation and employment.
c) Awareness about the Child Marriage Prohibition Act and its provisions related to punishment
to maintain minimum Credible Deterrence.
• Law enforcement has to be made accountable. Passing the laws are only the first step,
implementing and executing them in accordance with the law are also important, in fact,
more important.
(Note: These are just Thinking Line. Detailed answer alongwith structure of the answer with
options will be discussed in class).
18. You are a senior civil engineer incharge of a very big road project. You find that project
contractor is working honestly and strictly as per the work schedule and also maintaining
the quality of work. Suddenly his only son met with an accident and hence he is preoccupied
in his treatment. The project got delayed and the quality of work got slightly affected. Your

E
subordinates are putting pressure on you to take strict action against the contractor.
(a) What are the various options available to you?
OR
(b) Evaluate the merits and demerits of each option and choose the option you would adopt,
giving reasons.
Thinking line:
• The projects contractor had been working honestly and strictly and also maintaining the
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quality of work prior to the time his son met with an accident. Since it was an event that
he has not done intentionally the civil engineer has following options before him:
a) He can ask to the labourer head (sub-contractor) to give reasons for poor quality and tell him
that action will be taken if he does not give consideration to matter. But the demerit lies in
the point that the sub contractor might take advantage of the situation on the pretext that
he does not have necessary authority.
GS

b) The subordinates should be called to give explanation about the delay in the project and the
poor quality. This will help in ensuring accountability. But it is possible the subordinates
might take the engineer lightly. Also in the element of suspicion, the engineer might accuse
wrong man.
c) The civil engineer should himself carry out investigation into the matter as to why the
quality of the work deteriorated and take remedial action. This requires carrying out a fair
investigation.
• Thus, the civil engineer should first try to seek the cooperation of the subordinates and carry
out an investigation into the matter since the son of the contractor is ill and the contractor
had been honest in his work, so some time can be given but it should not be in general in
the road projects.
(Note: These are just Thinking Line. Detailed answer alongwith structure of the answer with
options will be discussed in class).
19. There is a 14 year old boy studying in class IX. He lives with his parents. His father is an
Excise Superintendent, incharge of different excise outlets besides Head of District Excise
Office. His father returns home in drunken condition practically every evening. He also
finds that his father brings money every day and put that inside the Almirah. The boy reads
Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude [11]
in newspaper various stories about corruption and at a relatively younger age, has developed
a repulsion for the same.
(a) Bring out and discuss the ethical issues involved in the above case.
(b) What will be the appropriate way of expression to convey the feeling to his father by the
boy?
Thinking line:
• Corruption is a misuse of entrusted funds and power for private gain. In the above case the
child is getting repulsive to the behavior of his father related to corruption.
a) Since the boy at a younger age has developed repulsion for corruption and on the other side
he is seeing his father bringing money every day, it is a situation of ethical conflict for him.
The various ethical issues are-
• The boy cannot discuss the matter openly with his father. It puts him under a conflict in his
mind everytime.

E
• Seeing the behaviour of father, the child is likely to develop negative attitude to him and this
is likely to affect father son relationship in the longer run.
OR
• Due to lack of communication this may lead to widening of gap in the bonding of father and
son.
• This may have negative impact on the studies of the child as he may not feel comfortable
within the family atmosphere.
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b) The best possible options for the son to come and discuss the matter with his father can be
following-
• On some special day or on his birthday, he can ask his father to not to drink and to make
a birthday promise to him.
• Finding suitable day, he can talk with his father about the issue and can persuade to leave
the habit.
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• He can talk to his mother who can later discuss the things with her husband she can talk
to her husband about how things are having poor impact on their son.
• These options, are likely to have an impact on the father, particularly the first one, when his
son has asked him something on his birthday, the father won’t be able to say no to him.
(Note: These are just Thinking Line. Detailed answer alongwith structure of the answer with
options will be discussed in class).

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[12] Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude