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Commissioning

• The purpose of commissioning is to satisfy, to pre-determined standards,


that all the equipment erection is correct and that all the equipment
connections / cables have been installed in accordance with the approved
erection drawings and diagrams. Furthermore to demonstrate to the satis-
faction of the client that the foregoing work has been done and that the
equipment functions as designed.

• The 'Commissioning Procedures' as detailed in this document will be


carried out by 'Commissioning Teams' under the direction of the Principal
Commissioning Engineer (PCE). The PCE will take overall responsibility for
the documentation, drawings, liaison with the client, commissioning
lists/methods, supervision and direction of the commissioning teams and
clients approval / acceptance. www.sayedsaad.com

• The format of the commissioning teams will vary of course from contract to
contract as the work content and demands change. Normally the PCE will
be supported by one or more Senior Commissioning Engineers (SCE) who
are authorized to deputies for the PCE in his absence. The appropriate
Factory Test Engineers (FTE) and any Subcontractor Commissioning
Engineers (CE) will also form an essential part of the team.
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• The 'Commissioning Procedures' document covers the normal operational
and electrical pre-commissioning and commissioning test / checks. It is not
intended to cover the post-erection 'mechanical' checks that the (FTE's)
carry out as part of their installation responsibility.
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• To avoid any confusion in this respect this document covers all of the
tests and checks that are genuinely considered part of the commissioning
procedures to be carried out by the commissioning team and therefore
under the direction of the PCE.

• To ensure that the commissioning procedures are carried out as effectively


and efficiently as possible it is vital that co-operation and flexibility is
paramount between the various personnel involved, viz erection engineers
(factory and sub-contractor), factory test engineers, commissioning
engineers and clients' representatives

Commissioning High voltage equipment


1. Inspection of different compartments for every Switchgear bay
including Bus-Bar compartment, Circuit Breaker
compartment, Isolators & earthing Switches compartment
and cable box compartment. www.sayedsaad.com
2. Circuit Breakers of the same rating shall be fully
Interchangeable. www.sayedsaad.com
3. Inspection of the Circuit Breaker parts and its function,
also SF6 gas pressure and other related works.
4. Inspection of Circuit Breakers operating mechanism and its
function particularly the ones operated by hydraulic or
pneumatic system.
5. Inspection of isolators & earthing Switches parts and its
functions. www.sayedsaad.com
6. Inspection of the operation & control circuits for the Circuit
Breakers isolators and earthing Switches.
7. Inspection of the control and relay boards.

• All Power Transformer kinds.

1. Check the Transformer oil level.


2. Check all valves of the Transformer are in the service position.
3. Check the cooling fans operation.
4. Check the automatic tap changer operation.
5. Check for the Transformer protection functions,
6. Check that the service settings are adopted for oil temperature
& winding temperature instruments.
7. General inspection of all Transformers parts to ensure its
healthy condition.

• Auxiliaries and other equipment.

1. Inspection of the batteries and its chargers function.


2. Inspection of the air compressors and its function, also to confirm
its service settings.
3. Inspection of the LT board and ensure the function of Circuit
Breakers and isolators.
4. Inspection of the local Transformers and ensure the related parts
healthiness, also service tap position adjustment for manual tap
changer. www.sayedsaad.com
5. Inspection of the fire fighting equipment and confirm 'its function,
settings and related alarms & signals.
6. 6Inspection of the power cables tails (for feeders and Transformers)
and its related oil gauges and to confirm its function, settings,
alarms, tank pits, fire resistant coating and all other related works.
7. Inspection of control center communication and telemetry equipment.
8. Inspection of substation main earthing system and connection of all
equipment to the earth.
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• Protection equipment.
Check that each bay is provided with main and back up protection relays.
1. Check that the equipment healthiness & nothing abnormal to block its
function and the relay service settings are adopted.
2. Check that the test / service Switches function and all the Switches are
in the
service position.
3. Inspection of the pilot cable marshalling cabinets and confirm all wires
connection with clear identifications
4. Check that all alarms and signals of the substation are received and
connected to control center.
5. Check the function of the tap changer automatic voltage regulator,
either individual or parallel.
6. Check the function of the Synchronizing equipment (if applicable) for
closing or blocking the closing in case of not Synchronized system.
7. Checks the function of the auto reclosure equipment (if applicable)
and the intertrip equipment.

• General note.
Confirm the availability of nameplates & labels (for all panels & Transformers
at different location of control & relay boards and equipment), operation
instruction (if necessary), single line diagram, and GIS sectional drawing.
All wires should be provided with ferrules and coloring code.
Confirm the receipt of complete copies from test result sheets, instruction
manuals and as built marked up drawings.
Check the availability of special operating tools, which should be supplied
with the equipment and are necessary for the equipment operation and testing.
Check the availability of the keys for control & relay panels and different
equipment padlocks. These are to be provided in keyboards with proper
identification
labels & Nos. and to be located at suitable places. www.sayedsaad.com

PRE-COMMISSIONING TESTS AND CHECKS


1- Visual Check and Inspection of all Electrical Equipment

A visual check will be carried out on all electrical equipment, internally and
externally, to determine that no transit/erection damage has occurred (or where
this has happened that satisfactory rectification work has been done). All control
and relay panels, local control panels, Switchgear and electrical devices will be
internally checked for compliance with the approved drawings and approved
connection wiring diagrams.

The tests carried out in order to satisfy the above will be: -

1. Internal Panel Wiring Compliance Visual Check


2. Internal Panel Wiring/Devices Insulation Check
3. D.C. Supply Checks
4. A.C. Supply Checks
5. Scheme Checks (Positive and Negative Rail Principle)

All relays will be visually checked to see that there is no packing, dirt, metal
swarf, etc., present in the magnet gaps or on the contacts. All connections will be
checked for tightness on the relays and at all other wiring terminations including
the terminal blocks.

All devices shall be checked to see that they are clearly numbered/identified in
accordance with the general arrangement drawings and that the phases are
marked where appropriate.

2- Earthing
An earth survey is carried out for each substation at the beginning of the
contract in order to obtain a value for the site earth resistivity which is required as
part of the Earthing design brief. This should be witnessed and signed by Owner.
Standard earthing tests are carried out during the erection stage by the erection
staff. On completion of these tests, a copy of the results obtained must be
submitted to the PCE for his approval and retention.

These tests will be repeated during the acceptance testing stage by the erection
staff in liaison with a commissioning team member, when they will be witnessed
by the client. www.sayedsaad.com

3- Bus Wiring

All inter-panel bus wiring will be tested and checked in accordance with the
appropriate termination diagrams.
Insulation checks will be made using a 500V Megger on each bus wire to earth
and from each bus wire to all others. These checks should be carried out with all
individual fuses, links, miniature Circuit Breakers, etc., open or removed at a) the
source of supply and b) all incoming and outgoing circuit panels and Switchgear.
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4- Multi-Core Cables

All multi-core cables will be tested and checked in accordance with the
appropriate termination diagrams.
The insulation resistance will be measured using a 1000V megger after all
the multi-core cables have been connected to the erected equipment.
(These tests on the multi-core cables although done at the pre-
commissioning stage to sort out any obvious problems will be repeated
during the acceptance testing stage).

5 - Batteries and Chargers


The batteries and chargers will be checked to see that they have been
erected / assembled correctly in accordance with the manufacturers
recommended procedures.
The tests that are carried out at this stage will be to determine that
the batteries and chargers are functioning correctly, within the recom-
mended tolerances, so that their performance can be relied upon
during the commissioning of the rest of the substation equipment.
The responsibility for carrying out the above will be taken by a SCE.
The actual acceptance tests, including the time-consuming discharge
tests, to be witnessed by the client, are carried out towards the end of
the commissioning programme.
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6- 132kV GIS Site Tests

These tests are carried out in accordance with the format of the Works
Site Test Report. The tests conducted are:
1. Bus-Bar and Connections - Conductivity Tests
2. Circuit Breaker - Contact Resistance Checks
3. Circuit Breaker - Contact Timing Tests
4. Mechanical and Local Electrical Operational Checks
5. Air and Gas Leakage Tests
6. SF6 Gas Pressure Switch Setting Check
7. Compressed Air System Sequence Checks

7- 132/11.5kV 30 MVA Transformer Site Tests

The Transformers are inspected and tested in accordance with the


factory check sheets for Transformer installation. As well as detailed
inspection this also includes oil testing.

8- Shunt Reactor

These tests are carried out in accordance with the format of the Works Site
Test Report. The tests conducted are:-

(1) Visual Checks. www.sayedsaad.com


(2) Winding Insulation Level.
(3) Oil Tests. www.sayedsaad.com
(4) Oil / Winding Temperature Gauge Calibration Fan Control
Sequence Test. www.sayedsaad.com

COMMISSIONING AND ACCEPTANCE TESTS

1- 275, 220,132 and 66kV VT Tests


The tests carried out will be:
1. Insulation test
2. Flick Test
The polarity of the VT will be checked by carrying out the flick test. 2.2

2- 275, 220,132 and 66kV CT Tests

The tests carried out will be:


1. Insulation Test
2. Flick Test
3. Resistance Test
4. Saturation Test
Where more than one CT is in each phase of a circuit, tests where practical will
be carried out to prove the CT's are positioned correctly so that arranged overlap
of zones of protection is correct This may be carried out by a) a visual inspection
b) a continuity test.
Flick tests will be done on all CT's in a group to prove that they are connected to
the protection in the same polarity. These tests will also be done on CT's
mounted in Transformer bushings. The flick test results should be compared with
those expected from the schematic diagrams.
All CT's will have the dc secondary loop resistance and individual secondary
winding resistances measured.
The saturation tests will be carried out to prove there are no shorted turns
associated with the CT and to establish the knee point voltage of the CT's The
magnetization curve will be plotted for each CT or superimposed on the factory
curves in order to determine that the correct CT is installed.

3- 275, 220,132 and 66kV Primary Injection

Tests these tests carried out will be:

1. CT Ratio and Polarity Test


2. Busbar Inter-Group CT Ratio and Polarity Tests-
3. Relay Operation Tests
4. Busbar Protection Operation and Stability Tests
5. Unit Protection Operation and Stability Tests
6. Directional Over current Operation and Stability Tests

Primary current shall be passed through each CT to prove its ratio and polarity
with reference to other CTs in its group. All relays and instruments will be
proved to be wired in the correct phases.

All current "test terminals" will be checked for correct phasing, CT shorting
Switches will be proved and any withdrawable relays should have their shorting
contacts checked.
Inverse time relays shall be made to "creep' on minimum setting.

Earth fault relays shall be checked for spill Current when injecting phase
to phase and minimum operation.

Transformer biased differential protection. The two groups of CTs, (one on the
132 kV side and one on the 11kV side of the Transformer) should each be
proved for ratio and polarity, and the differential relay proved to operate for
phase-phase, and phase-earth fault injection on each side of the Transformer.
When the Transformer is energies, on load tests will be used to prove stability.
Bus zone protection. The group of CT's of each circuit shall be checked for
correct ratio and polarity. Each group of CT's should then be checked against
the bus section/coupler CT's of the same zone of protection for out of zone
stability by measuring spill currents.
Directional Over current Protection Operation of the protection will be tested
by primary injection of current and voltage simulating the fault direction.
Reversal of the current polarity proves the stability of the protection.

4 - Secondary Injection Tests


The secondary injection tests will be made to prove the relays, trans-
ducers and meters are operating and measuring correctly.
Secondary injection tests will consist of 'a.c.' injection into the relay coils to
prove that the relay calibration is correct
A record of the relay type, serial number, and its setting range shall be
recorded.
The secondary current injection shall take place from the point at which
the primary injection checks were made on the CT's.

For inverse time relays, the minimum starting current for which the relay will close
its contacts with a maximum time dial setting shall be recorded. The resetting
time of the disc shall be recorded, and the time of operation for a current injection
of twice, five times and ten times setting current. These results should be carried
out on the relays service setting (or nominal setting if service not known). The
results should be compared with the relay curve supplied by the manufacturer.
Also the time setting multiplier characteristics will be checked at 2 points (setting
point + 1 other point).

For instantaneous relays the operating current or voltage and the drop
off value shall be recorded.
For all relays fitted with a mechanical flag, the flag should operate just
before the contacts make and the flag mechanism should not interfere with
the operation of the relay.
Differential Relays (e.g. Transformer biased differential or pilot wire
relays will require "on-load" checks to prove their stability) in addition to
secondary injection tests.
Distance protection relays will require current and voltage of varying
magnitude injected into them to simulate different values of fault impe-
dance and "on-load" checks will be required to. prove the directional
feature of the relay.

Directional elements of inverse time O / C and E / F relays will require


secondary injection of current and voltage of varying phase angle between
them to determine the operation and stability zone.

The calibration of all instruments and transducers will be checked at i


scale and full scale by current and/or voltage injection with varying
phase angle as required.

5- 275, 220,132 and 66kV GIS Operational Tests

The tests carried out will be: -

1. Local and Remote Operations of all Isolators, Earth Switches and


Circuit Breakers
2. Local and Remote Indications of above
3. Electrical Interlocks of above
4. Synchronizing Sequence Tests (including secondary injection of voltage
selection scheme)
5. Gas Monitoring Sequence Tests
6. Alarm Sequence Tests
7. Tripping Tests

Sequence tests will be carried out to prove all electrical circuits are operating
correctly as shown in the schematic diagrams.
The control circuits will be tested by the manual operation of all close-trip
Switches from all positions, for all Circuit Breakers, disconnecting Switches (line
Switches), ground Switches (earth Switches), and other devices in accordance
with the schematic diagrams.

The operation of all protection circuits will be proved to be in accordance with


the protective gear schematic diagrams.

The tests will be conducted by manually making every main relay contact or
initiating device at source and observing Circuit Breaker tripping, auxiliary relay
operation, lock-out relay operation and any others. Tripping initiated by each
relay in a protection scheme will be tested with the appropriate trip link in and out
to prove that the link is connected and labeled correctly.
The annunciator circuits will be proved to be in accordance with the schematic
diagrams including alarm buzzer and/or bell, lights and any other means of
alerting staff.

Operation tests of the alarm circuit will be by operating, at source, each alarm
initiating relay, where possible, or otherwise by simulation.

Operation of each Circuit Breaker, isolator, earthing Switch or other piece of


equipment will be proved to be free or locked according to the interlock condition
shown on the schematic diagrams.

Synchronizing Sequence Tests will be made by secondary injection of voltage at


the "VT test terminals" on the, appropriate panels. Care must be taken to ensure
that the VT secondary are isolated from the VT voltage circuits so that no high
Voltage is developed at the VT primary circuits.

6. 132/11.5kV 30 MVA Operational Tests and Measurement of


Audible Noise Level

The following checks will be carried out.

1. Winding Insulation Level


2. Ratio Test
3. Vector Group Test
4. Cooling System Control Sequence Test
5. Local/Remote Tap Change Operations (Mech. and Elec.)
6. Operation of Protective Devices

Load drop compensation and winding temperature CTs mounted in the trans-
former should be proved to be in the correct phase and have the correct ratio
where practicable.

Buchholz relays: the alarm and trip initiation shall be proved by means of
the test button, if provided, or by shorting the appropriate terminals at the
relay.
Winding temperature tripping and alarms shall be proved by operating the
appropriate initiating Switches. The cooler control ON and OFF shall be
proved when three phase 'A.C.' supplies are available by operating the
ON/OFF Switch and the appropriate temperature indicating initiating
Switches. The direction of the fan rotation must be checked in accor-
dance with the mark.

Tap-changer position indicator should be proved to indicate the correct tap


position. The limit Switch must function properly to prevent the tap-changer from
further movement beyond the two extreme tap positions. Tap-changing shall be
tested for every step ensuring stepping relay
functions correctly.

Measurement of audible noise level on site will be carried out under


the following conditions using a sound level meter
(IEC Pub 551 type 1 or equivalent):
1. The background noise level at all measuring points shall not exceed
45dBA
in accordance with ANSI standard.

2. Only the Transformer under test shall be energized and shall have been
on soak for at least 24 hours prior to measurement. The tests shall be
carried
out at rated voltage with all normal fans running at no load conditions.
3. The audible sound level of each Transformer in turn will be measured
at a number of points 30 meters from the substation.
4. The average value of the noise measurements for each Transformer
shall be taken and this value checked to ensure it does not exceed 50dBA.
7- 11/0.433kV 250kVA Transformer Tests
These tests are carried out in accordance with the format of the Works Site
Test Report. The tests conducted are:-
a) Winding Insulation Level
b) Ratio Test www.sayedsaad.com
c) Vector Group

8- HV Pressure Tests (132kV Equipment)

These tests will be carried out in accordance with the Works Site Test
Reports.
The magnitude and duration of the test voltage is given in Table below.
An opportunity to check VT calibration will be taken during these tests.
Test Voltage Test
Equipment
KV Duration
132 GIS 115 10 min.
11 KV 24 1 min

9- Supervisory Interface Test

The tests carried out will be:


a) Initiation of the appropriate alarms or indications at source and checking
that the correct logic signals are received at the telemetry terminal (TTB)
cabinet.
b) Apply a 50V DC voltage to the (TTB) cabinet terminals and check that the
correct Circuit Breaker or tap changer command is received and
executed.
10 - 11kV VT Tests. www.sayedsaad.com

The tests carried out will be:


a) Insulation Test. www.sayedsaad.com
b) Flick Test. www.sayedsaad.com
The polarity of the VT will be checked by carrying out the flick test.
11 - 11kV CT Tests
The tests carried out will be:
a) Insulation Test. www.sayedsaad.com
b) Flick Test. www.sayedsaad.com
c) Resistance Test
d) Saturation Test
Where more than one CT is in each phase of a circuit, tests where practical
will be carried out to prove the CT's are positioned correctly so that arranged
overlap of zones of protection is correct This may be carried out by a) a visual
inspection b) a continuity test.

Flick tests will be done on all CT's in a group to prove that they are connected to
the protection in the same polarity. These tests will also be done on CT's
mounted in Transformer bushings. The flick test results should be compared with
those expected from the schematic diagrams.

All CT's will have the dc secondary loop resistance and individual secondary
winding resistances measured. www.sayedsaad.com

The saturation tests will be carried out to prove there are no shorted turns
associated with the CT and to establish the knee point voltage of the CT's The
magnetization curve will be plotted for each CT or superimposed on the factory
curves in order to determine that the correct CT is installed.

12- 11kV Primary Injection

Tests the tests carried out will be:


a) CT Ratio and Polarity Test
b) Relay Operation Tests
c) Unit Protection Operation and Stability Tests

Primary current shall be passed through each CT to prove its ratio and polarity
with reference to other CTs in its group. All relays and instruments will be proved
to be wired in the correct phases.www.sayedsaad.com

All current "test terminals" will be checked for correct phasing, CT shorting
Switches will be proved and any withdrawable relays should have their shorting
contacts checked.
Inverse time relays shall be made to "creep' on minimum setting.
Transformer biased differential protection. The group of CTs should be proved for
ratio and polarity, and the differential relay proved to operate for phase-phase,
and phase-earth fault injection.

Transformer Restricted Earth F a u l t Protections. The groups of CTs shall be


proved for ratio and p o l a r i t y and stability by measuring spill currents.

13- 11kV Secondary Injection Tests

The secondary injection tests will be made to prove the relays, transducers and
meters are operating a n d measuring correctly.
Secondary injection tests will consist of 'a.c.' injection into the relay coils to prove
that the relay calibration is correct
A record of the relay type, serial number, and its setting range shall be
recorded. -
The secondary current injection shall take place from the point at which the
primary injection checks were made on the CTs.
For inverse time relays, the minimum starting current for which the relay will close
its contacts with a maximum time dial setting shall be recorded. The resetting
time of the disc shall b_ recorded, and the time of operation for a current
injection of twice, five times and ten times setting current. These results should
be carried out on the relays service setting (or nominal setting if service not
known). The results should be compared with the relay curve supplied by the
manufacturer. Also the time setting multiplier characteristics will be checked at 2
points (setting point +1 other point).

For all relays fitted with a mechanical flag, the flag should operate just before the
contacts make and the flag mechanism should not interfere with the operation of
the relay.

The calibration of all instruments and transducers will be checked at scale and
full scale by current and/or voltage injection as appropriate.

14. 11kV Switchgear Contact Resistance Checks

The contact resistance of all primary contacts will be checked by current


injection and voltage drop measurement.

15. 11kV Switchgear Operational

Tests The tests carried out will be:


a) Local and Remote Operations of all Circuit Breakers
b) Local and Remote Indications of above
c) Electrical Interlocks of above
d) Gas Monitoring Sequence Tests
e) Alarm Sequence Tests
f) Tripping Tests including Arc Fault Tripping scheme
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Sequence tests will be carried out to prove all electrical circuits are operating
correctly as shown in the schematic diagrams.
The control circuits will be tested by the manual operation of all close-trip
Switches from all positions, for all Circuit Breakers and other devices in
accordance with the schematic diagrams.
The operation of all protection circuits will be proved to be in accordance with
the protective gear schematic diagrams.
The tests will be conducted by manually making every main relay contact and
observing Circuit Breaker tripping, auxiliary relay operation, lock-out relay
operation and any others. Tripping initiated by each relay in a protection
scheme will be tested with the appropriate trip link in and out to prove that the
link is connected and labeled correctly.
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The annunciator circuits will be proved to be in accordance with the schematic
diagrams including alarm buzzer and/or bell, lights and any other means of
alerting staff.
Operation tests of the alarm circuit will be by operating, at source, each alarm
initiating relay contact, where possible,-or otherwise by simulation.
Operation of each Circuit Breaker disconnect Switch and earthing Switch will be
proved to be free or locked according to the interlock condition shown on the
schematic diagrams.
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16.HV Pressure Tests (11kV Equipment)
These tests will be carried out in accordance with the Marugame Works Test
Sheets. The magnitude and duration of the test voltages are given in Table 1
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17. Battery and Charger Tests
The batteries and chargers will have already been assembled, checked and put
into service during the pre-commissioning stage by members of the
commissioning team.
However certain further tests are now done and others repeated during the
acceptance testing stage to be witnessed by the client. These tests will be
carried out in accordance with the manufacturers recommended testing
procedures and will include the battery discharge tests.
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18. Multi-Core Cable Tests
All the multi-core cables will have already been checked to be in accordance
with the appropriate termination diagrams during the pre-commissioning stage.
The insulation resistance tests will be repeated during the acceptance testing
stage when they will be witnessed by the client.
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19. Earthing Tests
The erection staff will have originally conducted earthing tests but these will be
repeated during the acceptance testing stage when they will be witnessed by the
client.
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20. Fire Fighting Equipment Tests
The Subcontractor will have already carried out limited post erection checks, i.e.
mechanical checks including a pressure test on the main tank and air leakage
tests on the air receiver.
The commissioning tests for water spray system will be:-
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a) Compressor Sequence Tests
b) Alarm Sequence Tests
c) Indication Sequence Tests
d) Deluge Valve Sequence Tests
e) Discharge and Water Spray Tests
f) Inter-tripping Tests
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The commissioning for the other systems will be:
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a) Detector Operation Tests
b) Detector Line Supervision Tests
c) Pushbutton Function Tests
d) Tripping Tests
e) Halon Discharge Test
f) Dry Powder Discharge Test