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ring on the quali ty and perfor- 10 kHz) with a load of 10 kQ and

mance of the preamplifier: dass A, 2 an output voltage of 1 V r.rn.s.
1% metal film resistors are there- When the load was reduced, this

fore essential. figure increased to 0.02% at 1 k.Hz

The input referred noise of the and 0.035% at 10 kHz.
lC is very low: 800 pV j-JHz. In The slew rate was 10 V /115. The
view of the comrnou-mode noise, srgnat-to-noise ratio at an arnplifi-
the values of reststo-s Rl and R2, cation of 1000 and an output volt-
which determine the bias current, age of 1 V was 98 dB with the in-
must be chosen with care: they puts shor t-circuited and 88 dB
should not exceed 10 kil. with a source impedance of 600 Q.
Capaeiters C2, C3 and C4 are The common-rnode rejection
compensating components. More- ratio (c~m.R)is high over the
over, the value of C2 has a decided whole audio range: 114 dB at
effect on the the bandwidth of the 1 kHz arid 108 dB at 20 kHz. This
amplifier: when it is 120 pF as means very effective suppression
shown, the bandwidth is around of hum at the input.
450 kHz (if the amplification factor The complete preamplifier
is less than 100, the bandwidth draws a current of 12-15 rn A.
ma y even be as la rge as 1 MHz). The offset voltage at the input
Since the bandwidth is derer- may be compensated with PI. Be-
mined mainly by C2 and the feed-
@SUM2 cause of the high input bias cur-
back resistor, it Is virtually inde- rent of the opamp (up to 25 ~lA
pendent of the amplification: with max), an extra offset may arise at
L-+-----1----1--c AI cu,
amplification factors between 3.5 the input with pseudo-differential
and 1000, it vartes from 1 MHz to 904061 12
or asymmetric use of the Inputs

450 kHz. that can not or hardly be compen-

Capacitor Cl provides addi- sared with I"l . The result of this is
tional decoupling of the inputs
and should therefore be mounted as elose load of 600 Q. With higher supply volt- lügher distornon.
to the Input pins of the TC as possible. ages, care should be taken that the maxi- A'thougb the power su pply suppres-
The SSM2016 is capable of fairly high mum dissipation of the IC does not exceed sion is about 100 dB, it is recommended to
output currents (miu. 40 m.A), so that with 1.5 W. decouple the supply lines weil. •
a supply voltage of ±18 V, an undistorted The prototype had an harmonie distor- (T Giffnrd)
signal of 10 V r.m.s. is available across Cl tion of not more than 0.006% (up to

A moucstable relay has two statcs: opera- on, Cl charges via 01 and the relay coil. positive terminal of Cl, while the base is
tive when a large enough cu rreut flows The current then flowing through the coil connected to the negative terminal of the
through its coil and quiescent when 110 causes the rela y contact to assu me 011e of capacttor via Rl and the relay coil. This re-
current flows. A relay contact that assumes two positions. The torward drop across 01 sul ts in Tl, and thus T2, switching on, so
a certain postnon after the suppty voltage ensures that the base of Tl in this condi- that Cl discharges via T4 and the relay .
• has been switched on is required in many tion is more positive than its emitter; so The current rhough the relay coil then
applications. and, of course, many relays that Tl, and thus T2, is switched off. flows in an opposite direction and this
operate in that manner. When the supply voltage is switched causes the contact to change over.
However, most of these relays require off the ernitter of Tl is connected to the The bistable relay thus behaves exactly
an energizing current of 50 mA or more as a mouostable type with the advantage.
and that norrnally precludes a battery sup- however, that the operational current is de-
ply. The circuit presented here, which uses + termined by Rl , and here amounts to only
a bistable relay. may solve that problern. 130~A.
The contact of a bistable relay normally To ensure reliable operation, the rattng
remains in the position it is in after the of the relay coil should be 65-75 per cent of
supply is switched off. The present circuit. the supply voltage. Ln the prototype, a 9-V
however, makes the bistable relay behave relay was used with a battery supply volt-
like a monostable type, and that at a very age of 12 V. •
(F. Hueber)
modest current. 904104-11

When the supply voltage is switched