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Overview of High Performance

Analog Optocouplers
Application Note 1357

Designing Analog Circuits

Using the HCNR201
Internally, the HCNR201 analog insulation is not present as the photo-voltaic mode of operation,
optocoupler consists of two grounds and Vcc are shared the photodiode has either a
photo detectors symmetrically between the two op-amps of the forward bias or no bias applied
placed between the input LED. dual package. The op-amp always across it. Thus, when the Vin=0V,
Thus, the radiant flux received tries to maintain the same inputs there is no photodiode 1 current
by each of the two photodetec- voltages at its two inputs in a (IPD1) and so also is the IPD2 zero.
tors is essentially the same, and linear feedback close loop This is because IPD2 = K3 x IPD1 by
forms the basis for the input-out- connection. Thus, the input side the transfer gain K3 indicated in
put linear transfer response. op-amp always tries to place zero the data sheet (K3 = IPD2 /IPD1 =1).
Unlike most other optocouplers, volts across the photodiode 1 Now, if some positive polarity
where the LED at the input is (PD1). As noted before, in the voltage is applied at the input,
directly controlled, for the
HCNR201 the input photodetec-
tor is generally placed in a servo Vcc 100 pF
feedback loop to control the LED
current through the use of an ex- C1 80 kΩ
100 pF
ternal op-amp. This feedback R2 + Vcc1
150 Ω
loop has the most advantageous HCNR200 _
effect of compensating for any VIN 80 kΩ Vcc + VOUT
_ HCNR200 LM158 (2)
temperature related light output +
2N3906 OC1
LM158 (1) PD 2
drift characteristics or other HCNR200
PD 1
nonlinearities or aging effects of 2

the LED. 1
Optical Isolation

Figure 1. Positive Polarity Input Voltage Analog Isolation Amplifier using the HCNR201 In
Figure 1 shows the basic
Photo-Voltaic Mode
topology using the HCNR201 in
the servo feedback loop. The 5.5V
HCNR201 is connected in a Vcc 1
photovoltaic mode, as the voltage 5.5V
HCNR200 Vcc 1
100 pF R2
across the photo-diodes is 150 kΩ OC1 +
HCNR200 PD 2
essentially zero volt. For a PD 1 HCNR200 _
photoconductive operation the LED
_ LM158 (2)
photo-diodes are reverse biased R2 2N3904
80 kΩ + R2
as shown in Figure 2. LM158 (1) 80 kΩ

The two op-amps shown are two VIN Optical Isolation
separate LM158 packages, and 1

not two channels in a single dual Figure 2. Positive Polarity Input Voltage Analog Isolation Amplifier using the HCNR201 In
package, otherwise galvanic Photo-Conductive Mode
the op-amp output would tend to Typically, the transfer gain K3 =1, With R1 at 80 kohm an input
swing to the negative rail (in this and is ±5% for the HCNR201 and voltage maximum of 4 volts will
case the ground voltage) causing ±15% for the HCNR200. The in- keep the maximum photo-diode
the LED current to flow. The IPD1 put photo gain is represented by current at 50 µA to achieve the
is now externally set by VIN and K1 parameter in the data sheet linearity indicated in the data
R1 (IPD1 = VIN/R1). The op-amp and is defined as IPD1/IF. The sheet of the HCNR201. As noted
will limit the LED current IF to data sheet for the HCNR201 lists before photo-diode currents up
an appropriate value required to this input current transfer ratio to 100 µA or higher can be easily
establish the externally set IPD1. as (0.25 to 0.75)% for HCNR200 set if so desired.
The maximum full scale LED cur- and (0.36 to 0.72)% for the
rent is designed to keep it under HCNR201. As indicated in the Bipolar Input Voltage Analog Circuit
the absolute max rating of data sheet for best linearity the Using similar concepts as devel-
25 mA. Since, the op-amp is con- photo-diode current is con- oped for the positive-polarity
nected in a stable negative strained between 5 nA to 50 µA. input voltage analog amplifier
feedback servo loop it is also This implies that the Vin and R1 discussed before, it is quite
maintaining the same voltages combination at the input should straightforward to develop
across its two inputs, in this case constrain the externally set bipolar input voltage analog
zero volts. The output voltage is maximum photodetector current amplifier. Figure 3 shows the
just IPD2 x R2. Thus, to establish at 50 µA. However, higher photo- bipolar input voltage analog cir-
the transfer function following detector currents up to 100 µA cuit using the HCNR201 in the
equations can be written: can be easily set at higher LED servo feedback loop.
currents close to 25 mA.
IPD1 = VIN/R1 This bipolar input voltage circuit
(input photo-diode current) Figure 2 shows the HCNR201 uses two HCNR200 or HCNR201
biased in a photo-conductive optocouplers. The top half of the
K3 = IPD2 / IPD1 = 1 mode of operation, where the circuit consisting of PD1, R1, DA,
(transfer gain indicated in the photo-diodes are forced into C1, R4 and optocoupler 1 (OC1)
data sheet) reverse bias. In reverse bias the LED is for the positive input
photo-diode capacitance is lower voltages. The lower half of the
IPD2 = K 3 x IPD1 as the depletion regions are circuit consisting of optocoupler
larger. Thus, for higher band- 2 (OC2) PD1, R2, BB and R5 and
VOUT = IPD2 x R2 width response it may be optocoupler 2 (OC2) LED is for
advantageous to use the photo- the negative input voltages.
Solving the above equations conductive configuration. The
readily yields the linear transfer equations to derive the transfer The diodes D1 and D2 help
function as function are similar to the photo- reduce crossover distortion by
VOUT /VIN = K3 x R2/R1 voltaic mode discussed earlier. keeping both amplifiers active

30 pF
30 pF R5 R6
+ Vcc 180 kΩ 50 kΩ
180 kΩ R4 HCNR200
OC1 + Vcc 1
_ 680 Ω
HCNR200 + _
OC1 LM158 (1)
RA PD 1 _ + VOUT
VIN Vcc HCNR200 LM158 (2)
50 kΩ
OC2 + 1 PD2
PD 1 + LM158 (1) _ Vcc 1
_ 2
R5 HCNR200 HCNR200
R2 680 Ω OC2 OC2
180 kΩ Vcc
30 pF
Optical Isolation


Figure 3. Bipolar Input Voltage Analog Isolation Amplifier using the HCR201

during both positive and nega- C2
100 pF
tive portions of the input signal. C1
100 pF
Balance control R1 at the input HCNR200 R2
can be used to adjust the relative OC2
PD 2
LED PD 2 Vcc 1
gain for the positive and negative +Vcc
IIN _ R1
input voltages. The gain control +
LM158 (1)
R7 can be used to adjust the HCNR200
LM158 (2)

overall transfer gain of the OC1

PD 1 Vcc 1
-Vcc -15V
amplifier. The capacitors C1, C2, HCNR200 HCNR200 2
and C3 are the compensation 1 LED
PD 2
capacitors for stability. Optical Isolation
Figure 4. Current-to-Voltage Converter using the HCNR200
Current to Voltage Converter
For measurement of very small
currents such as transducer sen- Vcc
sor currents, a simple analog R8
100 kΩ
current-to-voltage circuit can be 0.001 uF
150 Ω LM158
10 kΩ
designed as shown in Figure 4. HCNR200 Z1 2N3904
Vcc +
This circuit uses two HCNR200 80 kΩ
LED 5.1 V
0.1 µF

optocouplers. The input current +
2N3906 2N3904 0.001 µF PD 2
LM158 R6
can be of either polarity. The HCNR200
3.2 kΩ
140 Ω R4
10 kΩ
PD 1
upper limit for the IIN should be -ILOOP

constrained to 50 µA maximum R5
Optical Isolation 25 Ω

to achieve the non-linearity Figure 5. Isolated 4-to-20 mA Analog Transmitter circuit using the HCNR200
specifications of 0.05% indicated
in the data sheet.
Isolated 4-to-20 mA Analog A unique feature of this circuit is
The lower limit of the current Transmitter Circuit that there is no need for an iso-
measurement depends upon the Industrial manufacturing lated power supply on the loop
maximum dark current associ- environments very often require side of the optical circuit. The
ated with the photodiodes, which measuring temperatures, pres- loop current generator supplies
are approximately in the neigh- sures, or fluid levels in a harsh the power supply voltage. The
borhood of 100 pA maximum electrically noisy environment. zener Z1 establishes the voltage
over temperature. The two Transmitting signals through required by loop-side op-amp. To
HCNR200 devices in this configu- current instead of voltage could establish the transfer function,
ration are essentially connected be advantageous in such an envi- following equations are estab-
in anti-parallel configuration. ronment. Very often the distance lished:
One HCNR200 then translates between the sensor stage to a
the positive input current to a controller, typically a PLC or a
positive voltage. The second microcontroller could also be a
K3 = IPD2/IPD1 = 1
HCNR200 translates the negative sizeable distance. Additional
(by the transfer gain indicated in
current into a negative output requirement in such an applica-
the data sheet)
voltage. tion could be for high voltage
insulation or galvanic insulation
The current division at the inter-
The resistor R2 is chosen to give for safety protection either of
section of R5, R4, and R3
the full scale output voltage as: operators or expensive digital
establishes the photo-diode
Vout = ± IIN R2 = full scale output logic. Both of these critical
current (IPD2) portion of the loop
voltage. Thus R2 would be requirements can be easily
current. The resistors R3 and R5
100 kohm at 50 µA max input addressed through the use of
are essentially in parallel and
current for a full-scale output optically isolated 4 to 20 mA
form the actual current divider.
voltage of 5V. Photo diode cur- transmitter and receiver circuits.
Thus, IPD2 can be written as
rents up to 100 µA or higher can
Figure 5 shows a 4-to-20 mA IPD2 = ILOOP • (R5 / (R5 + R3))
also be easily selected.
analog transmitter circuit
designed around the HCNR201.

Solving these equations yields K3 = IPD2 / IPD1 Wide Bandwidth
the transfer function as Video Analog Amplifier
VOUT = IPD2 • R5 For wide-bandwidth video ana-
K3•VIN/R1 = ILOOP • (R5/(R5 + R3)) log applications an amplifier
Solving these equations leads us design is shown in Figure 7. This
ILOOP / VIN = K3•(R5 + R3)/(R5 R1) to the transfer function as is an ac input coupled and ac
output coupled circuit. The LED
The resistor values have been so VOUT /R5 = K3•ILOOP•(R3/(R3 +R1)) input current IF is set at a rec-
selected in this example that ommended 6 mA for the
when input voltage is 0.8 V the VOUT /ILOOP = K3 •R 5 • R3/(R3 + R1) HCPL-4562 or 10 mA for the
loop current formed is 4 mA, and HCNW2562 by selecting an
when the input voltage is 4 V, the The resistor values shown in the appropriate value for the R4. If
loop current formed is 20 mA. receiver circuit are scaled such the VCC1 on the input side is 5V
This assumes that the transfer that when loop current is 4 mA the voltage VB established by the
function K3 equals 1, which is the output voltage is 0.8V. When resistor divider R1 and R2 at the
the case typically as indicated in the loop current is 20 mA the base of Q1 (neglecting base cur-
the data sheet for the HCNR201. output voltage is 4V. This again rent drop across R3) is approx.
assumes that K3 (transfer func- 1.16V. This establishes the volt-
Isolated 4-to-20 mA Analog tion) equals 1 which is typically age VE at the emitter of Q1 as
Receiver Circuit the case as indicated in the data 0.56V. Adjust R4 to set the rec-
The 4-to-20 mA receiver circuit sheet for the HCNR201. ommended LED current at 6 mA.
is similar in construction to the
4-to-20 mA transmitter circuit
discussed earlier. In the receiver
case, the loop current is received HCNR200
at the input of the receiver, and LED
+ILOOP 0.001 µF
the output is a linear voltage rep-
resentation of the input loop R1
10 kΩ R4
5.1 V R5
current. Figure 6 shows the re- 180 Ω
0.1 µF
ceiver circuit. +
HCNR200 _
PD 1 R2 +
Once again, no isolated power 10 kΩ
0.001 µF

supply is needed on the loop side PD 2

of the receiver circuit, as the -ILOOP


Optical Isolation
power supply is established by 26 Ω

the source supplying the loop

Figure 6. Isolated 4-to-20 mA Analog Receiver Circuit using the HCNR200.
current. The zener Z1 establishes
the 5 V level for the Op-amp
power supply. The loop current HCPL-4562
VCC2 + (9 to 12) V
is split at the junction of R3 and +5V 1 8

R2 and PD1. The resistors R1 and IF KPD R6

9.1 kΩ R9
R3 are essentially in parallel, as 2 7

there is zero volts across the R1

3 6 Q4 C2
6.8kΩ Q2
photo-detector diode (PD1). The 47µF R3
VB 100Ω Q3 Vout
servo op-amps forces zero volts VIN Q1 4 5
across the PD1, and thus R1 and 1.0 kΩ
R8 R11
470 Ω
D1 500Ω Q1 2N3904 1.0 kΩ
R3 form the current divider for 1N4150
Q3 2N3904 2
the loop current. POT 2
51Ω R7 R9
~ KPD • •
R4 R10
R7 2
The transfer function for the 1
KPD=0.0032 TYPICALLY 15 kΩ
100 Ω
receiver circuit can be estab-
lished by observing the following Q1 to Q4=2N3904

equations 2

IPD1 = ILOOP • (R3 / (R3 + R1)) Figure 7. Isolated 4-to-20 mA Analog Receiver Circuit using the HCNR200.

With 0.56V at VE the resistor R4 GV ≈ VOUT/ VIN cally coupled to the base of the
is selected to be approx. 93W for ≈ ∂ IPB/∂ IF [R7 R9 /R4 R10] oscillator transistor.
6 mA of IF.
Where ∂ IPB /∂IF is the base photo In this design the optocoupler’s
With a VCC2 supply between (9 to current gain (photo diode cur- transistor is configured as a
12) V, the value of R11 is selected rent gain) and is indicated as a Colpitt’s oscillator. The base cur-
to keep the output voltage at mid- typical of 0.0032 in the data rent that controls the oscillation
point of the supply at approx. sheet. Adjust resistor R4 to of the optocoupler output tran-
4.25V with the collector current achieve the desired voltage gain. sistor (Q1) is supplied by the
ICQ4 of Q4 at approx. 9 mA. The voltage gain of the second optical photon coupling from the
stage (Q3) is approximately input LED IF modulation. The RF
Where R11' is the parallel equal to energy from the antenna is
combination of R11 and load coupled to the LED by the tuned
impedance and fT4 is the unity R9 / R10 • / [1 + sR9 (CCQ3 +1/(2π circuit formed by T1 and C1. The
gain frequency Q4. From this R11' fT4) ] 10kohm potentiometer provides
equation one can observe that to the regeneration control at the
maximize the bandwidth one Optically Coupled Regenerative input of the LED.
would want to increase the value Audio Receiver
of R11' or reduce the value of R9 A simple optically coupled regen- It is possible to connect an audio
at a constant ratio of R9/R10. erative (OCR) RF audio receiver transformer directly in the col-
can be constructed using the lector circuit of Q1 to drive the
ICQ4 ≤ 4.25V/470Ω ≤ 9 mA HCPL-4562 where the tuning high sensitivity and high imped-
control and regenerative control ance headphones. However, in
The small signal model of the bi- are optically isolated from the the design shown in Figure 8 the
polar transistors can determine rest of the receiver circuit.2 audio is recovered by a high im-
the overall voltage gain of the Figure 8 shows one such regen- pedance MOSFET transistor Q2.
circuit and gain stages involved erative detector design, where The tuned circuit (L1, C2) is con-
and is found to be the RF from the antenna is opti- nected to the gate of this infinite

0.01µF BT2
Vcc 8
10KΩ 10KΩ Anode 270µF

Vo 6 0.01µF
9V Q1
_ BIAS 3 Cathode

T1 5 3.3KΩ

VB 7 3.3k
0.01µF 22µF

D Q2

C2 RS 0.1µF OUT

Figure 8. Optically Coupled Regenerative Audio Receiver.

impedance MOSFET transistor A 2nd order Σ-∆ modulator con- signal to the desired level (usu-
Q2 which has a minimal loading verts analog input signal into ally ground), to amplify the
impact on the tuned circuit. The single bit data stream, which is signal to appropriate levels, and
audio voltage is developed across edge-trigged by encoder. High to help filter output noise.
RS (27 kohm). The simple RC speed encoded data transmit
filter formed by RS and 0.1 µF through optical coupling chan- Single-pole output from isolation
capacitor filters out the RF nel, and is recovered to single bit amplifier, like VOUT+ to GND2, can
component and passes the audio stream by decoder. The digital- be used to save cost by less op-
component for the headphones. to-analog converter simply amp and a few other components.
If necessary, one can connect an converts single bit stream into
additional amplification stage, very precise analog voltage Absolute output from smart
along with further filtering, and levels. The final analog output amplifier HCPL-788J is usually
an audio amplifier at the output voltage is recovered by filtering used to monitor AC current
to drive low impedance head- the DAC output. The filter was value, regardless of polar of the
phones. designed to maximize bandwidth current. Absolute output can di-
while minimizing quantization rectly connect to microcontroller
Agilent's Isolation Amplifiers noise generated by the sigma- and simplify the design of output
Optical isolation boundary in delta conversion process. The signal circuit.
Isolation Amplifiers provides overall gain of the isolation am-
high common mode rejection plifier is determined primarily
capability. Sigma-Delta modula- by matched internal tempera-
tion and unique encoding/ ture-compensated bandgap
decoding technologies provide voltage references, resulting in
high precision and stability very stable gain characteristics
performance. All above perfor- over time and temperature.
mances rely on an integrated
high-speed digital optocoupler to The typical performance such as
transmit signal across isolation offset, gain tolerance,
boundary. Figure 9 is the func- nonlinearity and temperature
tional block diagram. HCPL-788J drift can be guaranteed by differ-
integrates short circuit and over- ential output manner. One
load detection contributed to external op-amp has three func-
intelligent motor driver. tions: to reference the output



Encoder FILTER


Figure 9. HCPL-7800/7840/788J Block Diagram.

Shown in Figure 10, isolated CLOCK
modulator HCPL-7860/786J has GENERATOR
direct Sigma-Delta signal output ANALOG
with modulation clock, which INPUT DATA OUTPUT
can be directly connected to Modulator
microprocessor and converted to
12-bit effective resolution digital

Table 1 shows an overview of ISOLATION BOUNDARY CLOCK OUTPUT

isolation amplifiers.
Figure 10. HCPL-7860/786J Block Diagram.

Table 1. Specifications Overview of Isolation Amplifiers.

Isolated Amplifier, HCPL- 7800 7800A 7840 788J

Gain Tolerance, % ±3 ±1 ±5 ±5
Max. Input Offset Voltage, mV 3 3 3 3
Max. Input Offset Drift Vs Temperature, mV/°C 10 10 10 10
VOUT 100 mV Max. Nonlinearity, % 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4
Typ. Gain Drift Vs Temperature, ppm/°C 250 250 250 50
Max. Prop Delay, ms 9.9 9.9 9.9 20
Min. CMR at VCM = 1 kV, kV/ms 10 10 10 10
Package Type DIP8 DIP8 DIP8 SO16
[1] [1] [1]
VDE 0884 [VIORM], VPEAK 891 891 891 891[1]
UL [VISO], VRMS 3750 3750 3750 3750

Isolated Modulator, HCPL- 7860 786J

Max. Offset Drift Vs. Temperature, mV/°C 10 10
Max. Internal Reference Voltage Matching Tolerance, % 1 2
Min. CMR at VCM = 1 kV, kV/ms 15 15
Package Type DIP8 SO16
VDE 0884 [VIORM], VPEAK 891[1] 891[1]
UL [VISO], VRMS 3750 3750
1. Option 060 is needed

General Voltage Sensing General Current Sensing Motor Current Sensing
With Agilent’s isolation amplifi- A large current source can be Inverter or servo motor drivers
ers, a designer can simply sensed by a shunt resistor RS, implement vector control fast
eliminate extra noise affection which converted current to a and accurately with two modern
when sensing AC or DC voltage. voltage signal Vin = IS RS (Fig- control loops: position feedback
A high voltage source Vs (Figure ure 12). by optical encoder and current
11) is divided by resisters Rs and feedback by optical isolated
R1 to get a typical voltage signal For example, to monitor a single amplifier.
±200 mV from formula: phase 240 VAC/1.2 kW lamp cur-
rent, its peak current is: Optical isolated amplifiers
Vin = Vs Rs / (Rs + R1)
IS = ±(5 • 1.414) A = ±7.07 A directly measure phases or rail
RS is calculated at 28 mΩ while current, replacing conventional
Rs value should be relatively
the peak current input voltage indirect measurement through
small to match with isolation
are ±198 mV. This resistor re- transformer or Hall Effect
amplifier’s input impedance,
sults a power dissipation less sensor. The users had recognized
and to keep a relative bias
than 1/4 W. significant advantages of
current which does not affect the
optocouplers: standard IC
accuracy of measurement. For
The power supply VDD1 in input package, high linearity, low
example, HCPL-7840 input
side of optocoupler can be avail- temperature draft. These
impedance 500 kΩ and a less
able from rectified and regulated features provide opportunities to
than 1 kΩ Rs will have 0.4 µA
AC line, but the output side make a compact, precise and
peak bias current.
power supply VDD1 must be iso- reliable motor driver.
lated to AC line.
A capacitor C1 is connected as
A typical application circuit in
low-pass filter to prevent
A 39Ω resistor R1 and bypass Figure 13 mainly consists of
isolation amplifier from voltage
capacitor C2 are connected to shunt resister, isolated amplifier
transients of input signal. To
filter voltage transients from and a low cost op-amp.
obtain higher bandwidth, the
input signal.
capacitor C1 can be reduced, but
The maximum shunt resistance
it should not be reduced much
Single-pole output between RS can be calculated by taking
below 1000 pF to maintain gain
VOUT+ to GND2 is usually applied the maximum recommended
accuracy of the isolation
for general current sensing for input voltage and dividing by the
saving cost. peak current that should see
during normal operation. For ex-
Single-pole output between
ample, if a motor will have a
VOUT+ to GND2 is usually applied
maximum RMS current of 30 A
for general voltage sensing for
and can experience up to 50%
saving cost.
overloads during normal opera-
tion, then the peak current is
63.3 A (= 30 • 1.414 • 1.5).
+5V HCPL-7800/7840 +5V HCPL-7800/7840 Assuming a maximum input volt-
Vs Is
age of 200 mV, the maximum
R1 C1
Load C1
value of shunt resistance in this
case would be about 30 mΩ.
Rs C2 Rs C2


Figure 11. General Voltage Sensing Circuit. Figure 12. General Current Sensing Circuit.

The particular op-amp used in When low IGBT is on, rail volt- Conclusion
the post-amp circuit is not age goes through R1, R2 and C1 This paper has outlined and
critical. However, it should have to charge capacitor C2 up to 18 V highlighted the wide scope and
low enough offset and high and meanwhile supply to applications that are now pos-
enough bandwidth and slew rate HCPL-3120 and regulator, which sible using sophisticated and
so that it does not adversely powers current sensor. When highly linear optocouplers.
affect circuit performance. The low IGBT is off, C2 discharges Designers can now choose and
gain is determined by resistors and distributes its current to select an appropriate analog
R4 through R7, assuming that gate driver and regulator 78L05. optocoupler available from
R4= R5 and R6 = R7, the gain of The threshold voltage of boot- Agilent Technologies, Inc. that
the post-amplifier is R6/R4. strap power supply is 15 V, meets their end analog design
which is required by gate driver criteria. This includes high com-
Bootstrap power supply is HCPL-3120. mon mode rejection capable
usually used to reduce cost and current or voltage sensing
size in motor driver. It eliminates When low IGBT is off, the stored optocouplers such as the
the need for an isolated power energy on C1 will discharge to HCPL-7800A or the HCPL-788J.
supply or a dc-dc converter. A C5, which are together with DZ2 Or the high linearity
bootstrap power supply for high to generate a negative voltage optocouplers such as the
side of a half bridge is shown in source. HCNR201. Or the high band-
Figure 5, When designing a boot- width optocouplers such as the
strap power supply, the A bootstrap power supply for HCPL-4562.
bootstrap components R1, R2, C1 low side of half bridge is identi-
and C2 must be chosen to suffi- cal to high side circuit.
ciently power its load — the
isolated half side of gate drive
and current sensing

R1 C1

DZ1 C2 8 Vcc 1
RG 18 V
7 Vo 2
6 Cathode 3
M1 Vo
5 4
Vee N/C
78L05 C7 150pF


R6 10.0KΩ
HCPL-7800 +5V C10 0.1µF
C3 1 8 0.1µF R4
Vdd1 Vdd2
R3 0.01µF C6 2.00 KΩ
2 Vin+ 7 _
MOTOR 3 6 Vout
RS C4 Vin- Vout- + MC34081
4 5 R5 2.00 KΩ
0.1µF C9 0.1µF
D2 DZ2 C5 150pF
12V -15 V
R7 10.0 KΩ

Figure 13. Motor Current Sensing Circuit.

References 4. “Optocouplers for Variable 6. Optocoupler Designer’s
1. Photodiode Amplifiers: Op Speed Motor Control Elec- Guide, Agilent Technologies,
Amp Solutions, Jerald G. tronics in Consumer Home Publication No. 5988-4082EN,
Graeme, McGraw-Hill, New Appliances” Jamshed N. 2002.
York, 1996. Khan, Agilent Technologies, 7. “Isolation Amplifiers Com-
2. “The OCR Receiver,” QST, White Paper, Publication No. pared to Hall Effective
Daniel Wissell, N1BYT, June 5980-1297E, 2000. Devices for Providing Feed-
1998, pp 35-38. 5. “Motor Drive and Inverter back in Power-Conversion
3. “Designing with Agilent Design Using Optocouplers” Applications” D. Plant, Pro-
Technologies Isolation Joe Pernyeszi, Mike Walters ceeding of the Second Small
Amplifiers” Agilent Technolo- and Jason Hartlove, Proceed- Motor International Confer-
gies, Application Note 1078, ing of PCIM, pp. 397-406, ence (SMIC), pp. 353-358,
Publication No. 5965-5976E, 1995. 1996.
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April 16, 2003