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Mohammd Salehi (Inspection Engineer)



UV Light 1 1 1
Abrasion 3 3 3
Adhesion 3 3 3
VOC 2 3 3
Resistance to 3 3 3
Chemical 1 2 3
* 3 is better than 2 & 1.

Viscosity Cure Low Color Water Film Heat Acid
AGENT Time Temp Stability Sensitivity Flexibility Resistance Resistan
Cure ce

Aliphatic L F M G M P M M
Amines to
Polyamine H M M M M P M M
Adducts to
Polyamides H S P M M G P P
Aromatic H S P P G M G G
Ketimines M S P M G G M M
Cycloalipha L S M G G P G G

* L = Low S = Slow

H = High G = Good

M = Moderate P = Poor

F = Fast

Properties Aliphatic Polyamide Aromatic Phenolic Silicone Coal Coal Tar Water
Amine Cure Amine Modified Modified Tar Polyamide Based
Cure Cure Amine Cure

Hardness Hard Tough Hard Hard Medium Hard Tough Tough

/Strength -Hard (Brittle
Water Good Very Very Excellent Good- Excelle Excellent Fair-
Resistance Good Good Excellent nt Good
Acid Good Fair Very Excellent Good Good Good Fair
Resistance Good
Alkali Good Very Very Excellent Good Good Very Fair
Resistance Good Good Good
Salt Very Very Very Excellent Very Very Very Fair-
Resistance Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Solvent Resistance (Hydrocarbons)

Aromatic Very Fair Very Very Good Poor Poor Poor-

Good Good Good Fair
Aliphatic Very Good Very Very Very Good Good Good
Good Good Good Good
Oxygenated Fair Poor Good Very Fair Poor Poor Poor

Dry 200 - 250 F 200 - 250 F 225 - 275 F 250 - 300 200 - 250 200 - 200 - 250 180 -
F F 250 F F 225 F
Immersed 130 - 150 F 120 - 160 F 180 - 200 F 200 - 250 NA 130 - 120 - 160 NA
F 180 F F
Weatherabi Good, Good, Good, Fair, Very Poor Poor Good
lity Chalks Chalks Chalks Chalks Good
Aging Very Very Very Very Very Very Very Good
Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Best Corrosion Water Chemical Chemical Water/ Water Water Ease of
Characteris Resistance /Alkali Resistance Resistance Weather Resistance
Resistance Application

tics Resistance Resistance

Poorest Recoatabi Recoatabi Slow Cure Slow Recoata Black Black Proper
Characteris lity lity Cure bility Color Color Coales
tics Recoat Recoatab cence
ability ility
Recoatabilit Can Be Can Be Can Be Can Be Can Be Can Be Can Be Can Be
y Difficult Difficult Difficult Difficult Difficult Difficult Difficult Difficult

Primary Use Chemical Water Chemical Chemical Weather Crude Crude Atmosphe
Resistance Immersion Resistance Lining Resistance Oil/ Oil/ Corrosion

Water Water
Immer Immersion



Resin type Advantages Limitations Comments

Autooxidative cross-linked resins
Alkyds Good resistance to Not chemically Long oil alkyds
atmospheric resistant; not make excellent
weathering and suitable for primers for rusted
moderate chemical application over and pitted steel and
fumes; not resistant alkaline surfaces, wooden surfaces.
to chemical splash such as fresh Corrosion
and spillage. Long concrete, or for resistance is
oil alkyds have good water immersion adequate for mild
penetration but are chemical fumes
slow drying; short that predominate
oil alkyds are fast in many industrial
drying. areas. Used as
Temperature interior and
resistant to 105 °C exterior industrial
(225 °F) and marine finishes

Epoxy esters Good weather Generally the least A high – quality oil
resistance; chemical resistant epoxy – based coating
resistance better resin. Not resistant with good
than alkyds and to strong chemical compatibility with
usually sufficient to fumes, splash, or most other coating
resist normal spillage. types. Easy to
atmospheric Temperature apply. Used widely
corrosive attack resistance: 105 °C for atmospheric
(225 °F) in dry resistance in
atmospheres. Not chemical
suitable for environments on
immersion service structural steel,
tank exteriors, etc.

Thermoplastic resins
Acrylics Excellent light and Thermoplastic and Used
ultraviolet stability, water emulsion predominantly
gloss, and color acrylics not suitable where light
retention. Good for any immersion stability, gloss, and
chemical resistance service or any color retention are
and excellent substantial acid or of primary
atmospheric alkaline chemical importance. With
weathering exposure. Most cross linking,
resistance. acrylic coatings are greater chemical
Resistant to used as topcoats in resistance can be
chemical fumes and atmospheric achieved. Cross-
occasional mild service. Acrylic linked acrylics are
chemical splash and emulsions have the most common
spillage. Minimal limitations automotive finish.
chalking, little if any described under Emulsion acrylics
darkening on “Water emulsion are often used as
prolonged latex.” primers on
exposure to concrete block and
ultraviolet ligh masonry surfaces.

Water Resistant of water, Must be stored Ease of application

mild chemical above freezing. and cleanup. No
emulsion latex fumes, and Does not penetrate toxic solvents.
weathering. Good chalky surfaces. Good concrete and
alkali resistance. Exterior weather masonry sealers,
Latexes are and chemical because breathing
compatible with resistance not as film allows passage
most generic good as solvent or of water vapor.
coating types, oil-based coatings. Used as interior and
either as an Not suitable for exterior coatings
undercoat or immersion service

Asphalt pitch Good water Black color only. Often used as

resistance and Poor resistance to realtively
ultraviolet stability. hydrocarbon inexpensive
Will not crack or solvents, oils, fats, coating in
degrade in sunlight. and some organic atmospheric
Nontoxic and solvents. Does not service, where coal
suitable for have the moisture tars cannot be used.
exposure to food resistance of coal Relatively
products. Resistant tars. Can embrittle inexpensive. Most
to mineral salts and after prolonged common use is as a
alkalies to 30% exposure to dry pavement sealer or
concentration environments or roof coating.
temperatures above
150 °C (300 °F), and
can soften and flow
at temperatures as
low as 40 °C (100 °F)

Coal tar pitch Excellent water Unless cross linked Used as moisture-
resistance (greater with another resin, resistant coatings
than all other types is thermoplastic in immersion and
of coatings); good and will flow at underground
resistance to acids, temperatures of 40 service. Widely
alkalies, and °C (100 °F) or less. used as pipeline
mineral, animal, Hardens and exterior and
and vegetable oils embrittles in cold interior coatings
weather. Black below grade. Pitch
color only; will emulsions used as
alligator and crack pavement sealers.
on prolonged Relatively
sunlight exposure, inexpensive
although still

Cross-linked thermosetting resins

Bisphenol-F Lower volatile Less flexible; Increasing use due
organic compound requires thorough to high reactivity
epoxies (VOC) content blast cleaning and low VOC
than Bis-A epoxies. surface preparation content
Better temperature
and chemical
resistance than Bis-
A types.
temperature and
chemical resistance
between Bis-A and

Epoxy Greatest chemical Least flexible of Used for high-

resistance and epoxy resins. temperature
novolacs highest Costly. chemical
temperature immersion servic
resistance of all
epoxy resins used
for most severe
immersion service

Polyamide- Superior to amine- Cross linking does Easier to apply and

cured epoxies for not occur below topcoat,
cured epoxies water resistance. 5 °C (40 °F). more flexible, and
Excellent adhesion, Maximum better moisture
gloss, hardness resistances resistance than
impact, and generally require 7 amine-cured
abrasion resistance. day cure at 20 °C (70 epoxies. Excellent
More flexible and °F). Slightly lower adhesion over steel
tougher than chemical resistance and concrete.
amine-cured than amine-cured A widely used
epoxies. Some epoxies industrial and
formulations can marine
cure on wet maintenance
surfaces and coating. Some
underwater. formulations can
Temperature be applied to wet or
resistance: 105 °C underwater
(225 °F) dry; 65 °C surfaces.
(150 °F) wet

Polyurethanes Aliphatic urethanes Because of the Aliphatic

are noted for their versatility of the urethanes are
(aromatic or chemically isocyanate widely used as

aliphatic) excellent gloss, reaction, wide glossy light- fast

color, and diversity exists in topcoats on many
ultraviolet light specific coating exterior structures
resistance. properties. in corrosive
Properties vary Exposure to the environments.
widely, depending isocyanate should They are relatively
on the polyol be minimized to expensive but
coreactant. avoid sensitivity extremely durable.
Generally, chemical that may result in The isocyanate can
and moisture an asthmatic-like be combined with
resistances are breathing other generic
similar to those of condition on materials to
polyamide-cured continued enhance chemical,
epoxies, and exposure. Carbon moisture, low-
abrasion resistance dioxide is released temperature, and
is usually excellent. on exposure to abrasion resistance.
humidity, which
may result in gasing
or bubbling of the
coating in humid
urethanes may
darken or yellow on
exposure to

Amine-cured Excellent resistance Harder and less Good chemical and

to alkalies, most flexible than other weather resistance.
epoxies organic and epoxies and Best chemical
inorganic acids, intolerant of resistance of epoxy
water, and aqueous moisture during family. Excellent
salt solutions. application. adhesion to steel
Solvent resistance Coating chalks on and concrete.
and resistance to exposure to Widely used in
oxidizing agents are ultraviolet light. maintenance
good as long as not Strong solvents coatings and tank
continually wetted. may lift coatings. linings
Amine adducts Temperature
have slightly less resistance: 105 °C
chemical and (225 °F) wet; 90 °C
moisture (190 °F) dry. Will
resistance. not cure below 5 °C
(40 °F); should be
topcoated within
72 h to avoid
properties require
curing time of
approximately 7
Epoxy powder Good adhesion, Color change is Applied by
chemical and difficult due to electrostatic
coatings moisture extensive cleanup spray/fluidized bed.
resistance. Allows of old powder. Like Increasing use
cathodic protection all epoxy resins, because of VOC
in shielded areas on chalks on used as pipeline,
pipeline ultraviolet original equipment
exposure. Must be manufacturer
applied in shop. coatings
Hard to field repa

Coal tar Excellent resistance Embrittles on Good water

to saltwater and exposure to cold or resistance.
epoxies freshwater ultraviolet light. Thicknesses to 0.25
immersion. Very Cold weather mm (10 mils) per
good acid and alkali abrasion resistance coat. Can be
resistance. Solvent is poor. Should be applied to bare steel
resistance is good, topcoated within or concrete
although 48 h to avoid without a primer.
immersion in intercoat adhesion Low cost per unit
strong solvents may problems. Will not coverage
leach the coal tar cure below 10 °C
(50 °F). Black or
dark colors only.
resistance: 105 °C
(225 °F) dry; 65 °C
(150 °F) wet

Epoxy Excellent hot water Not as alkali Lining for food and
resistance and acid resistant as other beverage
phenolics resistance. More epoxy resins. processing and
flexible than Applies in thin storage tanks
phenolic. Better films; somewhat
alkali resistance brittle
than phenolics
Phenolics Greatest solvent Must be baked at a A brown color
resistance of all metal temperature results on baking,
organic coatings ranging from 175 to which can be used
described. Excellent 230 °C (350 to 450 to indicate the
resistance to °F). Coating must degree of cross
aliphatic and be applied in a thin linking. Widely
aromatic film (approximately used as tank lining
hydrocarbons, 0.025 mm, or 1 mil) for alcohol storage
alcohols, esters, and partially baked and fermentation
ethers, ketones, and between coats. and other food
chlorinated Multiple thin coats products. Used for
solvents. Wet are necessary to hot water
temperature allow water from immersion service.
resistance to 95 °C the condensation Can be modified
(200 °F). Odorless, reaction to be with epoxies and
tasteless, and removed. Cured other resins to
nontoxic; suitable coating is difficult enhance water,
for food use to patch due to chemical, and heat
extreme solvent resistance
resistance. Poor
resistance to
alkalies and strong

Polyureas Extremely fast Requires Concrete coatings

curing, highly specialized spray for use in secondary
elastic thick film equipment due to containment of
coatings with good fast curing chemical tanks.
strength. Abrasion Elastomeric roof
resistance, chemical coatings

Resin type Advantages Limitations Comments

Organic zinc- Galvanic protection Generally have Widely used in
afforded by the zinc lower service Europe and the Far
rich content, with performance than East, while
chemical and inorganic zinc-rich inorganic zinc- rich
moisture resistance coatings, but ease of coatings are most
similar to that of the application and common in North
organic binder. surface preparation America. Organic
Should be tolerance make binder can be
topcoated in them increasingly closely tailored to
chemical popular. topcoats (for
environments with example, epoxy
a pH outside the topcoats over
range 5–10. More epoxy-zinc-rich
tolerant of surface coatings) for a more
preparation and compatible system.
topcoating than Organic zinc-rich
inorganic zinc-rich coatings are often
coatings used to repair
galvanized or
inorganic zinc- rich

Inorganic Provides excellent Inorganic nature Ethyl silicate zinc-

long-term necessitates rich coatings
zinc-rich protection against thorough blast- require atmospheric
pitting in neutral cleaning surface moisture to cure
and near-neutral preparation and and are the most
atmospheric, and results in difficulty common type.
some immersion, when topcoating Widely used as a
services. Abrasion with organic primer on bridges,
resistance is topcoats. Zinc dust offshore structures,
excellent, and dry is reactive outside and steel in the
heat resistance the pH range of 5– building and
exceeds 370 °C (700 10, and topcoating is chemical-
°F). Water-based necessary in processing
inorganic silicates chemical fume industries. Used as a
are available for environments. weldable
confined spaces and Somewhat difficult preconstruction
compliance with to apply; may primer in the
regulations mudcrack at automotive and
regarding volatile thicknesses in excess shipbuilding
organic compounds of 0.13 mm (5 mils industries. Use
eliminates pitting

General type of Flexibility Sulfide-stain Typical uses Comments
resin and resistance
blended to
produce it
Oleo-resinous Good Poor Acid fruits Good general-
(drying oil and purpose range
natural or at relatively
synthetic low cost
Sulfur-resistant Good Good Vegetables and Not for use
oleo-resinous soups (especially with acid
(added ZnO) can ends or as products;
topcoat over possible
epoxy phenolic) intense green
color with such
vegetables as
Phenolic Moderate- Very good Meat, fish, Good at
(phenol or poor vegetables, and relatively low
substituted soups cost, but film
phenol with thickness is
formaldehyde restricted by
Epoxy-phenolic Good Poor Meat, fish, Wide range of
(epoxy resins vegetables, properties can
soups, beer, and
with phenolic beverages (first be obtained by
resins) coat) modifications
Epoxy-phenolic Good Good Vegetables and Not for use
with ZnO (ZnO soups (especially with acid
added) can ends) products,
possible color
change with
some green
Aluminized Good Very good Meat products Clean but
epoxy-phenolic rather dull
(metallic appearance
powder added)
Vinyl, solution Excellent Not applicable Spray on can Free from
(vinyl chloride- bodies, roller flavor taints;
vinyl acetate coating on ends, sensitive to
copolymers) as topcoat for soldering heat
beer and and not usually
beverages suitable for
application to
Vinyl, Good Not applicable Beer and Same as for
organosol, or beverage vinyl solutions,
plastisol (high topcoat on ends, but giving a
molecular bottle closures, thicker,
weight vinyl drawn cans for tougher layer
resins sweets,
suspended in a pharmaceuticals,
nonsolvent) and tobacco
Acrylic (acrylic Very good in Very good Vegetables, Attractive,
resin, usually some ranges when soups, and clean
pigmented pigmented prepared foods appearance of
white) containing opened cans
sulfide stainers
Polybutadiene Moderate- Very good if Beer and Cost and
(hydrocarbon poor zinc-oxide is beverages first therefore,
resins) added coat; vegetables popularity
and soups if with depend on
ZnO country

Type of Acid Alkali Salt Solvent Water Weather Oxidation Abrasion
Coating resistance resistance resistance resistance resistance resistance resistance resistance
Oil-base 1 1 6 2 7 10 1 4
Alkyd 6 6 8 4 8 10 3 6
Chlorinated 10 10 10 4 10 8 6 6
Coal-tar 8 8 10 7 10 4 5 4
Catalysed 9 10 10 9 10 8 6 6
Silicone 4 3 6 2 8 9 4 4

Vinyl 10 10 10 5 10 10 10 7
Urethane 9 10 10 9 10 8 9 10
Zinc 1 1 5 10 5 10 10 10

* A vlue of 10 represents the best protection