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The Comparison Of Artificial Intelligence To Biological Life

By

Ian Beardsley

Copyright © 2018 by Ian Beardsley

ISBN: 978-1-387-92763-0

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Part 1………………………………………………………………………………3

Part 2………………………………………………………………………………24

Part 3………………………………………………………………………………32

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Part 1

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Part 2

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Part 3

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The plot of this equation is a three dimensional square wave. The square wave is the form of
logic circuits from which AI is built. It consists of the binary zero and one. The plot is on the
next page.

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The next circuit up in order of simplicity to complexity from the resistor and capacitor circuits in
parallel and series are the diode circuits that can be used to make logic gates. I have found by
way of the fact that silicon diodes turn on at 0.6 volts that they determine the visible spectrum
for the human eye:


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The resistance-capacitor circuits (RC circuits) used to trigger digital logic circuits are explained
here:


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Wikipedia writes,…

Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6, which


means that it is a molecule that is made of six carbon atoms, twelve hydro-
gen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Glucose circulates in the blood of ani-
mals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and car-
bon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of
energy for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as
starch and in animals as glycogen.

And gives its molar mass as 180.0634 grams/mole

It further writes,…

Oleic acid is a fatty acid that occurs naturally in various animal and veg-
etable fats and oils. It is an odorless, colorless oil, though commercial sam-
ples may be yellowish. In chemical terms, oleic acid is classified as a mo-
nounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid, abbreviated with a lipid number of 18:1
cis-9. It has the formula CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH.[2] The term "oleic"
means related to, or derived from, olive oil which is mostly composed of
oleic acid.

Fatty acids (or their salts) do not often occur as such in biological systems.
Instead fatty acids like oleic acid occur as their esters, commonly triglyc-
erides, which are the greasy materials in many natural oils. Fatty acids can
be obtained via the process of saponification.

And gives its molar mass as 282.74 grams/mole

Since olive oil is a healthy, unsaturated oil that has been used by humans
since ancient times in the Middle East, and, since glucose is the primary
sugar in life (circulates in blood, and is the most important source of energy
for cellular respiration) we look at them.

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I wrote in my AI Cookbook,…

Electron Volt: A unit of energy equal to the work done on an electron in accelerating it
through a potential of one volt. It is 1.6E10-19 Joules (Google Search Engine)

Volt: Potential energy that will impart on joule of energy per coulomb of charge that
passes through it. (Wikipedia)

Coulomb: The charge of 6.242E18 protons or 6.242E18 electrons.

Forward Bias: A diode (silicon) must have 0.7 volts across it to turn it on, 0.3 volts
(Germanium). This is called forward voltage. The forward voltage threshold is 0.6 volts.

(0.6 volts)(1.6E-19)=9.6E-20 Joules

This is the energy to turn on a diode, or the threshold of life for artificial intelligence. I
call it a bue (basic unit of energy).

+1.2eV —————|>—————————> out (9.6E-20 J, or 0.6 eV)


|
|
—————|>———|
|
|
R
|
|
—————————

A photon has to have a minimum energy of 1.2 electron volts to impart to an electron for it to
turn on the simplest of logic gates; a one on, one off, OR GATE, for there to be an output of one
“bue” (basic unit of energy electronic) , which 9.6E-20 Joules, as I have calculated it.

Use Planck’s Equation: E=hv where h= 6.626E-34 Joule seconds

v=2(9.6E-20)/(6.626E-34)=3.067E14 cycles per second

wavelength = lambda = c/v where c is the speed of light equal to 3E8 m/s

lambda = (3E8)/(3.067E-14) = 9.78E-7 meters

1 micrometer = 1E-6 meters

lambda ~ 1 micrometer (This is where the visible spectrum begins)

So we see the visible spectrum for one photon of light begins where the energy is 2 bue.

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I further wrote the following in the same book,…

Aerobic respiration requires oxygen (O2) in order to generate ATP. Although carbohy-
drates, fats, and proteins are consumed as reactants, it is the preferred method of pyru-
vate breakdown in glycolysis and requires that pyruvate enter the mitochondria in order
to be fully oxidized by the Krebs cycle. The products of this process are carbon dioxide
and water, but the energy transferred is used to break strong bonds in ADP as the third
phosphate group is added to form ATP (adenosine triphosphate), by substrate-level
phosphorylation, NADH and FADH2 (Wikipedia)

Simplified reaction:

C6H12O6 (s) + 6 O2 (g) → 6 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l) + heat


ΔG = −2880 kJ per mol of C6H12O6
(Wikipedia)

This is the heat (enthalpy) of the combustion of C6H12O6

(2,880,000 J)/(6.02E23 C6H12O6) =4.784E-18 J = basic unit of biological life


(4.784E-18 J)/(9.6E-20 J)=49.8~50

This says the basic energy unit of organic, or biological life, is about 50 times greater
than the basic energy unit of electronic life, or artificial intelligence.

That is 0.6(50)=30 electron volts = basic unit of energy for biological life.

So, we see the visible spectrum for one photon of light begins where the energy of the
photon is 2 “bue” electronic which is 100 “bue” biological and that that photon has a
wavelength of 1.0 micrometers.

This is all about vision in a robot or AI.

I now see we should do the same calculation we did for silicon diodes, for germanium
diodes, which turn on at 0.3 volts. We have,…

(0.3 volts)(1.6E-19 Joules/volt)=4.8E-20 Joules



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Artificial Intelligence and Biological Life are a story of masculine and feminine, 0 and 1, on and
off, Yin and Yang:

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The Author