1.

INTRODUCTION
1.1. Company Profile
Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS) is the world-leading information technology consulting, services, and business process outsourcing organization that envisioned and pioneered the adoption of the flexible global business practices that today enable companies to operate more efficiently and produce more value. TCS commenced operations in 1968, when the IT services industry didn’t exist as it does today. Now, with a presence in 34 countries across 6 continents, & a comprehensive range of services across diverse industries, it is one of the world's leading Information Technology companies. It is a part of one of Asia's largest conglomerates - the TATA Group, which, with its interests in Energy, Telecommunications, Financial Services, Chemicals, Engineering & Materials, provides us with a grounded understanding of specific business challenges facing global companies. When TCS commenced operations in 1968, they pioneered the offshore delivery model for IT services. Today, with a presence in 34 countries across 6 continents, over 35000 consultants from 30 nationalities and more than 100000 person year of experience, TCS offers a comprehensive range of IT services to clients in diverse industries, such as banking and financial services, insurance, manufacturing, telecommunications, retail and

transportation. And a comprehensive range of services across diverse industries, it is one of the world's leading Information Technology companies. Seven of the Fortune Top 10 companies are among its valued customers. TCS is a part of one of Asia’s largest 1

conglomerates - the TATA Group -provides the world with a grounded understanding of specific business challenges facing global companies.

2

TCS ability

to deliver

high

quality

services and

solutions

is unmatched.

It became the world’s first organization to achieve enterprise –wide “Maturity Level 5” on both CMMI and P-CMM, using the most rigorous assessment methodology, SCAMPISM. TCS integrated quality management system (inmost) integrates process maturity, people maturity and technology maturity through the practices and standards of various established frameworks and models, including IEEE, ISO 9001: 2000, CMMI, SW- CMM, P-CMM and Six Sigma.

1.2. Mission, Vision & Values : The 3 Pillars of TCS
While TCS Mission articulates the reason for TCS existence, vision reflects an aspiration to continually improve, to excel & be the best. TCS values characterize us as an organization & guide TCS every action.

Mission
To help customers achieve their business objectives by providing innovative, best-in-class consulting, IT solutions and services. Make it a joy for all stakeholders to work with TCS.

Vision
To be among the top 10 global companies.

Values
 Integrity  Leading Change 3

 Excellence  Respect for the Individual  Learning and Sharing 4 .

product data management and customization of engineering software. architecture and technology consulting. TCS today includes consulting as an integrated part of any assignment to its customers in different industry segments. as well as packaged software implementation across multiple industry and technology domains. engineering drafting. consulting and integration. 5 . embedded software and R&D services to diverse clients. hardware support and installation. computer-aided engineering design and manufacturing. • Engineering and Industrial Services Offer a range of engineering services. assisting in new product development and product lifecycle management through services in the areas of product design.3.1. IT Services Application development and maintenance services over the entire IT application life cycle including migration and re-engineering. testing services. e-commerce and internet services. simulation. systems integration. Services One of the first companies to set up an independent consulting division. IT Infrastructure Offer services including complete outsourcing of IT networks. and infrastructure management.

South Africa. centre. which was India's first industrial software R&D. China & Japan . Design & Development Centre. Hungary. • • • Tata Research. Design and Development Centre (TRDDC). India. Due to applied-research outlook.4. The Advanced Technology Centre at Hyderabad & TRDDC led TCS research & development efforts. Canada. VLSI.TCS have one of the most comprehensive networks of delivery centers worldwide. Hyderabad TCS Technology Innovation Lab (iLab) iLab focuses on emerging technologies that could drive disruptive changes in the global technology industry. embedded systems. and develop re-usable solution frameworks based on these. Pune Advanced Technology Centre. TCS established the Tata Research. in Pune. 1. process engineering. United Kingdom.1. TCS have developed several proprietary tools such as MasterCraftTM and Assent TM that allow us to automate the software development process & significantly bring down development costs. TCS core areas of research are systems & software engineering.1. bioinformatics and security. TCS R&D investments help us enhance & differentiate TCS services and strengthen TCS delivery capabilities. On top of this infrastructure are 6 . India. Flexible Global Delivery With delivery capabilities in the United States. Uruguay. Brazil. Research & Development In 1981.4.

TCS provide unparalleled economies of scale & scope. to the TCS way of doing things. 1. from some of the best organizations in the world. TCS are endowed with one of the most enviable pool of talent from across the globe. United Kingdom & Europe. TCS bring best-in-class technology consulting & services that help them stay ahead of competition & drive greater returns on their information technology investments. TCS also have a strong 7 . not only are TCS entrenched in developed markets such as the United States & Canada. Business & technology experts. can expect higher levels of productivity with a reassuring predictability. TCS bring the most complete team to bear on every project TCS take on. bring invaluable insights into their areas of expertise. People With a rare mix of domain. technology & project management experts.2. TCS integrated project & quality management frameworks enable us to take the uncertainty out of technology projects. which ultimately means TCS customers. from some of the best educational institutions in the world. For customers with operations across the globe. With a presence in 34 countries. TCS training & development center introduces young graduates. To customers in specific geographies.4. In a business model where people are the growth drivers.built cutting edge collaborative systems that allow seamless integration of projects delivered from multiple locations.

Ultimately. TCS Culture TCS has an energetic and open workplace environment. TCS has a stimulating and exciting experience. The doors are always open at TCS 3. Not only do their offices have the best 8 . Latin America. 1.3. Customers TCS has developed IT solutions for over 500 customers all over the world. TCS arm them with that much-needed edge in the marketplace. and a collaborative culture that's based on teamwork. TCS end-toend solutions help its customers gain efficiency in their business processes.5. The better half of TCS Energetic and full of enthusiasm.foothold in the high-growth markets of tomorrow such as Asia Pacific. While TCS strong sales & marketing presence across the globe gives us the leverage to strengthen existing relationships build new ones & enter new markets.4. TCS alliance partners give us an extended reach into markets where TCS do not have a direct presence. Diversity at work 2. associates enjoy their day (and night) at work. 1. Pulling together is a central tenet of TCS work ethic. 1. Africa & the Middle East.

with Maitree or with just a bunch of other like-minded TCSers. be it customers or the wider society. The code is a means of upholding and strengthening the trust reposed on them by various stakeholders.infrastructure and technology.1. 1. associates have a knack of working hard — and partying harder. They are off to treks. And. TCS take pride in adhering to the Tata 'code of conduct'. Diversity at work TCS is an equal-opportunity employer and TCSers come from many nationalities and speak many languages. 9 .5. since they believe in celebrating everything under the sun. They are habituated to do the regular outing. picnics or just bus rides whenever TCS get the chance. nature camps. be it with TCS project teams. which is in place across the entire Tata Group. one can find them singing carols at Christmas and doing the dandiya dance at Navrathri with equal enthusiasm.

The better half of TCS is a part to of the family…. The queries and discussions are formally recorded and followed up. The doors are always open at TCS Senior colleagues follow an open-door policy in which any associate can approach the CEO and senior management with work-related problems.2.5. was formed with the objective of bringing the large and geographically widespread TCS community under a common umbrella. as well as understanding real-life issues that colleagues face at work. Maitree has two distinct objectives. In addition. Maitree.5. These sessions are helpful in providing mentorship. Communication is a big word at TCS and an associate regularly takes part in web casts and chat session through which important corporate issues or decisions on real-time basis are shared with associates worldwide. TCS also has institutionalized open-house sessions and engagement programmes in which associates at all levels meet and discuss various work issues.1. it serves as an information-sharing body where useful tidbits about living in a foreign country which are the good schools in Minneapolis? Where do you get Indian spices in Stockholm? Are shared by TCS employees and their families. Maitree also functions as a forum where a wide range of 10 . a fraternity comprising TCSers' spouses.3. Primarily. 1. TCSers can also take part in one-on-one sessions where they can interact privately with senior management.

TCS has 10 other centers in India fully equipped to conduct any type of training programme. The ILP is conducted with the objective of transforming engineers from diverse disciplines into software professionals. Consider TCS ‘initial learning programme' (ILP). a conference hall. discussion rooms. established in 1998.6.000 square feet. a shining example of which can be seen at the state-of-the-art training centre in Thiruvananthapuram in the south Indian state of Kerala. which cover over 300 topics and can be delivered over a variety of channels: classrooms.socially relevant activities are conducted. sprawls over 58. 41/47 day training TCSse at the Thiruvananthapuram facility. contact sessions. a library. Training and Learning TCS sees the training and education of the people as a continuous value-adding process. seminars. computers. Then there are the 'continuing education programs' (CEPs). 11 . and faculty and administrative areas. be it improving the environment or taking care of the less privileged. an auditorium. improves and enhances their skills — and makes the organization stronger. TCS dedicated training centre in Thiruvananthapuram. This approach hones. The TCS training centre in Thiruvananthapuram TCS invests about 4 per cent of its annual revenues in training. which is for all the recruits from engineering colleges. The facility has about 300 personal computers connected to servers. 1. The centre has 18 classrooms. This is a specially designed. conferences and workshops. audio / video.

6. 12 . Driven By Knowledge In October 2005.2005. Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) was adjudged one of 14 winners in Asia’s Most Admired Knowledge Enterprises (MAKE) Study -. The award was given in recognition of best practices in Knowledge Management (KM).1.1. by a panel of Asian Fortune 500 senior executives and renowned KM experts. The organizations were rated on eight knowledge performance parameters.

In order to make the company a learning organization.TCS was rated the first in maximizing enterprise intellectual capital and creating a learning organization. 13 . The company also had a world class training center in place. TCS was in the forefront in tapping intellectual capital from across the world. 6% of its turnover was invested in training and development.

14 . The people in the company are all of varied domain and mixed regions so bringing them together and aligning them towards the company’s goal as well their own personal development is what TCS HR has.2. TCS HR Mission Statement Tata consultancy services a billion dollar company has over more than 65000 work forces or rather talking in the jargon of the company they are the associates in their business. facilitate.2. 2.1. and measure the human and technological processes in the pursuit of excellence. Tata group of company’s have always been referred as welfare of organizations who value their employees as their own family. Building and Empowering “The role of HR is to provide the context for energizing and developing people to play effective roles in ensuring that TCS becomes one of the top global consulting firms.1. develop.1. Towards achieving this TCS will identify. HUMAN RESOURCE AT TCS 2. as a challenge. TCS will foster the values of the TATA group". Role of HR at TCS 2.1.

HR is a corporate function at TCS and is currently structured both by geography and process ownership. 2. it also means ensuring maximum utilization and realization and controlling unallocated. it is imperative that competencies are built on a continuous basis. The major work of MATC is what is called in TCS parlance “allocating an associate”.1.4. experience. The HR team at TCS works with large number of associates around the globe and they work with them efficiently with the best in class systems and proc 2. Employee Engagement 15 . give associates the opportunity to widen their horizon.The HR group at TCS comprises of more than 400 qualified professionals spread across the globe . Manpower Allocation Committee MANPOWER ALLOCATION COMMITTEE or in TCS term MATC is hub of all activities at TCS it’s a place where all decisions are made to maximize business returns and simultaneously fulfill individual aspirations. it also means ensuring that the business gets the maximum return in terms of billing and revenue. In an IT industry where the company’s assets are its software professionals and consultants. TCS world wide.5. TCS follows a unique model of rotating associates between different types of projects thus giving them an opportunity to learn and grow. aspirations and career plan –it also ensures that the business gets the maximum return in terms of billing and revenues.1.

. which has traditionally seen low attrition levels (below the 10 percent mark). The company gave out shares to its personnel after its famed IPO. For that’s how you can get the best out of the people. This fresh perspective brings forth the need for human capital strategies.preneurial hat and captured imagination. stop and talk to them.. It is time HR learnt from the business side. and even technological innovations can be imitated. TCS. listen to what they have to say. promotional campaigns can be mimicked. are offering additional benefits. However some of the major events celebrated each year are-:  Technology Day –a Day to celebrate technology through technology based quizzes /panel discussions  Sports month –To encourage sports and fitness related activities amongst associates 16 . donned the intra. organizations struggle to find additional means of gaining competitive advantage.Mingle with the employees. There is a theme attached every month –and a special set of activities to go with the theme –12 special events celebrated at TCS locations worldwide. The only real source of sustainable competitive advantage for an organization is the power of its people HR is fast shifting from being activity-based to playing a strategic role. to garner mind share as well as internal customer loyalty. Every day. Employee engagement programs are one of the major activities that TCS HR is involved into. TCS need to view people not as mere resources but as assets/capital. Most important. Products can be copied.

This is a recognition mechanism acknowledging special effort put in by the associate.6. Each location has aimed at its own set of STARS who receive due publicity in the hall of fame. These are viewed by a cross 17 . Awards are often signified by trophies. 2. outstanding development opportunities.A day to show case your hidden talents. and. TCS guarantee high motivation levels through competitive compensation packages.A day out with the family and an opportunity to meet the families of the friends and colleagues  Associate Talent Month. supervisors and the team members send nominations. medals. pins or ribbons. stimulating job content. certificates. plaques. Employee Recognition An award is something given to a person or group of people to recognize excellence in a certain field. Peers. The various ways in which TCS recognizes its people are listed below: Project milestone parties — To encourage efficient execution of projects. TCS picnic –An opportunity for associates and families to get together and connect  Family Day.1. badges. an innovative recognition mechanism. not the least. Recognition of star performers / high fliers — To recognize outstanding talent. An award can simply be the public acknowledgment of excellence.

performing new employees. High performers are formally conferred the CMC Ratna Award and interaction between CMC and other Tata companies were encouraged. Spot awards — To ensure real-time recognition of employees. Best PIP award — To encourage innovation and continuous improvement. PAIS (performance appraised information system) was introduced to recognize and reward good performance.functional committee of senior associates. Each STAR is given a certification of recognition along with a gift voucher. Recommendations for new technology assignments / key positions — To ensure career progression and development of employees’ full potential. Best auditor award — To acknowledge participation in critical support roles. Performance-based annual increments — To recognize high performers. Early confirmations for new employees — To reward high. Best project award — To promote a spirit of internal competition across work groups and to foster teamwork. Nomination to coveted training programme — To encourage self-development. 18 .

In the rapidly changing environment. 19 .PEEP provides associates with an opportunity to have a face to face meeting with group heads and senior management . Learning and Development Every organization needs to have well trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done .2.Long-service awards — To build organizational loyalty .These meetings allow an associate to speak out and voice opinions and aspirations . EVA-based increments — To ensure performance-based salaries. employee training is not only an activity that is desirable but also an activity that an organization must commit resources to if it is tom maintains a viable and knowledgeable work force.It strengthens the upward communication process and ensures that important issues are addressed. PEEP (Proactive Employee Engagment Program)-.To raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of the employees the organization needs to give training to its workforce. With advent of globalization and the increasing complexities of job the importance of training has increased. On-the-spot recognition — To guarantee immediate recognition of good Performance. the more are their rewards. 2. The more they deliver. The 'economic value added' model that we follow at TCS ensures that the compensation packages of our employees are determined by the value they bring to the organization.

2. It provides a confidential forum that assists participants in testing and clarifying ideas and provides additional motivation for each individual to take action as well as a support network to try out ideas with. At TCS The Objective Of Learning Group is • • • • • • Deliver effective learning session in close liaison with all stakeholders Share common vision of learning group Skill and technology up gradation and associate satisfaction Strengthening customer relation Innovative solutions for problems Achieving quality The Learning Strategies • Obtaining learning needs from Delivery Center Head. Training is described as a learning experience. Group Leaders and Project Leaders 20 .2.In scientific terms training can be defined as a learning experience in which it seeks a relatively permanent in an individual A learning set is a process by which the group identifies common learning needs and meets them within the group through shared learning or through external expertise or facilitation As learning sets are based on self-directed learning.1. participants can decide the particular topics they wish to cover and how they wish these topics to be covered.

Today.work at the SEI CMM Level 5. it has an impressive client list that includes heavyweights like the $26-bn. among others. At TCS it all began in the previous century. Former Deputy Chairman and currently a TCS Board Member. maths or science. and more than 50 per cent have a Masters. in the late 1960s.estimated at 12. the highest number for any organization in the world. "To build people. Over 90 per cent of its recruits hold degrees in engineering.• Deciding training according to project needs At TCS the training starts with inception of joining directly from the campus. Over the past three decades. According to F C Kohli.142 crore for the financial year ended March '01. US-based Target Corp. For academia is not fully equipped and in the present setup has degenerated to the level of training shops. TCS believes in quality at every step so training is one thing which they cannot ignore. TCS has metamorphosed into a multi-crore company and in 2001 it turned in sale of Rs 3. TCS should equip them with knowledge and skills and attitudes before they an execute responsibilities”. Merely taking in the brightest and the best however is not enough. when Tata Consultancy Services laid the foundation for an industry that has assured India a prominent place on the global IT map. Most of the professionals .800 . and the $111-bn General Electric. TCS hunts at the best universities and institutes worldwide. 21 . The company attributes its success to a winning combination of excellent people and cutting edge technology.

in the absence of standardization and integration. The company invests more than 6 per cent of its revenue in training. Vice-President (Education and Training). which includes two months of intensive training at Thiruvananthapuram and now it has a training center at Bhuveneshwar.Referring specifically to the InfoTech sector. 22 . TCS CEO S Ramadorai. R Narayanan. A proactive approach to skill development. therefore. it's necessary to train professionals so that they ask clients relevant questions in order to ascertain what actually they want. Delhi and Kolkata. It also imparts knowledge on emerging technologies and global management practices to all its employees through two initiatives: the Individual Learning Process and the Continuing Training Programme. "Hence. says "life-long learning in TCS is extremely important and articulated. Chennai. Mr. in 1997. But.500 inductees every year. Initially.000 per candidate per day. TCS says "Infotech has a wide application. It comes as no surprise. A major problem is (that of) developing a standard set of methodologies for a variety of domains. that TCS takes training very seriously. it set up centre at Thiruvananthapuram. it gives every TCS employee 20 days a year to take up any TCSser. TCS has a well-planned induction programme for new recruits. TCS provided skill upgrade facilities at centers in Mumbai. Narayanan says this is considered "people investment". Failures in the IT sector are not due to a lack of technical expertise or knowledge per se." The Company spends Rs 6.000-7. Affirming the company's commitment to training. This gets amplified when TCS deliver solutions. but inadequate knowledge about the sector. The Rs 20-crore facility polishes more than 3. Towards this end. the company felt the need for some level of centralization.

attitudes and management. The centre provides its employees with three kinds of training programmes . TCS do not have that leeway. Likewise it has partnered IIT Powai on R&D projects such as micro-electronics and intelligent internet. It is a proven approach to performance management that seeks to promote as well as improve 23 . is equipped to train over 600 people simultaneously in various software subjects and technologies. according to Mr. Narayanan. So. "but in the workplace. which is executed for its professionals by the IIT. It's all about leadership.Besides sophisticated technology and lab facilities. "In college TCS have the freedom to choose TCS associates. With a view to promoting better management practices. Committed to quality." explains Mr. where TCS has conducted it in French. It has tied up with IIT Chennai to create an MTech programme. The attitude programme is designed to improve inter-personal skills and help professionals work in a team. has a gym and canteen facilities. strategy. Narayanan. and has been so successful that TCS has begun exporting it. the Thiruvananthapuram centre. TCS has teamed up with centers of excellence to create bodies of knowledge in computer engineering. the programme has been well-received in Europe and in France. which has a 300-bed hostel. In fact. information analysis and client focuses. TCS have to learn how to deal with people and that's what this programme tries to do. the Tata Group has adopted the Malcolm Baldridge Model.technology. and is ISO 9001 certified." The programme has been developed by a Pune-based freelancer. TCS has long realized that business is not about just people and processes.

which reduces absenteeism and high turnover rates • • Lessens the chance of costly.2. This model forms the base for the first level of the management programme. (b) Organizational effectiveness and (c) Organizational and personal learning. teaching employees collaborative techniques and helping them recognize and implement the many processes involved in positive change. Studies show that managers typically spend up to 30% of their time dealing with conflict. Training builds both the individual’s and organization’s potential to work through conflicts. This improves their decision-making skills.(a) Value delivered to clients. In recognizing the potential strength of people and groups. Advantages of TCS Training Programmes: • Improves workplace environments as they are safer and more productive. grudges and unresolved conflicts so they no longer undermine the group or team’s ability to work together • Decreases recruitment and staffing cycle time and related costs for training and development 24 .2. 2. destructive and potentially damaging litigation Reduces misunderstandings. TCS help participants learn – and retain – communication skills that can be used in everyday workplace experiences.

The faculty for the training program could be both outside and internal. At TCS HR is not responsible for the training program they have a special cell for that that is the branch-learning group. Once the request has been raised BLG has to arrange the training as soon as possible because that is counted in the service level agreement. 25 . which keeps on happening at the BLG (BRANCH LEARNING GROUP) catalogue. It is mandatory for TCS employees to attend at least 15 day training program each year this is to upgrade their competency and brings efficiency in the work performed. Each and every project which requires training for their team can a raise a request to the BLG which will arrange the training program.• • Increases core competency skill base by adding value to the organization Training also helps the employees to attain the new skills as and when required for a specific project • Training at TCS is not only technology based but also generic managerial driven training is also a part of the training program Once the associate joins work after the intensive training there is routine training.

2.2.3. The Competency Management scene at TCS In a dynamic environment like the IT industry, it is a challenge to keep pace with new and emerging technologies on a continuous basis. The only way to stay afloat and ahead of competition is by creating an environment of continuous learning for the individual and elevating organizational skills. Thus competency management is the lifeline of the IT organization. TCS has come up with the competency model called iCALMS (INTEGRATED COMPETENCY AND LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TCS has an unbelievable number of more than 3000 competencies and 300 roles. An exercise on Job Analysis is being done to tag specific behavioral competencies needed to perform specific role, i.e. anyone performing a given role will be expected or required to possess the generic competencies tagged to that role iCALMS AS A SYSTEM • • Meets the needs of the learners at the global basis Uses an integrated and management oriented approach to provide support for most advance learning methods • Helps employees for their ever changing needs and skills requirement to better contribute to current and emerging enterprise growth initiates • Provides on demand training to increase productivity and maintain competitive advantage • Reduce costs and optimizes TCS training investments by consolidating existing systems while offering uniform learning opportunities

26

Applies a systematic way to track and measure the effectiveness of all TCS all learning efforts with a singe scalable system at iCALMS an individual can there is a systematic approach where each individual has the convenience of assigning competencies and also upgrade them as and when required. Supervisor can assign an individual roles played in the project and in the same way the individual can assign himself specific competencies .In the same way an individual can graduate to a higher competency in reference to specific roles or competencies.

iCALMS has proven to be advantageous and successful in the following manners: • Allocation of people to projects must be done based on updated Competencies and aspirations of individuals • • Sustenance of role and competency tagging for the end user must be done Low turn around time for standardizing definitions of the new additions to roles and competencies • • Integration with performance management Integration with finance to measure L&D efforts

2.2.4. The Continuous Learning At TCS the life of the associate begins with the Induction program which helps a new recruit to get familiar with the organization, its business, process and people and their by let them settle down quickly and smoothly. The TCS induction program is the best in Industry.

27

For the campus recruit the Induction is in the form of ILP (initial learning Program) and it is a specially designed program to shape a fresh graduate into a complete professional through technical and personal development. EP (Experienced professional) training aims at providing familiarity with software processes and business processes followed by project-based skills set. Once ILP is done TCS has a Continuous learning program. This is a mandatory 15 days learning through classrooms, e learning, self-study, experience sharing. To add to once repertoire of TCS Jargon they have a program called Life Long Learning (LLL), which comprises of TDP (Technology Domain Process). Learning is a cycle as associated also has an opportunity to give back to the organization. Associate’s themselves-highly competence and enthusiasts individuals anchor most of the learning initiatives.

28

“Why are TCS here?” The vision asks. They are statements of belief in precise Language and absolute in application. Factors Influencing Recruiting Efforts Organizational Requirements • • Employment condition in the community Working condition and salary There are 10 interrelated elements that need to be considered to develop a comprehensive recruitment work plan. They are simply formatted. They are defined as follows: • Vision—A vision offers a fairly detailed scenario of what the organization’s ideal should be.1. RECRUITMENT Recruiting is the discovering of potential candidates for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies it can also be called as the linking activity –bringing together those with jobs to fill and those seek. 3. “What should TCS be?” • Beliefs and Values—Beliefs and Values are declarations of universal human values as Upheld by the people who make up the organization. “Why are TCS here?” 29 . crisply stated and easily understood. • Mission statement—a mission statement is a clear and concise expression of the State’s Purpose and function as it relates to its responsibilities. It answers the question.3. The mission statement asks the question.

technological. Identifying the critical issues focuses attention on the paramount threats and opportunities and thereby provides compelling rationale for the strategic deployment of resources. Categories to include in this analysis may include: the organization’s other initiatives. methods. • Internal Assessment—this is a critical analysis of how the organization is functioning in relation to its responsibilities. 30 . This critique is aimed at determining what is working and what are not working and identifying resource gaps and redundancies. • External Analysis—This is an environmental analysis. which seeks to predict events and conditions that may affect the success of the organization. political. They are the imperatives that keep the organization true to itself and its values. • Objectives—The statement of objectives is the organization’s commitment to achieve Specific and measurable end results. communications.• Parameters—Parameters are the boundaries in which TCS are free to operate. economics. social/demographic trends. and competition and collaboration opportunities. systems of evaluation and accountability. The objectives are what the organization must achieve if they are to accomplish their mission and be true to their beliefs. • Identification of Critical Issues—Critical issues are those in which the organization faces the prospect of getting either much better or much worse.

3.2 Recruiting Sources • • • • • • • • Internal search Advertisement Employee recommendation and referral Employment agencies Temporary help services Schools. • Action plan—Action plans are detailed descriptions of specific actions required to implement and achieve strategies. colleges and universities Walk ins Personal organization jobs 31 .• Strategies—Strategies are statements of how the organization will accomplish its stated Objectives thereby achieving its mission. responsibilities and major milestones (milestones at which in process results are to be evaluated. Strategies are the articulation of bold commitments to deploy the organization’s resources toward the stated objectives. timelines. Action plans contain step-by-step directions.

they are unable to gauge the exact needs of each individual company. if the company uses the wrong type of media. They offer part and full-time candidates. re-interviewing or employing the wrong person. Limitations Unfortunately.3 Recruitment Agencies These companies specialize wholly in recruitment and generally keep an up-to-date database of experience potential employees.g. As the agency interviews all candidates. If a specialist candidates is required. However. and for the small business this can save a lot of time. it can end up spending a lot of time re-advertising.There are numerous ways in which the organization can find employees to fill the job vacancy. a job agency has the expertise to attract the right person. If the candidate is found to be 32 . Below are a number of tips that should consider while deciding the best method of recruitment advertising for the organization. They take the time out of advertising. many also agencies specialize in the candidates they attract e. interviewing and selecting candidates. haulage. Agencies take the worry out of the employment headache. they cannot detect subtle personality requirements which would help the candidate settle in. and can handover a ready-made employee to fit the job specification. 3. accountancy. This wastes business time and money.

so it can work out quite expensive. 3. The organization has an option of targeting area or specialist profession as there are a multitude of magazines and newspapers on offer to choose from. many will offer a room to interview potential candidates. agencies also charge a fee. Needless to say. the organization may find that the more specialized or selective they become. check their fees as they could prove quite expensive. often resulting in a significant amount of interest. this service is free. they need to have some publishing skills to produce an attractive 33 . so if you are going to use an agency.unsuitable.4 Job Centre Many Job Centers offer recruitment services for companies who use them to recruit. Finally. the more they have to pay to the advertisement. many of the candidates may have been unemployed for some time and this would mean that their skills may now be outdated. Additionally. this will save a small business quite a lot of time and money when recruiting. others will help to draw up a short list based on your job specification. For example. if the organization wants to attract the right candidate. Above all. However.5 Newspaper or Specialist Magazine This is an effective method as it reaches a large audience in a short space of time. Limitations However. this means more lost time. 3.

Most companies which have a website encourage prospective employees also to apply online. but this will again cost them money. and decrease the time to hire. can serve as one of the best sources of recruitment. This is a form of direct recruitment and hence it allows the recruiting company to keep recruitment costs low.advertisement.7Internet Recruiting Internet recruiting is spreading like wildfire. written by Debbie McGrath of HR. administer. It presents some important statistics in favour of the usage of employee referrals as a tool for hiring employees.6 Employee Referral Programs If used effectively.com. "Employee Referral Programs: Optimizing Your Most Effective Recruiting Tool". Such programs enable the company to lower the costs of hiring. track. 34 . 3. employee referral programs encounter certain difficulties in management. and measure. However. They are usually difficult to define. The article. 3. improve the quality of hires. The organization can of course use a specialist publishing company to design the right ad. focuses on the effectiveness of employee referral programs.

The customized testing program called QUEBEX used for freshers and an envisaged Direct Trainee portal.TCS accredits both technical and management institutes annually and visits only these campuses. Life at TCS recruitment team is exciting. 35 . E –recruitment is hugely cost effective and efficient tool used for lateral recruitment. Recruitment at TCS takes place for • • Direct Trainees (Fresher) Experienced Professionals Fresher Recruitment TCS ensures that its campus recruits comes from premier institutes of the country through an evaluation process ACCREDITION. eventful and almost 24/7. The academia portal is through which campus recruits can apply. which once viewed. With more than 7500 freshers and equally large number of lateral recruits joining TCS for the last 2 -3 years.1. The induction of the best talent available on time and every time is what enabling TCS to achieve its vision. SECURE and SECURE.8 Recruitment at TCS Sourcing at TCS is one function. The mantra of sourcing at TCS is SOURCE. TCS is the largest technical manpower recruiting organization in Asia.3. In the TCS process of recruitment it was not a big surprise to know that technology acts as an enabler. gives an overwhelming response by the numbers that TCS deals with.8. 3.

The campus recruitment process is as follows-: • • • • • • • Request students to upload their profile on TCS academia PORTAL Shortlist applications based on eligibility criteria Put them through Aptitude Test Conduct Technical Interviews for short listed candidates Conduct HR and Management Reviews Medical check Offer letter Lateral Sourcing Lateral hires at TCS are called EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONALS (Eps).Based on business recruitments there is also an intake of Direct Trainee (DTs) where recruitment drives at specific locations are conducted and students from all over the country participate. TCS follows the process of sourcing mix wherein they recruit both freshers as well as experienced professional who have an excellent academic background. The process of Experienced Professional at TCS is -: • • Receiving CV Conduct Technical and HR screening of the profile for suitability 36 .

TCS recruitment advertisement mostly gets published in Hindustan Times as TCS has a contract with Hindustan Times. which was based on a newspaper advertised in a renowned newspaper for the software professionals.• • • • • Conduct Aptitude test for candidates with less than 2 years of experience Conduct Technical interview for short listed candidates Candidate HR and Management Reviews Medical Check Offer Letter Sources for Lateral Recruitment • • • • • Advertisement through Newspapers Jobsites TCS Portal Consultants Buddy Lao(employee referral) Advertisement through Newspapers Lateral hiring at TCS is also done by giving newspaper advertisement where in the required skills are mentioned and short listing is done according. 37 . More or less the process is the same but here it depends on the specific requirements of the branch or the company as a whole. The major part is to cover the recruitment drive.

Employee Referral (Buddy Lao) TCS being one of the largest recruiters of software professionals also recruits through its employee referral program. 38 . The employee referrals program at TCS is called BUDDY LAO. This is one of the best sources of recruitment. These placement agencies are contracted directly by the corporate office. TCS has a direct link with these consultants to whom they specify their requirements also the skill set for the current positions.Consultants TCS also recruits associates through placement agencies or consultants.

personnel rating. transfer and salary increases. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM Almost every organization in one way or another goes through a periodic ritual. Performance Appraisal. termination. Primarily performance appraisal has been considered an overall system for controlling an organization. transfer. performance appraisal has been confined to the formal performance appraisal.The term performance appraisal has been called by many names. a control process. 39 . For this study. change occasions where an evaluator observed work activities and indicated his or her assessment with an informal comment. promotions. promotion. salary increase or decrease. groups and entire divisions. A performance appraisal has been defined as any personnel decision that affects the status of employee regarding their retention. Appraisals have been cited to range from official. Formally or informally. employee appraisal or employee evaluation. an activity and a critical element in human resources allocation. Performance appraisal has also been called an audit function of an organization regarding the performance of individuals. merit rating. or admission into a training program. .4. Uses for performance appraisal have included equal employment opportunity considerations. prescribed meetings between an evaluator and evaluate to causal. Performance appraisal has been called many things. including performance review. The formal performance appraisal has been called a tool of Management. performance evaluation. known as performance appraisal.

Behavioral observation scales b. . Numerically anchored rating scales • Checklists. If the rater believed the employee possessed a trait listed. or below average". • Forced Choice Method . rather than on broadly stated adjectives such as "average. and the log has been use to evaluate the employee at the end of the evaluation period. statements which applied to the 40 . above average.The term used to define a set of adjectives or descriptive statements. the rater checked the item. Behavioral expectations scales c. the rater left the item blank.The term used to describe a method of performance appraisal that made lists of statements of very effective and very ineffective behavior for employees. During the evaluation period. which vary with the job. the evaluator recorded examples of critical behaviors in each of the categories. Once the categories had been developed and statements of effective and ineffective behavior had been provided. rating score from the checklist equaled the number of checks. the evaluator prepared a log for each employee. Other variations were: a. . The lists have been combined into categories.Definition of Terms • Behavioral Anchored Rating Scales . if not.This appraisal method has been developed to prevent evaluators from rating employees to high.The term used to describe a performance rating that focused on specific behaviors or sets as indicators of effective or ineffective performance. using this method. • Critical Incident Technique. the evaluator has to select from a set of descriptive statements.

The statements have been weighted and summed to at.This appraisal method asked the evaluator to describe strengths and weaknesses of an employee's behavior. • Forced Distribution . whereas in others.employee.The term used to describe an appraisal system similar to grading on a curve. The evaluators are given a graph and asked to rate the employees on each of the characteristics. . The appraisal method has worked to eliminate communication problems by the establishment of regular meetings. . The rating can De a matrix of boxes for the evaluator to check off or a bar graph where the evaluator checked off a location relative to the evaluators rating. • Narrative or Essay Evaluation. emphasizing results. and by being an ongoing process where new objectives have been 41 . the method has been combined with the graphic rating scale. effectiveness index.The management by objectives performance Appraisal method has the supervisor and employee get together to set objectives in quantifiable terms. • Graphic Rating Scale.The term used to define the oldest and most widely used performance appraisal method. • Management by Objectives. The number of characteristics can vary from one to one-hundred. . The evaluator had been asked to rate employees in some fixed distribution of categories. Some companies still use this method exclusively. One way to do this has been to type the name of each employee on a card and ask the evaluators to sort the cards into piles corresponding to rating.

so that each person has been compared with all other employees to be evaluated. First.The term used to describe an appraisal method for ranking employees. and the tally developed is an index of the number of preferences compared to the number being evaluated. Weighted Checklist.established and old objectives had been modified as necessary in light of changed conditions. .The term ranking has been used to describe an alternative method of performance appraisal where the supervisor has been asked to order his or her employees in terms of performance from highest to lowest. Typically the criterion has been the employees over all ability to do the present job. The number of times a person has been preferred is tallied.The term used to describe a performance appraisal method where supervisors or personnel specialists familiar with the jobs being evaluated prepared a large list of descriptive statements about effective and ineffective behavior on jobs. The evaluator then checks the person he or she felt had been the better of the two on the criterion for each comparison. the names of the employees to be evaluated have been placed on separate sheets in a predetermined order. • Paired Comparison. 42 . . • Ranking. .

including the relevance of the information used in the decisions within the organization. Evaluations of relative contributions made by individuals and entire departments in achieving higher level organization goals 4.1 Two Approaches to Performance Appraisal There have been two prevalent approaches to performance appraisal. 3. and other rewards. separation.4.1. 43 . 4. including merit increases. 5.1Traditional Performance Appraisal Purposes The purpose of performance appraisal has been fundamentally backward or historically oriented. past performance has been reviewed in the light of the results achieved. Reward decisions. Performance appraisal for evaluation using the traditional approach has served the following purposes: 1. The second approach to performance appraisal has been the developmental approach. This approach viewed the employees as individuals and has been forward looking through the use of goal setting. Promotion. promotions. The traditional approach has been primarily concerned with the overall organization and has been involved with past performance. Criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of selection and placement decisions. and transfer decisions 2. The first approach has been the traditional approach This approach has also been known as the organizational or overall approach. Feedback prior the employee regarding how the organization viewed the employee’s performance.

1.2 Developmental Performance Appraisal Purposes The developmental approach to performance appraisal has been related to employees as individuals. The development approach contained all of the traditional overall organizational performance appraisal purposes and the following additional purposes. 4. 8. and human resources planning. Information upon which work-scheduling plans. 7. development. • Performance appraisal has usually been tied to the employees salary review. 44 .6. 1. or comprehensive consideration of performance goals. This approach has been concerned with the use of performance appraisal as a contributor to employee motivation. Ascertaining and diagnosing training and development decisions. Dealing with salary generally overwhelmed and blocked creative. The flaws were: • Organizational performance appraisal was primarily concerned with the past rather than being forward looking through the use of setting objectives or goals. Criteria for evaluating the success of training and development decisions. Provided employees the opportunity to formally indicate the direction and level of the employee's ambition. and human resources planning can be used two serious flaws in the traditional approach to performance appraisal were noted. budgeting. meaningful.

which was cited to help the enterprise retain ambitious. Show organizational interest in employee development. capable employees instead of losing the employees to competitors 3. 45 .2. Provided a structure for communications between employees and management to help clarify expectations of the employee by management and the employee 4. Provide satisfaction and encouragement to the employee who has been trying to perform well.

The employee must have had a chance to declare his or her interest in other jobs or training programs via self-nomination processes formally included in performance appraisal 4. The manager and employee had a face-to-face discussion of the separate assessments. When used developmentally. often with a third party (such as a personnel officer) present to mediate and offer an outside view 3. 46 .4. performance appraisal generally involved the following elements: 1. Alewine stated the performance appraisal objective has been to get employees to see themselves as they really are. The person being appraised should recognize the need to improve job performance and be committed to a plan for improved job performance. 5. increasingly. The Performance Appraisal Tool When used as a developmental tool. The employee and manager must work together to negotiate goals that correspond to employee and organizational needs. performance appraisal requires the addition of a development plan and required the appraisal be orientated toward the individual employee rather than the organization.2. collection of data about worker skills and career goals in a central information bank has been noted. In large corporations. The employee and manager completed separate assessments 2. An action plan or "contract" between the manager and employee about further steps to help develop the employee.

then chances were better that the main object of the employees anger or frustration will not have been the employees supervisors or the organization. which are jointly determined by subordinates and their superiors and progress towards 47 .3 Performance Management Process at TCS The Performance Management System is based on specific performance objectives. 4. informed of his or her progress (or lack of progress) all along. • The first goal of the appraisal process has been to get the employees to see themselves as they really are. The manager should remain alert to the employee's progress during the year as the development plan is being carried out. Also noted had been that if the employee's were involved in the performance appraisal from the beginning. and given a stake in the process. The development aspect of performance appraisal would be one way for the employees to get involved in the appraisal. • The third and final goal had been to involve the employee in developing a plan for improving job performance and better career planning. • The second goal had been to get the employee to recognize the need to improve job performance.There must be a mutual agreement on a development plan for the coming appraisal period. but themselves.

It starts in the beginning of the year where in each associate has a target and goal set by the supervisors. conduct self appraisal. Performance Management is a basket of tools and systems. Rewards are granted based on progress towards achieving these goals.these objectives is periodically reviewed. TCS performance management process makes use SPEED (System for performance evaluation and employee development) tool to capture goals.TCS has a very robust Appraisal Process. which cater to aligning individual level performance to organizational goals. supervisor evaluation and of course review . align them. 48 .

The flowchart for the process of performance management at TCS is shown with the help of the following chart-: DATA VALIDATION GOAL SETTING BUYING OF GOALS SELF-ASSESSMENT APPRAISEE EVALUATION REVEIWER EVALUATION SHARING OF RATING WITH APPRAISEE Fig 4.e. Appraise checks on ultimate who is his supervisor. 49 . reviewer and other information related to PMS.1: Performance Management Flow at TCS The first and foremost step in Performance management System (PMS) at TCS is Data validation i.

internal process and learning and growth – capture the roles. Developing People etc. financial. Result Orientation. four perspectives – financial. Customer Satisfaction . Internal Process and learning & growth are set by supervisor and appraise (employee) checks them. Initiative / Personal drive . 4. 3-Good . 5. When same process is carried out for each and every employee then curve fitting is done. Quality Consciousness. High performer. tasks and priorities of the various divisions and individuals. If it seems to be feasible and achievable employee buys those goals otherwise he can negotiate with his supervisor. targets and projects which collectively describe the strategy of an organization and how that strategy can be achieved. customer.Superstar. customer. 50 . Team Skills. Then his supervisor(Appraiser) evaluate Appraisee on same 10 attributes then reviewer review and then finally based on some formula(Internal to TCS) final rating out of 5 for an appraisee is disclosed where in 1. 4.Very Good . In the process of creating a BSC. Then Appraisee assess himself/herself on 10 attributes (Limitation Can’t be disclosed) related to Knowledge / Technical expertise required for the job.3. Communication .Average (needs improvement).poor .e. measures.1 The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is a framework that focuses on shareholder. 2. Each attribute carries different weight age. internal and learning requirements of a business in order to create a system of linked objectives. customer satisfaction.Then based on BSC (balance score card) goals for organization development as well as employee development under four heads i. In case of any problem Appraise can ask for feedback.

Three Steps in Building a Balanced Scorecard • Build a strategy map: The first output of a BSC project is a strategy map. 51 . managers need to work out what the organization must learn in order to carry out the core processes efficiently and effectively. The development of a BSC usually reveals gaps in strategy. Owners are identified within the management team so that there is collective ownership and responsibility in delivering the strategy. Actual performance is computed. However. Financial objectives are critical to the existence of all organizations. and the targets for delivering the strategies are set. This is because managers are used to thinking operationally and for the short-term rather than strategically. Finally. it’s difficult to develop. to deliver these financial outcomes. Both financial and non-financial measures are identified. the organization must determine what customer needs have to be met. balancing it out with more realistic targets for other objectives. and a significant effort is made to ensure that there are enough lead measures so that the BSC created allows the organization to actively manage the delivery of the strategy. Even though the concept of the BSC is simple. and what internal processes are critical for delivering their expectations. Approximately 30-40 lead and lag measures are identified. It shows the top 15-20 objectives that the organization needs to focus on to deliver its strategy. An illustrative strategy map would look like: • Create a BSC: The next step is to define the metrics needed to measure the success of a strategy. Care is taken to set breakthrough and stretch targets in select areas where benefits could be significant.

but in many cases. In some cases. 52 . The BSC is then used actively in the monthly management committee / operational committee meetings to find solutions and improve performance in areas where the BSC identifies where business targets are not being met. scorecard automation software is purchased to improve the ease and quality of reporting. and some or all support functions. it takes about 60-90 days to take it ‘live’. internal projects that tend to often lose sight of what business objectives they need to achieve are identified. Actual and targets need to be set and internal Balanced Scorecard coordinators need to get organized for monthly reporting of the scorecards. and key themes can be identified for communication across the organization. The BSC should be reviewed yearly. • Use the BSC: Once a scorecard is designed. companies use simple excel formats. Abbreviated versions can also be created for quarterly reports to the board of directors. prioritized and aligned to the business objectives they will help deliver. BSCs are created at the corporate/ group level but many organizations that want to ensure that the corporate strategy is detailed at the operational level will build cascaded scorecards for all business units. for the initial period. in the third quarter of the financial year.Lastly.

4. TCS shuffles its employees between projects every 18 months or so. internal.3. the customer perspective looks at the differentiating value proposition offered by the employee. Appraisals are based on Balanced Scorecard. “If the poor performer continues getting low scores then the exit option may be considered. improved asset utilization and so on. To avoid that. The financial perspective quantifies the employee’s contribution in terms of revenue growth. The weightage given to each attribute is based on the function the employee performs. the warning flags go up. customer.” Over the years TCS has found the pattern that leads to the maximum decline in performance — boredom. which tracks the achievement of employees on the basis of targets at four levels — financial. employees are rated on a scale of one to five (five = “superstar”).2 Balanced Scorecard at TCS TCS conducts two appraisals: one at the end of the year and another at the end of a project. and learning and growth. typically either their performance dips or they leave the organization. If employees get a low rating (less than two) in two consecutive appraisals.” 53 . “learning and growth” are self-explanatory. cost reduction. “internal” refers to the employee’s contribution in creating and sustaining value. “Performance drops if motivation drops. If employees work for more than two years on the same project. Based on their individual achievements.

thereby aligning the entire organization to the strategy. Adopting a BSC framework also ensures that the senior management no longer works in their own functional “silos” thereby giving a “macro” perspective to them. This ensures clarity and transparency in understanding and realization of implications of the Vision on the key operating and support departments.3 Advantages of Balanced Scorecards The Balanced Scorecard will benefit your organization in more ways than one.3. First and foremost. • As a Performance Management Tool it will help organization remain pro-active by ensuring an adequate balance between “lead” and “lag” measures (Performance Drivers vis-à-vis Outcome Measures).4. • Experience has shown that this will ensure that your organization remains a Customer Focused Organization. as a part of their customer service strategy. The BSC then has a dual role to play in helping your organization. It has also helped organizations in identification of new customer segments and articulation of their expectations. it will make the Vision and Mission of your organization operational. It will also allow articulation and communication of the Vision and Mission into key strategic objectives and creation of Strategy Maps at Corporate and Departmental levels. BSC also provides clear 54 . which is so very important especially in today’s competitive world. • As a Strategy Management / Implementation Tool it will help your organization in validation / enhancement of Strategy and Business Plan and help evolve clear consensus on the same. This helped in prioritization and alignment of all strategic action plans that would help implement the strategy and made Strategic Planning a continual process.

so that the appraisal process will become more of a joint problem-solving discussion and less of a "tell and sell" session. it helps deliver financial measures by managing non-financial measures. Most importantly. based on a series of individual ratings and/or narrative statements. since an approach that satisfied one was often found to be unsuitable for the other. • A third concerned how to get greater employee involvement in the appraisal process. • A second had been how to managers to follow a strictly merit philosophy. often needed for compensation decisions. • The final problem had been how to reconcile the developmental and administrative requirements of an appraisal system.linkage and alignment of individual performance with enterprise performance and provides flexibility in Key Result Areas (KRAs) depending on the business needs of the organization. • One concerned how to arrive at a single overall performance appraisal. 55 . 4.4 Problems with Appraisal Four persistent problems were also identified. rather than giving approximately the same percentage increases to everyone.

even though they sometimes say more about how supervisors get along with an employee than how well the employee performs on the job. a personal trait issue can be translated into an achievement. willingness to take criticism. one may want to address how well an employee reports on assignment completions (productivity). Personal traits such as motivation. Some Key Steps That Can Take Toward Achieving Effective Performance Appraisals--ones that can be used to validate the selection process as well as to make decisions about pay or promotions: (1) Select what performance data to collect (2) Determine who conducts the appraisal (3) Decide on a rating philosophy (4) Overcome rating deficiencies (5) Create a rating instrument (6) Deliver useful information to employees (1) Select What Performance Data to Collect One way to classify on-the-job worker behavior is by considering the three "P’s"--productivity (what was done).4. specific characteristics should be related to the job. personal traits (how it was done. Productivity can be measured in terms of specific performance accomplishments. conduct) and proficiency (skill).5. for instance. Instead of talking about worker dependability (personal trait). When personal traits are considered as part of a performance appraisal. dependability. 56 . Personal trait ratings are useful. cooperation. Often. and appearance (dress and grooming) may be considered. initiative.

. 57 . and no matter how motivated they are. Employees can be the most important persons in the evaluation process. or even persons outside the organization. Nevertheless. subordinates. Employee Usually. but not always. the employee has a good understanding of his daily performance and how it can be improved. co-workers. supervisors. AI skills for a herdsman). knowledge.g. can usually benefit from outside evaluation. When appraisals address worker proficiency factors (e. Ratings from multiple sources usually yield more reliable performance appraisals. and ability—plays an important role in worker performance.Proficiency—skill. employees have a vested interest in making positive comments about their own performance. they help assure worker interest in overcoming deficiencies that may be blocking future performance or growth (2) Determine Who Conducts the Appraisal Input into the appraisal of worker performance may come from many sources including the employee.

Peer review is usually anonymous and several peers are involved in the evaluation. At times a co-worker may be particularly hard on a disliked worker. Outside the organization Evaluations by outside clientele may be useful in instances when there is much personal contact with outsiders or when the person being evaluated knows more about aspects of the job than the farmer or supervisor. 58 . often by the hand of a single rater. Issues of anonymity and adequate sampling of subordinates may be important in traditional appraisals. Supervisor Performance appraisal data obtained from the immediate supervisor is the most common rating source. Subordinate Formal evaluation by subordinates is unusual. but co-worker evaluations have a tendency to be lenient. This anonymity. Supervisors are often in the best position to give workers an honest evaluation. Sometimes coworkers hope management will read between the lines and praise irrelevant or insignificant factors. supervisors have been known to improve their interpersonal relations and reduce management by intimidation. although from time to time subordinates may be asked for input into the evaluation of their supervisor. can also lend itself to abuses. The danger in supervisory evaluations is the substantial amount of power and influence wielded. When subordinates have an input into their supervisor’s evaluation.Co-workers At times co-workers have a better grasp for a colleague’s performance than the supervisor. while often needed.

. between those ranked 1 and 2 and those ranked 4 and 5. Where the employee is ranked depends on how a person performs in comparison to others.. and (2) there are similar differences in performance between two adjacent employees. "Grading by the curve" (normal distribution bell curve). Figure.. Comparison against others. all superior). The majority end up somewhere in the middle. or none in a group of three). a few employees end up at the top and a few at the bottom in what is known as a normal distribution curve (also known as "grading by the curve. for instance.(3) Decide On a Rating Philosophy Performance appraisal data can also be classified according to whether employees are compared against others or are rated against a standard.. Normally." see Figure1). when comparing employees against each other.. Two disadvantages—especially when very few workers are involved—include assuming (1) employees fall in a normal distribution (there may be four excellent performers in a group of five.Average.. The principal advantage of the comparison method is preventing raters from placing all employees in one category (for example. Increasing % of workers in category Poor ..... Superior 59 .

Others may tend toward being either overly 60 . • Once a worker is classified as a poor performer. Both supervisor and employee have a reference point for accurately looking at an employee’s long-term performance growth. They are likely to create envy. While employees may typically compare themselves to others. especially when rating forms require a written justification for a high or low rating.Worker Performance Rating against a standard permits a supervisor to classify employee performance independently from that of other employees. may strive to improve performance as time for appraisals near. Workers. If all can succeed. much the better. vanity and dysfunctional competition. realizing this. there is little to be gained by having the organization promote such comparisons. one employee’s success need not mean another’s failure. Supervisors may tend to rate workers as average. • Supervisors tend to remember events more recent to the evaluation. Ratings against a standard do not preclude comparisons. it may take a long time for a supervisor to notice the worker has improved. (4) Overcome Rating Deficiencies Supervisory evaluations often suffer from numerous rating deficiencies: • One particularly good or poor trait may contaminate other performance areas considered in the evaluation. In a healthy organization.

A combination of approaches is often necessary to end up with a useful performance appraisal. union membership. level of education. Appraisal instruments require substantial rater training if results are to be meaningful. when a worker is disciplined or does not get a raise. 61 . it should provide meaningful information to both employees and management. age. or even attractiveness.strict or lenient. • Raters may also be influenced by an employee’s personal attributes such as national origin.g. (5) Create a Rating Instrument You can choose from several data collection and evaluation techniques. narratives.. Whatever instrument is used. Data can be presented in terms of critical incidents. philosophy. gender. There are a number of ways of classifying performance appraisal instruments. or predetermined anchors. Lenient raters may later appear to contradict themselves (e. or rating scales. race.

In one farm operation a manager was able to not only discuss a foreman's performance within his present job. Such areas of evaluation can form the basis for an intelligent conversation about performance between supervisor and employee. it helps to involve the worker in making plans and taking responsibility for improvement. accomplishes the task of removing possible surprises at a much deeper level. as it encourages candid conversation between the individual being appraised and the supervisor. 62 . There should not be too many surprises for the employee when both discuss the evaluation. Despite the importance of formal appraisals. Sharing information about performance should be done frequently and in a positive manner. The negotiated performance appraisal. but it can do much to reduce its unpleasantness.(6) Deliver Useful Information to Employees This brings us back to sharing information with the employee (Negotiated Performance Appraisal). Evaluations work best when workers know the evaluation criteria in advance. to a great extent. an effective manager does not wait for formal performance appraisal interviews to communicate with employees. but also the types of skills that were needed if the foreman was interested in a potential promotion to assistant manager. Allowing the worker to take a major role in the performance appraisal interview does not guarantee the interview will be fun. Regardless of the approach taken.

The following parameters were considered while pursuing the project. Secondly the working of company was observed. • • Period of performance Appraisal Methods Followed 63 .1 Subject of the Research The subject undertaken for the study is “An Empirical Study of Recruitment and Performance Appraisal System at TCS” 5. current system was understood and also the help of Branch HR and HR Executives was taken to understand their appraisal system within the framework of purposed study.5. a well planned out Research design is devised so as to facilitate the research work.2 Research Methodology It was intended to carry out an exploratory study of the current practices in the field of Performance management System in the selected Companies. It owes both time and resources. METHODOLOGY For doing any Research work. Firstly a literature review was undertaken to understand various steps of appraisal process. 5.

Lastly a questionnaire was prepared to gather employee views regarding performance appraisal system. existing in TCS. 64 . Particularly aim was to measure the satisfaction level of employees with the system.• • • Grading System Attributes Undertaken to appraise an employee Link to reward system.

Lucknow 5.5. 5. purpose of the study was to find out the extent to which concept has taken its roots in the organization. • • To study the recruitment policy’s and procedures. To learn about the process of competency mapping and up gradation of competency To learn the framework around how to achieve recruitment objectives To Study and analyze the Performance Appraisal process of TCS. 5.6 Sampling 65 . if any in the adaptation of the concept.3 Purpose of Research Since Performance Appraisal is a budding Concept. The attempt is to understand the problem faced by executives and the reasons for their reluctance. To learn the ability to select a recruitment model that will improve the quality of the present and future workforce of the organization. • • • • To know about the learning and development of the organization.5 Place of Research TCS. The ultimate attempt however is to find viable solutions and to recommend ways for making the system a grand success in the organization.4 Objective of the study To learn the HR processes of the organization.

Brochures. Magazines. Internet. Review of Early Literature The literature available form the department helped a lot to give an insight into the subject.Journals. Quota sampling is done on the basis of Designations in TCS. 66 . This sampling is done so that a chosen number of people in the organization would represent the entire population. 35% ITA (Information Technology Analyst) 15% ASE-T (Assistant system Engineer-Trainee) 50% ASE (Assistant system Engineer) Sample Size 50 Sources of Data Collection • • Primary data-Questionnaire is used to collect first in-hand data Secondary data.Research work if conducted on the entire population under study becomes too difficult to conduct. It requires a very long time period and large resources.

67 .

• Firm can make use of latest techniques like 360 degree.some employees don’t know on which parameters their performance is judged. • Goals should be flexible as in 6 months duration they might change. Project end approvals should be followed up regularly to attain perfection in every execution. MBO (management by objective) so that subordinates also get chance to appraise their supervisors. Incase there is any negligence. which technique is used in performance management system) that’s why there is a need of counseling. else it might be pretty costly to TCS.7. the organization can rectify as early as possible. In this competitive era. 68 . some sessions should be taken by HR-executives to make employees aware so that all their queries can be resolved and they also feel comfortable. it has become a necessity for any organization to be active and dynamic to cope up with the competitors. Hence goals should be so dynamic that alterations can be made as and when required. RECOMMENDATIONS • Findings mostly stressed on one major point that is lack of awareness among employees regarding various HR Processes (Performance management.

Further. • 360-degree feedback should be incorporated at every possible step. • Also the research proves that there is no proper system of feedback to the employees after their appraisal. • Employees should be made aware about the factors considered for their performance appraisal at the time of their joining so that they can put their best foot forward. cooperation. A proper system of individual feedback giving process needs to be established. can be well mapped and again necessary changes can be made as and when required. with minimum loss to the company. the details about the employee’s performance. leadership capabilities etc. Feedback sessions generally tend to reveal more and more ideas and openings not on about the plans but also regarding the procedures being followed. 69 . immediately remedial steps are taken. It will be highly beneficial to the organization as biasness can be avoided.• There should be workflow tracking of feedback sessions also. When a mistake is detected.

To maintain secrecy. training. • The best solution that I would suggest to handle the above mentioned problems is to create a performance management website that would be accessible to all employees of TCS. Also there should be proper checks and filters to minimize the biases in the appraisal of an employee by his/her superior.• The feedback should point out the strengths and weakness of the employees. promotions. feedback and other information relating to their appraisal on the site by entering their password. All the policies of the organization relating to career development. Individual employees can also have access to their ratings. 70 . Also proper training and counseling needs to be organized so that the employees can overcome their weakness. individual employees will be given password for having access to the site. and transfers will be uploaded on the site. performance appraisal.

The method of recruitment for categories like fresher and lateral recruits is chosen on the following basis-: • • • Effectiveness of the method Cost involved in the method Employment condition of the organization 71 . the changing trends and most importantly the needs of the associates because they are the foundation of such a big empire. At TCS Lucknow which may sound to be a small branch but has accommodated more than 360 associates of which some are offshore onsite. Managing such a woofing number is a challenging task for TCS HR Lucknow. It is still good to find that. HR team is on their toes to get the best talent. it is only at TCS that the attrition rate is yet the lowest due to the brand name in the industry.8.Thus the HR department has a wide scope to develop binding among the employee. CONCLUSIONS TATA CONSULTANCY SERVICES LTD (TCSL) is one of the leading software companies of India. Giving a bird eye to the various HR process and policies all I can conclude that each and every process is to be more well defined with a back up plan and should be meticulously updated from time to time referring to the needs of the organization. One of the most important points that I would highlight in my report that.

whose intensity could be measured by the fact that TCS Lucknow has few training rooms specifically for the purpose.• Requirements of the organization TCS uses a well-balanced technique for recruitment. Starting from the beginning with the ILP program and the continuous programs which keep on happening keeps the associates profile updated. The learning community at TCS is one of the leading in the industry. Important steps to obtaining useful traditional appraisals include: • Determining the type of data to be collected as well as who will conduct the appraisal. The branch learning group at TCS works round the clock organizing training sessions both technical as well as generic managerial. Overcoming typical rating deficiencies. Creating a rating instrument. Trainings are an ongoing process at TCS. • • • • Establishing a rating philosophy. Engaging the employee in making decisions on future performance changes. Key objectives of performance appraisals include: • • • validating selection and other management or cultural practices helping employees understand and take responsibility for their performance Making decisions about pay or promotions. 72 .

Some employees tend to boycott their own progress by setting impossible goals to achieve.An effective negotiated performance appraisal helps the employee take additional ownership for both continuing effective performance and improving weak areas. employees want to know what you think of their work. Finally. Letting workers know that you have noticed their efforts goes a long way towards having a more motivated workforce. 73 . Employee goals set through performance appraisals should be difficult but achievable. as goals that are overly ambitious are doomed for failure.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful