80
Phase
Noise
PDS
[dBl
90
100 . I
Figure 1: PDS L V N ( f )of the modelled phasenoise process Figure 2: OFDM transmission scheme including phasenoise
IT+
as the IC1 has zero mean. Unfortunately, the integral did not
yield to analytical solution as far as the lower two terms in the
bracket in (2) are concerned. The frequency constant term
and the term for If1
5 fi are both integrateable since there
where we assume arg { z} is small.
the noise PDS is flat. Therefore, in subsequent evaluation
the two remaining integrals in 5.1 Variance
It is useful to evaluate the variance of @ E ~since
, this is an im
portant measure used to determine the degradation of trans
mission quality due to the common phase error. We obtain:
n=0
n+ $ 5.2 Autocorrelation function
One can model this noise as Gaussian distributed, because of It is interesting to look at the correlation of the common
the large number of contributing subcarriers (central limit phase error between adjacent OFDM symbols because if the
theorem). Note t h a t the useful power in the case of no phase correlation is high, feeding back the common phase error to
noise is equal to 1. correct before the F F T (frequency demultiplexing) in the
receiver can help demodulation of future OFDM symbols.
The autocorrelation function (ACF) of the common phase
5 The Common Phase Error error can be evaluated from the inverse Fourier transform of
So far, we have analysed the IC1 due to phasenoise and L a E (f), corresponding to
we will now look at the additional perturbations caused by
phasenoise besides the ICI. We will prove that each sub
carrier is affected by a common phase error Q E ~that is only
a function of the OFDM symbol index d . Let us consider the
special case in Fig. 3 a) where n = k. The samples r k , l are
given by
6 Numerical Results
With equation (5) and (6) the IC1 power P ~ c rcould be eval
uated numerically. For different numbers of subcarriers N
IT IT T the influence of the phasenoise model parameters a and c on
the IC1 power is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The standard devi
Hence we have shown that the output samples are multiplied ation of the common phase error for different numbers
by a disturbance that is identical for all subcarriers IC and of subcarriers can be seen in Fig. 6. The calculation of the
that only varies from one OFDM symbol tjo the next. Since standard deviation of the common phase error was confirmed
the magnitude of the integral in the right half of (7) is close by simulations. With an increasing number of subcarriers
1654
corresponding t o an increasing OFDM symbol time, uaE de 0.06
creases. For optimal tuner design, the maximal allowable
IC1 power should be set several dB below the channel noise 0.05
level, otherwise a BER floor will be the result; the technique
proposed here can be used in such a tradeoff between tuner Standard o . O 4
complexity and performance. deviation
of common
Ecruivalent Noise due to IC1 influence of Darameter a phase 0.03
error
0.02
26
0.01
IC1 28
power
IdBl
from 30
useful
signal
32 Figure 6: Standard deviation u+E of common phase error
[radians].
34 ,’ I /I I I I I
ACF of Common Phase Error
, I
0.0012
o.oooa
Figure 4: Influence of parameter a on the IC1 power, PICI
for c = 10.5. 0.0006
ACF
0.0004
c=9.5 0.0002
IC1 10 5 0 5 10
power 30 symbol index 1
[dBl
from
32
useful
signal
Figure 7: ACF laE of the common phase error where the
34 parameter is the number of OFDM subcarriers.
36
38
symbol time T when N is large. This means that knowl
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 edge of previous values of will not help in estimating
Number of carriers N future values. Fortunately, there exists a simple method of
estimating @ E and using this estimate to directly correct all
Figure 5: Influence of parameter c on the IC1 power, PICIfor the subchannel in OFDM symbol I in a feedforward struc
a = 6.5. If the tuner noisefloor is too high, any high order ture, before demodulation and even further processing such
modulation OFDM system will suffer badly. as channel estimation.
We can estimate @ E if we know the transmitted phase
The autocorrelation function laE(1T) for different FFT and channel phase of a set of subchannels with frequency
sizes is shown in Fig. 7. As expected, only for a decreasing index ci,l where 1 5 i 5 N / and N / << N is the number
F F T size, which corresponds to a decreasing OFDM symbol of such subchannels used in OFDM symbol 1 i.e. a symbol
duration, the correlation of the common phase error between
variant pattern of known phases. The number and position in
adjacent OFDM symbols increases. T h a t irnplies that only
frequency (index c) of these subchannels may be a function
for a small number of subcarriers a feedback correction of
the common phase error before the FFT (i.e. a correction of of index I . Averaging over the phase error of each such sub
the next several OFDM symbols see Fig. 9) could be effective. channel yields the estimate
N;
C yl,c,,l . 4 i , c , , l
= i=l 
7 Eliminating the Common Phase N1”
, (13)
Error c
%=I
Yl,C,,l
As we have seen above, the auto correlation function of the here, ~ l , ~is, a, reliability
~ estimate for instance the estimated
common phase error is small even for shifts of one OFDM subchannel amplitude for subchannel cz,l at symbol I and
1655
41,c,,lis the phase difference between the transmitted phase tion
of subchannel ca,l and the received phase. The transmit t,
ted phase can be made known to the receiver by designating
subchannels ci,l for pilot cells with known phase: a possible
structure of pilot cells is shown in Fig. 8. Channel estimation
can be performed using these pilot cells as well, for instance
with Wiener filters as described in [7]. recent channel phase estimate
cj Pilot cells
N1
N2
N3
rei
41 data
I c
channel

,/ estimation
I feedfomard correction L I
21 I
t
Frequency
z1 i
ii Figure 9: A possible implementation of the feedforward cor
rection (the doted lines indicate how a feedback correction
might be implemented). Thick lines denote complex signals.
1656
64 QAM, Ricean Channel: a=6.5, b=4, e10.5
10’‘ r ’
0.20
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
OFDMSymbol number 1
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
Figure 10: Mixed time/frequency representation of phase Average E, I No
noise: Within each OFDM symbol we have plotted the total
phase error @ E of each subcarrier.
Figure 12: Effects of phase noise on the BER of a typical
OFDM system.
6.3
I
6.4

6.5

=m
6.6
ma
6.7 6.8
OFDM systems,” in Proc. Sixths Tirrenia InternationaZ Work
shop on Communications ’93, September 1993.
[2] K. Fazel and M. J. Ruf, “A hierarchical (digital HDTV trans
a
mission scheme for terrestrial broadcasting,” in Yroc. GLOBE
COM ’93, December 1993.
Figure 11: Degradation due t o phase noise and the benefits [3] Members of Module 3 , “Reducing the effects of phasenoise.’’
of the feedforward correction as a function of the phasenoise Deliverable, RacedTTb/WP3.33, October 1994.
model parameters. [4] V. Kroupa, “Noise properties of PLL systems,” KEEE Trans.
Commun., vol. 30, pp. 22442252, October 1982;.
[5] M. Alard and R. Lassalle, “Principles of modulation and chan
carrier interference from phasenoise in OFDM schemes. The
nel coding for digital broadcasting for mobile receivers,” EB U
analysis will allow the design of low cost tuners that just Review, pp. 4769, August 1987.
meet the necessary phasenoise requirements and hence en
sure satisfactory overall system performance. The most im [6] S. Weinstein and P. M. Ebert, “Data transmission by
frequencydivision multiplexing using the discrete fourier
portant factor for a fixed phasenoise model and total sys
transform,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 19, pp. 628634, Qc
tem bandwidth governing the IC1 power is the number of tober 1971.
OFDM subcarriers. The ICI level increases as the number
of subcarriers increases, and will pose a serious problem if, [7] P. Hoeher, “TCM on frequencyselective landmobile fading
channels,” in Proc. Fifth Tirrenia International Workshop on
for instance, 8k subcarriers are used in conjunction with high
Communications ’92, pp. 317328, September 1992.
order modulation, such as multiresolution modulation [9].
Apart from ICI, a common phase error also results in [8] IS.Fazel, S.Kaiser, P. Robertson, and M. J . Ruf, “A concept of
a reconfignrable digitalTV/HDTV transmission scheme with
degradation of transmission quality, that becomes less severe
flexible channel coding & modulation for terrestrial broadcast
with an increasing number of subcarriers. To combat this
ing,” in Proc. International Workshop on. H D T V ’94,October
common phase error, we proposed a feedforward correction 1994.
scheme based on pilot cells, that is simple to implement and
very efficient as simulations have confirmed. [9] T. Cover, “Broadcast channels,” IEEE Trans. I T , vol. 18,
pp. 214, January 1972.
Further work could be focussed on defining more refined
phasenoise models and their optimization with respect to
IC1 and tuner complexity.
1657